Anti-Idiotype Tumor Vaccines
The immunotherapy of human cancer using tumor cells or tumor-derived vaccines has been disappointing for several reasons. It has been consistently difficult to obtain large quantities of pure tumor antigens which are often chemically ill-defined and difficult to purify. In addition, there is the question whether there exists truly tumor-specific antigens and finally, there remains the problem of the immunobiological response potential against tumor antigens, or in other words, the question whether a cancer patient can mount effectively an immune response against his tumor. Tumor-associated antigens are often a part of “self” and usually evoke a very poor immune response in a tumor-bearing host due to a state of T cell-mediated suppression (Haubeck and Kolsch, 1982; Howie and McBride, 1982) and also because of tolerance to the antigen (Greene, 1980; McBride and Howie, 1986). Immunobiologists have learned that a poor antigen can be turned into a strong antigen by simply changing the molecular environment of the haptenic structure. Such changes of the carrier for haptens allow T cell help to become active, making the overall immune response stronger.
KeywordsTumor Antigen Internal Image Gp37 Antigen Idiotypic Determinant Idiotype Vaccine
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