Developing a Gonococcal Protein I Vaccine

  • M. S. Blake
  • L. M. Wetzler
  • E. C. Gotschlich
  • P. A. Rice

Abstract

After many years of intensive research by numerous investigators, a safe and effective gonorrheal vaccine remains elusive. Our attention has focused on the outer membrane of the gonococcus and the potential advantages or disadvantages in the use of some of these gonococcal components for such a vaccine. The use of chromatographically purified products was selected over using boiled organisms (Braude et al., 1985) or delipidized gonococcal membrane vesiclesj Arminon et al., ( 1987; Buchanan and Arko, 1977) in order for us to monitor and assure the consistency of the vaccine. Reported here are some of our efforts on one such potential vaccine candidate, gonococcal protein I, and some of our studies on a minor but potentially hazardous contaminant, protein III.

Keywords

Outer Membrane Outer Membrane Protein Neisseria Gonorrhoeae Cyanogen Bromide Major Outer Membrane Protein 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Arminjon, P., Cadoz, M., Morse, S.A., Rock, J.P. , and Sarafian, S.K. (1987). Bactericidal and opsonic activities of sera from individuals immunized with a gonococcal protein I vaccine. Abstracts Annual Meeting American Society of Microbiology 118.Google Scholar
  2. Blake, M.S., Gotschlich, E.C., and Swanson, J.L. (1981). The effect of proteolytic enzymes on the outer membrane proteins of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Infect. Immun. 33, 212–222.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Blake, M.S., and Gotschlich, E.C. (1982). Purification and partial characterization of the major outer membrane protein of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Infect. Immun. 36, 277–283.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Blake, M.S., and Gotschlich, E.C. (1984). Purification and partial characterization of the opacity-associated proteins of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. J. Exp. Med. 159, 452–462.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Braude, A., Wunderlich, A., Chikami, G., Douglas, H., and McCutchan, J. (1985). Generation of adherence-blocking immunoglobin G (IgG) by vaccinating women with nonpiliated boiled gonococci: Observations on IgG binding to a high-molecular-weight protein in the outer membrane fraction. In The Pathogenic Neisseriae, GK. Schoolnik, ed. (Washington D.C.: American Society of Microbiology), pp. 323–328.Google Scholar
  6. Buchanan, T.M., and Arko, R.J. (1977). Immunity to gonococcal infection induced by vaccination with isolated outer membranes of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in guinea pigs. J. Infect. Dis. 135, 879–887.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Carbonetti, N.H., and Sparling, P.F. (1987). Molecular cloning and chracterization of the structural gene for protein I, the major outer membrane protein of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA. 84, 9084–9088.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chen, R., Schmidmayr, W., Kraemer, C., Chen-Schmeisser, U., and Henning, U. (1980). Primary structure of major outer membrane protein II* (ompA protein) of Escherichia coli K-12. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA. 77, 4592–4596.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Datta, D.B., Arden, B., and Henning, U. (1977). Major proteins of the Escherichia coli outer cell envelope membrane as bacteriophage receptors. J. Bacteriol. 131, 821–829.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Douglas, J.T., Lee, M.D., and Nikaido, H. (1981). Protein I of Neisseria gonorrhoeae outer membrane is a porin. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 12, 305–309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Garavito, R.M., Jenkins, J., Jansonius, J.N., Karlsson, R., and Rosenbush, J.P. (1983). X-ray diffraction analysis of matrix porin, an integral membrane protein from Escherichia coli outer membranes. Journal of Molecular Biology 164, 313–327.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Garavito, R.M., and Rosenbusch, J.P. (1980). Three-dimensional crystals of an integral membrane protein: An initial X-ray analysis. J. Cell Biol. 86, 327–329.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Gotschlich, E.C., Blake, M.S., Koomey, J.M., Seiff, M., and Derman, A. (1986). Cloning of the structural genes of three H8 antigens and of protein III of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. J. Exp. Med. 164, 868–881.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Gotschlich, E.C., Seiff, M.E., Blake, M.S., and Koomey, M. (1987). Porin protein of Neisseria gonorrhoeae: cloning and gene structure. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA. 84, 8135–8139.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Jiskoot, W., Teerlink, T., Van Hoof, M.M.M., Bartels, K., Kanhai, V., Crommelin, D.J.A., and Beuvery, E.C. (1986). Immunogenic activity of gonocococcal protein I in mice with three different lipoidal adjuvants delivered in liposomes and in complexes. Infect. Immun. 54, 333–338.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Joiner, K.A., Warren, K.A., Frank, M.M., and Rice, P.A. (1985a). Blocking immunoglobulin G enhances complement consumption and deposition on Neisseria gonorrhoeae. In The Pathogenic Neisseriae, GK. Schoolnik, ed. (Washington, D.C.: Amer. Soc. Microbiology), pp. 431–434.Google Scholar
  17. Joiner, K.A., Warren, K.A., Tam, M., and Frank, M.M. (1985b). Monoclonal antibodies directed against gonococcal protein I vary in bactericidal activity. The Journal of Immunology 134, 3411–3419.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Judd, R.C. (1982a) . 125I-Peptide mapping of protein III isolated from four strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Infect. Immun. 37, 622–631.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Judd, R.C. (1982b) . Surface peptide mapping of protein I and protein III of four strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Infect. Immun. 37, 632–641.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Lynch, E.C., Blake, M.S., Gotschlich, E.C., and Mauro, A. (1983). Reconstitution of a voltage-dependent anion-preferring porin from Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Biophys. J. 41, 62.Google Scholar
  21. Lytton, E.J., and Blake, M.S. (1986). Isolation and partial characterization of the reduction-modifiable protein of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. J. Exp. Med. 164, 1749–1759.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. McDade, R.L. Jr., and Johnston, K.H. (1980). Characterization of serologically dominant outer membrane proteins of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. J. Bacteriol. 141, 1183–1191.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Morein, B., Sundquist, B., Hoglund, S., Dalsgaard, K., and Osterhaus, A. (1984). Iscom, a novel stucture for antigenic presentationof membrane proteins from enveloped viruses. Nature 308, 457–460.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Newhall, W.J., Sawyer, W.D., and Haak, R.A. (1980). Cross-linking analysis of the outer membrane proteins of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Infect. Immun. 28, 785–791.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Rice, P.A., Tam, M.R., and Blake, M.S. (1985). Immunoglobulin G antibodies in normal human serum directed against protein III block killing of serum-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae by immune human serum. In The Pathogenic Neisseriae, GK. Schoolnik, ed. (Washington, D.C.: Amer. Soc. Microbiology) , pp. 427–430.Google Scholar
  26. Rice, P.A., Vayo, H.E., Tam, M.R., and Blake, M.S. (1986). Immunoglobin G antibodies directed against protein III block killing of serum resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae by immune sera. J. Exp. Med. 164, 1735–1748.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Sandstrom, E., and Buchanan, T.M. (1980). Coagglutination class reagents identifies the same antigen as the principal outer membrane serotyping. In Genetics and immunobiology of pathogenic Neisseria, S. Normark, and D. Danielsson, eds. (Umea: University of Umea), pp. 67–71.Google Scholar
  28. Sandstrom, E.G., Knapp, J.S., and Buchanan, T.M. (1982). Serology of Neisseria gonorrhoeae: W-antigen serogrouping by coagglutination and protein I serotyping by ELISA both detect protein I antigens. Infect. Immun. 35, 229–239.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Sarafian, S.K., Tam, M.R., and Morse, S.A. (1983). Gonococcal protein I specific opsonic IgG in normal human sera. The Journal of Infectious Diseases 148, 1025–1032.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Shek, P.N., and Sabiston, B.H. (1982a). Immune response mediated by liposome associated protein antigens: II. Comparison of the effectiveness of vesicle entrapped and surface associated antigen in immunopotentiation. Immunology 47, 627–632.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Shek, P.N., and Sabiston, B.H. (1982b). Immune response mediated by liposome associated protein antigens: I. Potentiation of the plaque-forming cell response. Immunology 45, 349–356.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Swanson, J.L., Mayer, L.W., and Tam, M.R. (1982). Antigenicity of Neisseriagonorrhoeae outer membrane protein(s) III detected by immunoprecipitation and western blot transfer with monoclonal antibody. Infect. Immun. 38, 668–672.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. van Alphen, L., Havekes, L., and Lugtenberg, B. (1977). Major outer membrane protein d of _Escherichia coli K-12 Purification and _in vitro_ activity of bacteriophage_ K3 and c F-pilus mediated onjugation. FEBS Lett. 75, 285–290.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Virji, M., Zak, K., and Heckels, J.E. (1986). Monoclonal antibodies to gonococcal outer membrane protein IB: use in investigations of the potential protective effect of antibodies directed against conserved and type-specific epitopes. J. Gen. Microbiol. 132, 1621–1629.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Virji, M., Fletcher, J.N., Zak, K., and Heckels, J.E. (1987). The potential protective effect of monoclonal antibodies to gonococcal outer membrane protein IA. J. Gen. Microbiol. 133, 2639–2646.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Young, J.D.E., Blake, M.S., Mauro, A., and Cohn, Z.A. (1983). Properties of the major outer membrane protein from Neisseria gonorrhoeae incorporated into model lipid membranes. Biophysical J. 80, 3831–3835.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. S. Blake
    • 1
    • 2
  • L. M. Wetzler
    • 1
    • 2
  • E. C. Gotschlich
    • 1
    • 2
  • P. A. Rice
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Laboratory of Bacteriology and ImmunologyThe Rockefeller UniversityN.Y.USA
  2. 2.The Maxwell Finland Laboratory for Infectious DiseasesBoston UniversityBostonUSA

Personalised recommendations