Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy Using Double-J Stents: Technique, Pitfalls, Results, and Complications
On the basis of a series of 337 consecutive double-J stent placements in stone patients before ESWL, we are proposing the introduction of some angiographic techniques which can be useful in difficult cases. The use of a Cobra angiographic catheter allows for overcoming the obstacle in about 60% of difficult cases through a retrograde approach and for the remaining cases through an antegrade approach.
Complications such as migration and encrustation are relatively frequent but usually can be prevented by leaving the stents for no more than 15 days. Encrustation at the renal end should be treated by ESWL, at the vesical end with electrohydraulic disintegration.
KeywordsGuide Wire Shock Wave Lithotripsy Renal Stone Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy Ureteral Stone
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