Diabetic Nephropathy in the Third World

  • K. K. Malhotra
Part of the Topics in Renal Medicine book series (TIRM, volume 6)


Although diabetes mellitus is not a leading cause of death in the Third World, it is certainly an important cause of morbidity and mortality. The prevalence of diabetes mellitus in South-East Asia has been reported to vary from 1.99% to 3.5% [1]. However, data from different studies cannot be compared because their diagnostic criteria for diabetes mellitus have been different. Detailed epidemiologic studies using the same standard criteria are needed to define prevalence rates. The prevalence of diabetes is higher in the urban as compared with the rural population. This can be explained due to differences in dietary habits, environmental factors, and socioeconomic conditions. The prevalence of diabetes is higher in patients with undernutrition [2]. It has been suggested that undernutrition causes chronic stress with its concomitant hormonal changes. Epidemiologic studies have further shown that viral or other infectious agents may play an important etiologic role in the genesis of diabetes [3]. Special attention has been focused on coxachie virus. In the Third World, the incidence of infections is very high because of unhygienic conditions that increase the prevalence of diabetes mellitus.


Diabetic Nephropathy World Country Renal Unit Heavy Proteinuria Chronic Pyelonephritis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Tandhanand S, Nittyanani W, Makarassar C, Vannaseng S, Vichdayanrat A: Epidemiology of diabetes mellitus in South-East Asia. In: Bajaj JS (ed) Diabetes mellitus in developing countries. New Delhi: Interprint, 1984, pp 51–54.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Tripathy BB: Population survey for detection of frank and latent diabetes in one part of Cuttack, Orissa. J Indian Med Assoc 52: 4–6, 1970.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Gamble DR, Taylor KW, Cummings H: Coxsachie viruses and diabetes mellitus. Br Med J 3: 260–262, 1973.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Lester FT: The clinical pattern of diabetes mellitus in Eithopians. Diabetes Care 7: 6–11, 1984.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Abdulla MS: Diabetic nephropathy in Kenya. East Afr Med J 55: 513–518, 1978.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Adetuyibi A: Diabetes in the Nigerian African. 1. Review of long term complications. Trop Geogr Med 28: 155–159, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Diabetes Drafting Group: Prevalence of small vessel and large vessel disease in diabetic patients from 14 centres. Diabetologia [supply 28: 615–640, 1985.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Viberti GC, Jarrett RJ, Mahnud U, Hill RD, Argyropoulos A, Keen H: Microalbuminuria as a predictor of clinical nephropathy in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Lancet 2: 1430 1432, 1982.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Mogenson CE: Microalbuminuria predicts clinical proteinuria and early mortality in maturity-onset diabetes. N Engl J Med 310: 356–360, 1984.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Viberti GC, Vergani D: Detection of potentially reversible diabetic albuminuria a 3 drop agglutination test for urinary albumin at low concentration. Diabetes 31: 937–975, 1982.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Agarwal SK, Malhotra KK: Pattern of diabetic nephropathy in non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus as seen in a renal unit in India. (in press, 1986.)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Bajaj JS: Diabetes mellitus in developing countries. Interprint, New Delhi: Interprint, 1984, pp 15–25.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Malhotra KK: Cost of treatment of ESRD in Asia. In: Proceedings 6th Asian colloquium in nephrology. Kuala Lumpur (in press), 1985.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Malhotra KK: Chronic renal failure: an Indian perspective. J Assoc Phys India 31: 229–232, 1983.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Sutherland DER, Fryd DS, Payne WD, Ascher N, Summons RL, Najarian JS: Diabetic nephropathy 4: 123–126, 1985.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Malhotra KK, Rana DS, Dash SC, Sharma RK, Bansal RC: Gastrointestinal dialysis. J Assoc Phys India 31: 705–707, 1983.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. K. Malhotra

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations