In the early days of integrated circuits, analog circuits were built primarily in bipolar technologies. Much of the design methodology for analog integrated circuits evolved from the bipolar technologies with vertical npn transistors and lateral pnp transistors. While bipolar analog integrated circuits continued to develop, NMOS technologies were becoming popular in digital integrated circuits for their high packing density. For analog applications, despite the inherent drawbacks of NMOS circuits such as low gain, difficult level shifting, and large offset voltages, many clever circuit design techniques were invented to overcome the shortcomings, and take full advantage of NMOS technologies [8.18.4].


Operational Amplifier Analog Circuit Bipolar Transistor Voltage Gain Current Mirror 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • H.-S. Lee
    • 1
  1. 1.Massachusetts Institute of TechnologyUSA

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