The accurate assessment of risk associated with exposures to nephrotoxic metals demands an explicit understanding of relationships between level of exposure, the resulting dose to the kidney and effects on kidney function. Development of methods for directly measuring or predicting kidney burden of metals in humans is a central component of this problem. Experiments in laboratory animals allow a rigorous exploration of the biokinetics of metals in kidney and can lead to development of models relating level of exposure to kidney metal burden, and the latter to other biological indices of kidney burden (e.g. Urinary metal) and nephrotoxicity (e.g, proteinuria). However, extrapolation of these models to humans can not be made with certainty, unless they can be validated with quantitative assessments in humans. Methods for in vivo measurement or estimation of metals in kidney can be used to test models that are based on laboratory animal data, and thus, potentially, can lead to a greatly improved understanding of exposure-effect relationships for nephrotoxic metals in humans.
KeywordsMercury Cadmium Radioactive Isotope Alkane Proteinuria
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