Thyroid Specific Gene Expression
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The biosynthesis of thyroid hormones requires the iodination and coupling of two tyrosine residues. During evolution specialized cells within the thyroid gland have developed to accomplish this task. The follicular cells of the thyroid gland are arranged in a characteristic tridimensional structure which consists of a sphere of follicular cells surrounding a lumen. Iodine is transported from the bloodstream into the follicular cells by a thyroid specific iodine channel, and subsequently reaches the lumen of the follicle. Two further thyroid specific functions are present in the follicle to assist hormone synthesis: a thyroid specific peroxidase (TPO) and thyroglobulin (Tg). The peroxidase has two functions: it catalyzes the incorporation of iodine onto some of the tyrosyl residues of the thyroglobulin molecule and it is required for the coupling of a subset of the iodinated residues to form the hormones. Upon interaction of Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) with its receptor the modified thyroglobulin is reabsorbed from the follicular lumen, then it is degraded within the follicular cells and free hormone is released in the bloodstream1.
KeywordsThyroid Stimulate Hormone Follicular Cell Thyroid Cell Chloramphenicol Acetyl Transferase Thyroglobulin Gene
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