New Concepts in Vaccines for Mucosal Non-Enteric Human Bacterial Pathogens

  • M. A. J. Westerink
  • A. A. Campagnari
  • M. B. Nelson
  • T. F. Murphy
  • M. A. Apicella


Since the introduction of vaccination in the seventeenth century, the prevention of infectious disease by immunologic methods has been a widely pursued goal of medical practitioners. Until the mid-twentieth century vaccines consisted primarily of inactivated intact organisms or extracts of intact organisms. In 1962, over 100 such vaccine products were available for use in the United States. Many of these products were associated with significant local and systemic toxicity and relatively few could claim efficacy in appropriately designed clinical trials. With a reassessment in the federal drug regulatory mandates after the thalidomide disaster in the 1960’s, many products with no proven value were removed from the market. Along with the changes occurring in control of product distribution, work in understanding the pathogenesis of human infection, the nature of the microbial surface, and the scope of the human immune response led to changes in vaccine products which reflected the search for safe and efficacious vaccine products. Over the past decade with application of improved chemical and chromatographic methods combined with the introduction of molecular genetics technology, a wide variety of new vaccines is becoming available.


Haemophilus Influenzae Outer Membrane Protein Neisseria Gonorrhoeae Capsular Polysaccharide Neisseria Meningitidis 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. A. J. Westerink
    • 1
  • A. A. Campagnari
    • 1
  • M. B. Nelson
    • 1
  • T. F. Murphy
    • 1
  • M. A. Apicella
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Infectious Disease School of MedicineState University of New York at BuffaloBuffaloUSA

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