• Arthur M. Squires


Misappraisal of the role of science in winning World War II was not a bad thing in the short run. The U.S. Government became a patron of science, supporting its practitioners at a level unimaginable before the war, and the rest of the World emulated America’s lead in funding scientific study.


York City City College Engineering Faculty Real Thing Societal Problem 
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Sources and suggested reading on the National Science Foundation

  1. Randal M. Robertson, NSF’s former Associate Director for Research, kindly granted interviews to Billy J. Jones and Mark A. Monroe, students in an Honors Colloquium at Virginia Tech.Google Scholar
  2. Vannevar Bush, Science — the Endless Frontier, report to the President from the U.S. Office of Scientific Research and Development, Washington, D.C., 1945.Google Scholar
  3. John R. Steelman, Science and Public Policy, a report to the President, Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1947.Google Scholar
  4. U.S. House of Representatives Committee on Science and Astronautics, Subcommittee on Science, Research, and Development, The National Science Foundation: Its Present and Future, February 1966.Google Scholar
  5. The First Twenty-Five Years of the National Science Foundation, a Symposium of the National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C., April 21, 1975.Google Scholar
  6. M. Lomask, A Minor Miracle: An Informal History of the National Science Foundation, National Science Foundation, NSF 76-18, Washington, D.C., 1976.Google Scholar
  7. J. Merton England, A Patron for Pure Science: The National Science Foundation’s Formative Years, 1945–57, National Science Foundation, Washington, D.C., 1982.Google Scholar
  8. Donald Kennedy, “Government Policies and the Cost of Doing Research,” Science, vol. 227 (1985), pp. 480–484.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Kennedy, president of Stanford University, points to underfunding of the capital requirements for “Big Science” as a cause both of recent efforts by institutions to circumvent peer review and also of collaborative attempts by investigators and funding agencies, notably the National Institutes of Health, to increase funds for the “real” costs of research at expense of indirect cost recoveries. Kennedy notes that a private research university like Stanford characteristically depends more upon these recoveries than upon all income from endowments.Google Scholar

Suggested reading on open admissions at the City College of New York

  1. Robert E. Marshak, Academic Renewal in the 1970s: Memoirs of a City College President, University Press of America, Washington, D.C., 1982.Google Scholar

Suggested reading on misapplication of science in engineering research

  1. Bruce E. Seely, “The Scientific Mystique in Engineering: Highway Research at the Bureau of Public Roads, 1918–1940,” Technology and Culture, vol. 25 (1984), pp. 798–831.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • Arthur M. Squires
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Chemical EngineeringVirginia Polytechnic Institute and State UniversityBlacksburgUSA

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