Study of Intra-Molecular Crosslinking of Polyacrylamide in Cr(III)-Polyacrylamide Gelation by Size-Exclusion Chromatography, Low-Angle Laser Light Scattering, and Viscometry

  • T. S. Young
  • G. P. Willhite
  • D. W. Green


The application of crosslinked-polymer systems for permeability modification of petroleum reservoirs has received increasing attention in recent years. A crosslinked-polymer treatment, in general, involves an injection of a polymer solution into high-permeability zones or fractures which have been previously swept by the displacing fluid1. The polymer solution reacts, either before or after injection, to form a three-dimensional gel network which reduces the effective permeability of the invaded portions of the reservoir. Fluid subsequently injected is diverted to other, tighter regions of the formation, thereby improving overall volumetric sweep efficiency.


Polymer Concentration Retention Volume Hydrodynamic Size Equilibrium Dialysis Crosslinking Solution 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    R.L. Clampitt and J.E. Ressert, U.S. Patent 3,785,437 (January 15, 1974 ).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    R.E. Terry, C.-G. Huang, D.W. Green, M.J. Michnick, and G.P. Willhite, Soc. Pet. Enq. J., 21, 229 (1981).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    D.S. Jordan, D.W. Green, R.E. Terry, and G.P. Willhite, Soc. Pet. Enq. J., 22, 463 (1982).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    C.-G. Huang, D.W. Green, and G.P. Willhite, SPE Reservoir Eng., 1, 534 (1986).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    S. Aslam, S. Vossoughi, and G.P. Willhite, Proceedings or the 4th SPE/DOE Symposium on EOR, 1, 113 (1984).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    T.S. Young, J.A. Hunt, D.W. Green, and G.P. Willhite, Proceedings of the 60th Annual SPE Meeting, SPE 14334 (September 1985).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    U.S. DOE Report DOE/BC/10354–16, Chap. 2, National Technical Information Service, Springfield, Virginia (February 1986).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    P.J. Flory, “Principles of Polymer Chemistry”, Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY (1953).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    W.H. Stockmayer, in “Advancing Fronts in Chemistry”, S.B. Twiss, ed., Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, NY (1945).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    W.M. Kulicke, R. Kniewske, and J. Klein, Proq. Polym. Sci., 8, 373 (1982).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    W. Kuhn and H. Majer, Makromol. Chem., 18 /19, 239 (1955).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    W. Kuhn and G. Balmer, J. Polym. Sci., 57, 311 (1962).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    D. Braun, J. Polym. Sci., Symp., 50, 149 (1975).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    P. Molyneux and S. Vekavakayanondha, J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans., 1, 82, 291 (1986).Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    J. Frank and L.G. Schoeling, Proceedings of the Sixth Tertiary Oil Recovery Conference, Wichita, Kansas, March 6–7, 113 (1985).Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    F. Karush and M. Sonnenberg, J. Amer. Chem. Soc., 71, 1369 (1949).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    F. Karush and S.S. Karush, in Methods in Immunology and Immunochemistry, Vol. 3, C.A. Williams and M.W. Chase, eds., Academic Press, New York, NY (1971).Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Annual Report for U.S. DOE Contract DE-AC19–85BC10843, in preparation.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    M.J. Udy, “Chromium”, Vol. 1, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, NY (1956).Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    C.L. Rollinson, in “Chemistry of Coordination Compounds”, J.C. Bailer, ed., Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, NY (1956).Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    J.A. Hunt, T.S. Young, D.W. Green, and G.P. Willhite, Proceedings of the 5th SPE/DOE Symposium on EOR, 2, 325 (1986).Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    A.C. Ouano, J. Polym. Sci., Polymer Chem., 12, 1151 (1974).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    E. Grushka, Anal. Chem., 44, 1733 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Z. Grubistic, R. Rempp, and H. Benoit, J. Polym. Sci., B-5, 753 (1967).Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    J.G. Kirkwood and J. Riseman, J. Chem. Phys., 16, 565 (1948).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    J. Klein and K.-D. Conrad, Makromol. Chem., 181, 227 (1980).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    P.-G. deGennes, “Scaling Concepts in Polymer Physics”, Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY (1979).Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    B. Ewen, D. Richter, J.B. Hayter and B. Lehner, J. Polym. Sci., Polym. Letter, 20, 233 (1982).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • T. S. Young
    • 1
  • G. P. Willhite
    • 1
  • D. W. Green
    • 1
  1. 1.Tertiary Oil Recovery ProjectUniversity of KansasLawrenceUSA

Personalised recommendations