The Cardiovascular System

  • John W. Beasley
  • James E. Davis
  • Patrick McBride


Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the leading cause of death and disability in the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada, and Western Europe. Mortality from cardiovascular disease in the United States is approximately twice that for cancer, accounting for one-fourth of all deaths of individuals less than 65 years of age. For 15 to 25% of Americans the first sign of cardiovascular disease is sudden cardiac death. For those who survive the first coronary event, the 5-year risk of dying from underlying CHD is extremely high.


Acute Myocardial Infarction Congenital Heart Disease Aortic Stenosis Rheumatic Fever Mitral Stenosis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Hoebel FC. Brief family-interactional therapy in the management of cardia-related high risk behaviors. J Fam Pract 1976; 3: 613–618.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Buell JC, Elliot RS. The role of emotional stress in the development of heart disease. JAMA 1979; 242: 365–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Morgan WP, Raglin JS. Heart disease and rehabilitation. New York: Wiley, 1986.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Jenkins CD. Recent evidence supporting psychologic and social risk factors for coronary heart disease. N Engl J Med 1976; 294: 987–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Eden D, Shiron A, Kellerman JJ, et al. Stress, anxiety and coronary risk in a supportive society. In: Spielberger CD, Sarason IG, eds. Stress and anxiety. Vol. 4. New York: Hemisphere Publishing, 1977:251–68. AHA abstract 71.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kaplan NM. Therapy for mild hypertension. JAMA 1983; 249: 365–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Joint National Committee on Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Pressure. The 1984 report of the Joint National Committee on Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Pressure. Arch Intern Med 1984; 144: 1045–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Lanfors EW, Feussner JR, Blessing CL, Starmer CF, Neelon FA, McKee PA. Spurious hypertension in the obese patient—effect of sphygmomanometer cuff size on prevalence of hypertension. Arch Intern Med 1984; 144: 1482–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Perloff D, Sokolow M, Cowan R. The prognostic value of ambula-tory blood pressures. JAMA 1983; 249: 2792–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Croog SH, Levine S, Testa MA, et al. The effects of antihypertensive therapy on the quality of life. N Engl J Med 1986;314:1657— 64.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Haynes RB, Sackett DL, Taylor DW, et al. Increased absentee-ism from work after detection and labeling of hypertensive patients. N Engl J Med 1978; 299: 741–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kaplan NM. Non-drug treatment of hypertension. Ann Intern Med 1985; 102: 359–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    MacMahon SW, Norton RN. Alcohol and hypertension: implica-tions for prevention and treatment. Ann Intern Med 1986; 105: 124–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Klotsky AL. The relationship of alcohol and the cardiovascular system. Annu Rev Nutr 1982; 2: 51–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Langford HG, Blaufox D, Oberman A, et al. Dietary therapy slows the return of hypertension after stopping prolonged medica-tion. JAMA 1985; 253: 657–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    The Working Group on Hypertension in the Elderly. Statement on hypertension in the elderly. JAMA 1986; 256: 70–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Morledge JH, Ettinger B, Aranda J, et al. Isolated systolic hypertension in the elderly. J Am Geriatr Soc 1986; 34: 199–206.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Check WA. Interdisciplinary efforts seek hypertension causes, prevention, therapy in Blacks. JAMA 1986; 256: 11–17.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ross R. The pathogenesis of atherosclerosis—an update. N Engl J Med 1986; 314: 488–99.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Arntzenius AC, Kromhout D, Bart JD, et al. Diet, lipoproteins and the progression of coronary atherosclerosis: the Leiden intervention trial. N Engl J Med 1985; 312: 805–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Diamond GA, Forrester JS. Analysis of probability as an aid in the clinical diagnosis of coronary-artery disease. N Engl J Med 1979; 300: 350–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Sox HC, Margolies I, Sox CH. Psychologically mediated effects of diagnostic tests. Ann Intern Med 1981; 95: 680–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Silverman KJ, Grossman W. Angina pectoris: natural history and strategies for evaluation and management. N Engl J Med 1984; 310: 1712–27.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Maseri A, Parodi O, Box KM. Rational approach to the medical therapy of angina pectoris: the role of calcium antagonists. Prog Cardiovasc Dis 1983; 25: 269.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Abrams J. Nitroglycerin and long-acting nitrates. N Engl J Med 1980; 302: 1234–36.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Jordan RA, Seth L, Casebolt P, Hayes MJ, Wilen MM, Franciosa J. Rapidly developing tolerance to transdermal nitroglycerin in congestive heart failure. Ann Intern Med 1986; 104: 295.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Abrams J. Transdermal nitroglycerin and nitrate tolerance (edito-rial). Ann Intern Med 1986; 104: 424–426.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Gottlieb SO, Weisfeldt ML, Ouyang P, Mellits ED, Gerstenblith %G. Silent ischemia as a marker for early unfavorable outcomes in patients with unstable angina. N Engl J Med 1986; 314: 1214–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Braunwald E. Coronary artery spasm: mechanisms and clinical relevance. JAMA 1981; 246: 1957–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Conti CR. Coronary-artery spasm and myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med 1983; 309: 238–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Vincent GM, Anderson JL, Marshall HW. Coronary spasm pro-ducing coronary thrombosis and myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med 1983; 309: 220–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Kirshenbaum HD, Ockene IS, Alpert JS. The spectrum of coronary artery spasm: the variable variant. JAMA 1981; 246: 354–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Heikkila J. The clinical dilemma of the patient with angina pectoris and heart failure. Pract Cardiol 1986; 12: 54–66.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Epstein SE. Importance of identifying left main coronary artery narrowing in subsets of patients with coronary artery disease (edi-torial). Ann Intern Med 1979; 91: 308–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Hultgren HN, Giacomini JC, Miller C. Treatment of unstable angina. JAMA 1985; 253: 2555–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Holmes DR, Vlietstra RE. Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty: current status and future trends. Mayo Clin Proc 1986; 61: 865–76.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Fuster V, Chesebro JH. Mechanisms of unstable angina (edito-rial). N Engl J Med 1986; 315: 1023–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Brown BG, Dodge HT. Unstable angina: guidelines for therapy based on the last decade of clinical observations (editorial). Ann Intern Med 1982; 97: 921–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Holmes DR, Smith HC. Mechanical reperfusion alone or com-bined with lytic therapy during myocardial infarction. Pract Cardiol 1986; 12: 39–51.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Pozen MW, D’Agostino RB, Selker HP, et al. A predictive instru-ment to improve coronary-care unit admission practices in acute ischemic heart disease: prospective multicenter clinical trial. N Engl J Med 1984; 310: 1273–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Brush JE, Brand DA, Acampora D, Chalmer B, Wackers FJ. Use of the initial electrocardiogram to predict in-hospital complications of acute myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med 1985; 312: 1137–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Fisher ML, Carliner NH, Becker LC, Peters RW, Plotnick GD. Serum creatine kinase in the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction. JAMA 1983; 249: 393–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Irving RG, Cobb FR, Roe CR. Acute myocardial infarction and MB creatine and appearance and disappearance of enzyme. Arch Intern Med 1980; 140: 339–44.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Wagner GS. Optimal use of serum enzyme levels in the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction. Arch Intern Med 1980; 140: 317–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Hill NS, Antman EM, Green LH, Alpert JS. Intravenous nitroglycerin: review of pharmacology, indications, therapeutic effects and complications. Chest 1981; 79: 69–76.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Relman AS. Intravenous thrombolysis in acute myocardial infarction (editorial). N Engl J Med 1985; 312: 915–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. I.S.A.M. Study Group. A prospective trial of intravenous Streptokinase in acute myocardial infarction (I.S.A.M.): mortality, morbidity, and infarct size at 21 days. N Engl J Med 1986:314:1445–71.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    T.I.M.I. Study Group. The thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI trial: phase I findings) N Engl J Med 1985: 312: 932–6.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Frishman WH, Furberg CD, Friedewald WT. Beta-adrenergic blockade for survivors of acute myocardial infaretion. N Engl J Med 1984; 310: 830–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Pedersen TR, for the Norwegian Multicenter Study Group. Six-year follow-up of the Norwegian multicenter study on timolol after acute myocardial infaretion. N Engl J Med 1985; 313: 1055–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    MIAMI Trial Research Group. Metoprolol in acute myocardial infaretion (MIAMI). Am J Cardiol 1985;56:1G–9G, 55G–57G.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    ISIS-1 (First International Study of Infarct Survival) Collaborative Group. Randomized trial of intravenous atenolol among 16,027 cases of suspected acute myocardial infaretion: ISIS-1. Lancet 1986;2:July 12: 57–65.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Cohn PF. The role of noninvasive cardiac testing after an uncom-plicated myocardial infaretion. N Engl J Med 1983; 309: 90–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Füller CM, Raizner AE, Verani MS, et al. Early post-myocardial infaretion treadmill stress testing: an accurate predictor of multivessel coronary disease and subsequent cardiac events. Ann Intern Med 1981; 94: 734–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Schwartz KM, Turner JD, Sheffield LT, et al. Limited exercise testing soon after myocardial infaretion: correlation with early coronary and left ventricular angiography. Ann Intern Med 1981; 94: 727–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Starling MR, Crawford MH, Kennedy GT, O’Rourke RA. Treadmill exercise tests predischarge and six weeks post-myocardial infaretion to detect abnormalities of known prognostic value. Ann Intern Med 1981; 94: 721–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Little RC, Little WC. Cardiac preload, afterload, and heart fail-ure. Arch Intern Med 1982; 142: 819–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Cohn JM. New concepts in the mechanisms and treatment of congestive heart failure: introduction. Am J Cardiol 1985; 55: 1A.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Gorlin R. Practical cardiac hemodynamics. N Engl J Med 1977; 296: 203–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Chatterjee K, Rouleau JL, Parmley W. Medical management of patients with angina: has first-line management changed? JAMA 1984; 252: 1168–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Sodums MT, Walsh RA, O’Rourke RA. Digitalis in heart failure. JAMA 1981; 246: 158–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Lee DC, Johnson RA, Bingham JB, et al. Heart failure in outpa-tients: a randomized trial of digoxin versus placebo. N Engl J Med 1982; 306: 699–705.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Abrams J. Vasodilator therapy for chronic congestive heart failure. JAMA 1985; 254: 3070–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Cohn JN. A symposium: role of nitrates in congestive heart failure. Am J Cardiol 1985; 56: 1A.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Colucci WS, Fifer MA, Lorell BH, Wynne J. Calcium Channel blockers in congestive heart failure: theoretic considerations and clinical experience. Am J Med 1985; 78 (suppl. 2B): 9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Kapoor WN, et al. Syncope of unknown origin. JAMA 1982; 247: 2687–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Kapoor WN, Karpf M, Mäher Y, Miller RA, Levey GS. Syncope of unknown origin. Issues in evaluating patients with snycope. Ann Intern Med 1984; 100: 755–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Ritchin SM, Fletcher RH, Erp JA, Lamson N, Waugh R. Mitral valve prolapse—disease or illness? Arch Intern Med 1986; 146: 1081–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Engel GL. Psychologie stress, vasodepressor (vasovagal) syncope, and sudden death. Ann Intern Med 1978; 89: 403–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    McGovern B, Garan Hasan Rsukin JN. Precipitation of cardiac arrest by Verapamil in patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome. Ann Intern Med 1986; 104: 791–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Kennedy HL, Whitlock JA, Sprague MK, Kennedy LJ, Bucking-ham TA, Goldberg RJ. Long-term follow-up of asymptomatic healthy subjects with frequent and complex ventricular ectopy. N Engl J Med 1985; 312: 193–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Swerdlow CD, Winkle RA, Mason JW. Determinants of survival in patients with ventricular taehyarrhythmias. N Engl J Med 1983; 308: 1436–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Nygaard TW, Seilers TD, Cook TS, DiMarco JP. Adverse reactions to antiarrhythmic drugs during therapy for ventricular ar-rhythmias. JAMA 1986; 256: 55–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Woolsey RL. Risk/benefit considerations in antiarrhythmic therapy. JAMA 1986; 256: 82–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    McAulty JH, Rahimtoola SH, Murphy E, et al. Natural history of “high-risk” bundle-branch block. N Engl J Med 1982; 307: 137–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Bates B: A guide to physical examination. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1979, pp. 139–172.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Rothman A, Goldberger AL. Aids to cardiac auscultation. Ann Intern Med 1983; 99: 346–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Shulman ST, Amren DP, Bisno AL, et al. Prevention of bacterial endocarditis: a Statement for health Professionals by the Commit-tee on Rheumatic Fever and Infective Endocarditis of the Council on Cardiovascular Disease in the Young. Circulation 1984; 70: 1123A - 7A.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Dhingra RC, Amat-y-Leon F, Pietras RJ, et al. Sites of conduction disease in aortic stenosis: significance of valve gradient and calcifi-cation. Ann Intern Med 1977; 87: 275–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Schwartz A, Vignola PA, Walker HJ, King ME, Goldblatt A. Echocardiographic estimation of aortic-valve gradient in aortic stenosis. Ann Intern Med 1978; 89: 329–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Grayburn PA, Smith MD, Handshoe R, Friedman BJ, DeMaria AN. Detection of aortic insufficiency by Standard echocardio-graphy, pulsed Doppler echocardiography and auscultation. Ann Intern Med 1986; 104: 599–605.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Wynne J. Mitral valve prolapse (editorial). N Engl J Med 1986; 314: 544–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Cheitlin MD, Byrd RC. The click-murmur Syndrome: clinical problem in diagnosis and treatment. JAMA 1981; 245: 1357–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Devereux RB, Kramer-Fox R, Brown WT, et al. Relation between clinical features of the mitral prolapse Syndrome and echo-cardiographically documented mitral valve prolapse. J Am Coli Cardiol 1986; 8: 763–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Fowler R. Cardiac failure. Pediatr Rev 1980; 1: 321–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Southall DP, Johnson AM, Shinebourne EA, Johnston GB, Vul-liamy DG. Frequency and outcome of disorders of cardiac rhythm and conduction in a population of newborn infants. Pediatrics 1981; 68: 58–66.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Reeder GS, Currie PJ, Hagler DJ, Tajik AJ, Sweard JB. Use of Doppler techniques (continuous-wave, pulsed-wave, and color flow imaging) in the non-invasive hemodynamic assessment of congenital heart disease. Mayo Clin Proc 1986; 61: 725–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Kereiakes DJ, Parmley WW. Myocarditis and cardiomyopathy. Am Heart J 1984; 108: 1318–26.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Goldman L, Caldera DL, Nussbaum SR, et al. Multifactorial index of cardiac risk in noncardiac surgical procedures. N Engl J Med 1977; 297: 845–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Goldman L. Cardiac risks and complications of noncardiac surgery. Ann Intern Med 1983; 98: 504–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    American College of Sportsmedicine. Guidelines for exercise testing and prescription. 3rd ed. Philadelphia: ACS, 1986.Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Goldschlager N. Use of the treadmill test in the diagnosis of coronary artery disease in patients with chest pain. Ann Intern Med 1982; 97: 383–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Shine KI, Perloff JK, Child JS, Marshall RC, Schelbert H: Noninvasive assessment of myocardial function. Ann Intern Med 1980; 92: 78–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Gorlin R: New trends in cardiac diagnosis (monograph). Kansas City: American Academy of Family Physicians, 1978.Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Talliercio CP, Vlietstra RE, Fisher LD, Burnett JC. Risks for renal dysfunction with cardiac angiography. Ann Intern Med 1986; 104: 501.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Erb BD, Fletcher GF, Sheffield TL. Standards for cardiovascular treatment programs. Circulation 1979; 59: 1084A - 90A.Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Wenger NK. Rehabilitation of the coronary patient: scope of the problem and responsibility of the primary care physicians.Car-diovasc Rev Rep 1981; 2: 1249–61.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • John W. Beasley
  • James E. Davis
  • Patrick McBride

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations