Identification of Functional Domains in G Protein α Chains
In many signaling pathways, G proteins transduce extracellular signals (hormones or sensory stimuli), detected by receptors on the surface of cells, into regulation of effector proteins that control accumulation of intracellular second messengers (for recent reviews, see Stryer and Bourne, 1986; Gilman, 1987). The G proteins are a highly conserved family of heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide binding proteins. The a subunit, the key component of the G proteins, binds and hydrolyzes guanine nucleotides and interacts with ßγ subunits and specific sets of receptor and effector proteins. Signal transduction by the G proteins is driven by a cycle of GTP-dependent conformational changes in the a chain. This guanine nucleotide-dependent molecular machinery is conserved within and beyond the G protein family.
KeywordsAdenylate Cyclase Adenylyl Cyclase Guanine Nucleotide Pertussis Toxin GTPase Activity
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