Concomitant Organ Lesions: Diabetic Retinopathy in Early and Advanced Nephropathy
Essentially all patients with clinically significant diabetic nephropathy will also manifest some degree of retinopathy . Both nephropathy and retinopathy are duration-related microvascular complications of chronic hyperglycemia. Major risk factors include duration of diabetes (insulin-dependent or noninsulin-dependent), level of plasma glucose, and systemic hypertension. Other factors, including insulin therapy, ketosis, level of serum lipids, and younger age of onset may also play a role . Genetic susceptibility, as determined by HLA phenotype studies, is important for both retinopathy and nephropathy. Finally, for ocular complications, local factors, such as the presence or absence of myopia, influence the type of retinopathy that ultimately develops .
KeywordsDiabetic Retinopathy Macular Edema Diabetic Macular Edema Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy Vitreous Hemorrhage
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