Pharmacotherapy of Personality Disorders

  • Michael R. Liebowitz


While the major pathogenic theory of personality disorders held by American psychiatrists is psychoanalytic (Abraham, 1949; Reich, 1949; Knight, 1953; Kernberg, 1975), the biological approach to personality disorders has an equally lengthy history. The modern era began with Kraepelin (1921), who observed affective temperaments in the premorbid history of many manic depressives and their non-ill biological relatives. Later investigators, such as Kretschmer (1936) and Schneider (1959) described constitutional factors thought to underlie both normal and deviant personality types. The major thrust of these studies was the notion that diluted versions of major schizophrenic, affective, and organic disorders could express themselves as chronic, maladaptive patterns of experiencing and functioning in the world; that is, personality disorders. With the modern tools of psychopharmacology, psychobiology, family studies, and clinical studies, these theories can be better tested.


Personality Disorder Panic Attack Antisocial Personality Disorder Borderline Personality Disorder Attention Deficit Disorder 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael R. Liebowitz
    • 1
  1. 1.Anxiety Disorders ClinicNew York Psychiatric InstituteNew YorkUSA

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