In-Vivo Bone Lead Measurements and Renal Effects
Reports that both chronic and acute exposure to lead (Pb) could cause nephropathy were first published in the middle of the last century. Recent epidemiological, clinical and biochemical studies still suggest that excessive Pb uptake can be related to renal disease or dysfunction (1,2) . The ubiquitous nature of Pb in the modern environment and the number of workers occupationally exposed to the metal suggest that an understanding of the dose-effect relationships is important . However the relationships between various parameters of functional or morphological changes in the kidney, the development of clinical renal disease and estimates of the Pb dose still remain unclear.
KeywordsFractional Excretion Serum Urate Level Free Erythrocyte Protoporphyrin Renal Kallikrein Exposure Subgroup
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