Models of Health, Illness, and Health Care

  • William L. Miller


Many models of health and illness are available for use by family physicians as guides in delivering health care to their patients. A model is a belief system or plan for making sense of the puzzling phenomena confronting patients and physicians.


Family Physician Explanatory Model Biopsychosocial Model Biomedical Model Sick Role 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Veatch R. The medical model: its nature and problems. The Hast-ings Cent Studies 1973; 1: 59–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Pfifferling JH. Cultural prescription for medicocentrism. In: Eisenberg L, Kleinman A, eds. The relevance of social science for medicine. Dordrecht: D Reidel, 1981: 197–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Schmidt DD, Zyzanski S, Ellner J, Kumar ML, Arno J. Stress as a precipitating factor in subjects with recurrent herpes labialis. J Fam Pract 1985; 20: 359–366.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ardell DB. High level Wellness. Emmaus: Rodale Press, 1977.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Gordon JS, Jaffe D, Bresler D, eds. Mind, body and health: to-wards an integral medicine. New York: Human Sciences PressGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Pelletier KR. Mind as healer, mind as slayer: a holistic approach to preventing stress disorders. New York: Delacorte Press, 1977.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Berliner HS. Scientific medicine since Flexner. In: Salmon JW, ed. Alternative Medicines: Populär & policy perspectives. New York: Tavistock, 1984: 30–56.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Stalker D, Glymm C, eds. Examining holistic medicine. Buffalo: Prometheus Books, 1985.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Grossman R. The other medicines. Garden City: DoubledayGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Engel GL. The need for a new medical model: a challenge for biomedicine. Science 1979; 196: 129–135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Engel GL. The clinical application of the biopsychosocial model. Am J Psychiatry 1980; 137: 535–544.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Leigh H, Reiser MF. The patient: biological, psychological, and social dimensions of medical practice, 2nd ed. New York: Plenum Press, 1985.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Illich I. Medical nemesis: the expropriation of health. New York: Pantheon, 1976.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Carlson R. The end of medicine. New York: Wiley-Interscience, 1975.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Waitzkin HB, Waterman B. The exploitation of illness in capitalist society. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1974.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    de Vries MW, Berg RL, Lipkin M Jr, eds. The use and abuse of medicine. New York: Praeger, 1982.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kleinman AM, Eisenberg L, Good B. Culture, illness and care. Ann Intern Med 1978; 88: 251–258.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Helman CG. Culture, health and illness. Bristol: John Wright & Sons, 1984.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Harwood A, ed. Ethnicity and medical care. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1981.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Berlin EA, Fowkes WC Jr. A teaching framework for cross-cul-tural health care: application in family practice. West J Med 1983; 139: 934–938.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Young A. Rational men and the explanatory model approach. Cult Med Psychiatry 1982; 6: 57–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Like R. Patient requests in family practice: a negotiated approach to clinical care. Master’s Thesis, Cleveland: Case Western Reserve, 1984.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Helman CG. Disease and pseudo-disease: a case history of pseudo-angina. In: Hahn RA, Gaines AD, eds. Physicians of Western medicine. Dordrecht: D. Reidel, 1985, pp 293–331.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Good BJ, Good MD. The meaning of symptoms: a cultural herme-neutic model for clinical practice. In: Eisenberg L, Kleinman A, eds. The relevance of social science for medicine. Dordrecht: D. Reidel, 1981, pp 165–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Blumhagen D. Hyper-tension: a folk illness with a medical name. Cult Med Psychiatry 1980; 4: 197–227.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Helman CG. “Feed a cold, starve a fever”—folk models of infec-tion in an English suburban Community and their relation to medical treatment. Cult Med Psychiatry 1978;2:107–137.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Singer M, Arnold C, Fitzgerald M, Madden L, von Legat CV. Hypoglycemia: a controversial illness in US society. Med Anthro-pol 1984; 8: 1–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Helman CG. Psyche, soma & society: the social construction of psychosomatic disorders. Cult Med Psychiatry 1985; 9: 1–26.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Freidl J. Explanatory models of black lung: understanding the health-related behavior of Appalachian coal miners. Cult Med Psychiatry 1982; 6: 3–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Chrisman NJ. The health seeking process: an approach to the natural history of illness. Cult Med Psychiatry 1977; 1: 351–377.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Pennebaker JW. The psychology of physical symptoms. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1982.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Stone AA, Jandorf L, Neale JM. Triggers or aggravators of symptoms? Soc Sei Med 1986; 22: 1015–1018.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Wallston KA, Wallston BS. Who is responsible for your health? The construct of health locus of control. In: Sanders GS, Suis J, eds. Social psychology of health and illness. Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum Assoc., 1982, pp 65–95.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Parsons T. The social system. Glencoe: Free Press, 1951.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Alexander L. Illness maintenance and the new American sick role. In: Chrisman NJ, Maretzki TW, eds. Clinically applied an-thropology: anthropologists in health science settings. Dordrecht: D. Reidel, 1982, pp 351–367.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Alonzo AA. The impact of the family and lay others on care-seeking during life-threatening episodes of suspected coronary ar-tery disease. Soc Sei Med 1986; 22: 1297–1312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Friedson E. Profession of medicine: a study in the Sociology of applied knowledge. New York: Dodd, Mead, 1970.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Alpert JJ, Kosa J, Haggerty RT. A month of illness and health care among low income families. Public Health Rep 1967; 82: 705–713.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Zola IK. Studying the decision to see a doctor: Review, critique, corrective. Adv Psychosoma Med 1972; 8: 216–236.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Verbrugge LM. From sneezes to adieux: stages of health care for American men and women. Soc Sei Med 1986;22:1195— 1212.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Guarnaccia PJ, Pelto PJ, Schensul SL. Family health culture, eth-nicity, and asthma: coping with illness. Med Anthropol 1985; 9: 203–224.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Schmidt DD. When is it helpful to convene the family? J Fam Pract 1983; 16: 967–973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Zola IK: Pathways to the doctor. Soc Sei Med 1973; 7: 677–689.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Marron JT, Fromm BS, Snyder VL, Greenberg DB. Use of psy-chologic testing in characterizing the frequent user of ambulatory health care services. J Fam Pract 1984; 19: 802–806.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Mechanic D. Social psychologic factors affecting the presentation of bodily complaints. N Engl J Med 1972; 286: 1132–1139.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Meininger JC. Sex differences in factors associated with use of medical care and alternative illness behaviors. Soc Sei Med 1986; 22: 285–292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Coulehan JL. Adjustment, the hands, and healing. Cult Med Psy-chiatry 1985; 9: 353–382.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Good MD, Good BJ. Patient requests in primary care clinics. In: Chrisman NJ, Maretzki TW, eds. Clinically applied anthropology. Dordrecht: D. Reidel, 1982, pp 275–295.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Nerenz DR, Leventhal H. Self-regulation theory in chronic illness. In: Buresh TG, Bradley LA, eds. Coping with chronic disease: research and applications. New York: Academic Press, 1983, pp 13–37.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Eraker SA, Kirscht JP, Becker MH. Understanding and improv-ing patient compliance. Ann Intern Med 1984; 100: 258–268.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Haynes RB, Taylor DW, Sackett DL, eds. Compliance in health care. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1979.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Schmidt DD. Patient compliance: the effect of the doctor as a therapeutic agent. J Fam Pract 1977; 4: 853–856.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Moore LG, Arsdale PWV, Glittenberg JE, Aldrich RA. The biocultural bases of health. St. Louis: C.V. Mosby, 1980.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Galezka SS, Eckert JK. Clinically applied anthropology: concepts for the family physician. J Fam Pract 1986; 22: 159–165.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Siegler M. The doctor-patient encounter and its relationship to theories of health and disease. In: Caplan AL, Engelhardt HT Jr, McCartney JJ, eds. Concepts of health and disease: interdiscipli-nary perspectives. Reading: Addison-Wesley, 1981, pp 627–644.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Grimes RL. Beginnings in ritual studies. Washington, DC: University Press of America, 1982.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • William L. Miller

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations