Changes in Soil Carbon Storage and Associated Properties with Disturbance and Recovery

  • William H. Schlesinger

Abstract

Organic matter in the world’s soils contains about three times as much carbon as the land vegetation. Soil organic matter is labile and is likely to change as a result of human activities. Agricultural clearing, for example, results in a decline in soil organic matter. At the present time, there may be a net release of 0.85 × 1015 g C • yr−1 from soils of the world due to agricultural clearing (Houghton et al. 1983; Schlesinger 1984), or about 15% of the annual release from fossil fuels. The release of carbon may have been greater near the turn of the century as a result of more rapid agricultural expansion into virgin areas (Stuiver 1978, Wilson 1978). It is the purpose of this chapter (1) to review briefly the present estimates of the size of the pool of carbon in world soils and (2) to offer a review and analysis of what is known about the effects of agriculture on soil carbon storage.

Keywords

Soil Organic Matter Soil Respiration Soil Carbon Global Carbon Cycle Soil Carbon Pool 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Aina, P. O. 1979. Soil changes resulting from long-ter management practices in western Nigeria. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 43: 173–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ajtay, G. L., P. Ketner, and P. Duvigneaud. 1979. Terrestrial primary production and phytomass. In B. Bolin, E. T. Degens, S. Kempe, and P. Ketner (eds.), The Global Carbon Cycle, pp. 129–181. John Wiley and Sons, New York.Google Scholar
  3. Armentano, T. V. 1979. The Role of Organic Soils in the World Carbon Cycle. The Institute of Ecology, Indianapolis, Indiana.Google Scholar
  4. Armentano, T. V. 1980. Drainage of organic soils as a factor in the world carbon cycle. BioScience 30: 825–830.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Armentano, T. V., A. de la Cruz, M. Duever, O. L. Loucks, W. Meijer, P. J. Mulholland, R. L. Tate, and D. Whigham. 1983. Recent Changes in the Global Carbon Balance of Tropical Organic Soils. Holcomb Research Institute, Indianapolis, Indiana.Google Scholar
  6. Armentano, T. V., E. S. Menges, J. Molofsky, and D. T. Lawler. 1984. Carbon Exchange of Organic Soils Ecosystems of the World. Holcomb Research Institute, Indianapolis, Indiana.Google Scholar
  7. Aweto, A. O. 1981. Organic matter build-up in fallow soil in a part of southwestern Nigeria and its effects on soil properties. J. Biogeogr. 8: 67–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Ayanaba, A., S. B. Tuckwell, and D. S. Jenkinson. 1976. The effects of clearing and cropping on the organic reserves and biomass of tropical forest soils. Soil Biol. Biochem. 8: 519–525.Google Scholar
  9. Baes, C. F., H. E. Goeller, J. S. Olson, and R. M. Rotty. 1977. Carbon dioxide and climate; the uncontrolled experiment. Am. Sci. 65: 310–320.Google Scholar
  10. Baranovskaya, V. A. and V. I. Azovtsev. 1981. Effects of irrigation on the migration of carbonates in the soils of the Volga region. Soy. Soil Sci. 13: 68–77.Google Scholar
  11. Bauer, A. and A. L. Black. 1981. Soil carbon, nitrogen, and bulk density comparisons in two cropland tillage systems after 25 years and in virgin grassland. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 45: 1166–1170.Google Scholar
  12. Bazilevich, N. I. 1974. Geochemical work of the living substance of the Earth and soil formation. In Transactions of the 10th International Congress of Soil Science 6: 17–27.Google Scholar
  13. Berg, B., K. Hannus, T. Popoff, and O. Theander. 1982. Changes in organic chemical components of needle litter during decomposition. Long-term decomposition in a Scots pine forest I. Can. J. Bot. 60: 1310–1319.Google Scholar
  14. Billings, W. D. 1938. The structure and development of old field shortleaf pine stands and certain associated properties of the soil. Ecol. Monogr. 8: 437–499.Google Scholar
  15. Bishop, J. E. 1973. Limnology of a small Malayan River Sungai Gombak. W. Junk, Publishers, The Hague, The Netherlands.Google Scholar
  16. Bohn, H. L. 1976. Estimate of organic carbon in world soils. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 40: 468–470.Google Scholar
  17. Bohn, H. L. 1978. On organic soil carbon and CO2. Tellus 30: 472–475.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bohn, H. L. 1982. Estimate of organic carbon in world soils II. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 46: 1118–1119.Google Scholar
  19. Bolin, B. 1970. The carbon cycle. Sci. Am. 223 (3): 124–132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Bolin, B. 1977. Changes of land biota and their importance for the carbon cycle. Science 196: 613–615.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Bolin, B., E. T. Degens, P. Duvigneaud, and S. Kempe. 1979. The global biogeochemical carbon cycle. In B. Bolin, E. T. Degens, S. Kempe, and P. Ketner. (eds), The Global Carbon Cycle, pp. 1–56. John Wiley and Sons, New York.Google Scholar
  22. Bormann, F. H. and G. E. Likens. 1979. Pattern and Process in a Forested Ecosystem. Springer-Verlag, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Bormann, F. H., G. E. Likens, T. G. Siccama, R. S. Pierce, and J. S. Eaton. 1974. The export of nutrients and recovery of stable conditions following deforestation at Hubbard Brook. Ecol. Monogr. 44: 255–277.Google Scholar
  24. Bottner, P. and A. Peyronel. 1977. Dynamique de la matière organique dans deux sols méditerranéens étudiée à partir de techniques de datation par le radiocarbone. Rev. Ecol. Biol. Sol 14: 385–393.Google Scholar
  25. Bracken, A. F. and J. E. Greaves. 1941. Losses of nitrogen and organic matter from dry-farm soils. Soil Sci. 51: 1–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Bradley, C. E. 1910. Nitrogen and carbon in the virgin and fallowed soils of Eastern Oregon. J. Ind. Eng. Chem. 2: 138–139.Google Scholar
  27. Brams, E. A. 1971. Continuous cultivation of West African soils: organic matter diminution and effects of applied lime and phosphorus. Plant Soil 35:401–414. Brown, S. and A. E. Lugo. 1982. The storage and production of organic matter in tropical forests and their role in the global carbon cycle. Biotropica 14: 161187.Google Scholar
  28. Buol, S. W. 1965. Present soil-forming factors and processes in arid and semiarid regions. Soil Sci. 99: 45–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Buringh, P. 1984. Organic carbon in soils of the world. In G. M. Woodwell (ed.), The Role of Terrestrial Vegetation in the Global Carbon Cycle, SCOPE 23, pp. 91–109. John Wiley and Sons, New York.Google Scholar
  30. Campbell, C. A., E. A. Paul, D. A. Rennie, and K. J. MaCallum. 1967. Applicability of the carbon-dating method of analysis to soil humus studies. Soil Sci. 104: 217–224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Campbell, C. A. and W. Souster. 1982. Loss of organic matter and potentially mineralizable nitrogen from Saskatchewan soils due to cropping. Can. J. Soil Sci. 62: 651–656.Google Scholar
  32. Chang, C. W. 1950. Effect of long-time cropping on soil properties in northeastern New Mexico. Soil Sci. 69: 359–368.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Chichester, F. W., R. W. Van Keuren, and J. L. McGuinness. 1979. Hydrology and chemical quality of flow from small pastured watersheds. II. Chemical quality. J. Environ. Qual. 8: 167–171.Google Scholar
  34. Coote, D. R. and J. F. Ramsey. 1983. Quantification of the effects of over 35 years of intensive cultivation on four soils. Can. J. Soil Sci. 63: 1–14.Google Scholar
  35. Covington, W. W. 1981. Changes in forest floor organic matter and nutrient content following clear cutting in northern hardwoods. Ecology 62: 41–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Cunningham, R. K. 1963. The effect of clearing a tropical forest soil. J. Soil Sci. 14: 324–345.Google Scholar
  37. Daniel, H. A. and W. H. Langham. 1936. The effect of wind erosion and cultivation on the total nitrogen and organic matter content of soils in the southern High Plains. J. Am. Soc. Agron. 28: 587–596.Google Scholar
  38. DeJong, E., H. J. V. Schappert, and K. B. MacDonald. 1974. Carbon dioxide evolution from virgin and cultivated soil as affected by management practices and climate. Can. J. Soil Sci. 54: 299–307.Google Scholar
  39. de las Salas, G. and H. Folster. 1976. Bioelement loss on clearing a tropical rain forest. Turrialba 26: 179–186.Google Scholar
  40. Dickson, B. A. and R. L. Crocker. 1953. A chronosequence of soils and vegetation near Mt. Shasta, California II. The development of the forest floors and the carbon and nitrogen profiles of the soils. J. Soil Sci. 4: 142–154.Google Scholar
  41. Dormaar J. F. 1979. Organic matter characteristics of undisturbed and cultivated chernozemic and solonetzic A horizons. Can. J. Soil Sci. 59: 349–356.Google Scholar
  42. Dormaar, J. F and U. J. Pittman. 1980. Decomposition of organic residues as affected by various dryland spring wheat-fallow rotations. Can. J. Soil Sci. 60: 97–106.Google Scholar
  43. Doughty, J. L., F. D. Cook, and F. G. Warder. 1954. Effect of cultivation on the organic matter and nitrogen of brown soils. Can J. Agri. Sci. 34: 406–411.Google Scholar
  44. Dregne H. E. 1976. Soils of Arid Regions. Elsevier, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  45. Edwards, N. T. and B. M. Ross-Todd. 1983. Soil carbon dynamics in a mixed deciduous forest following clear cutting with and without residue removal. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 47: 1014–1021.Google Scholar
  46. Ewel, J., C. Berish, B. Brown, N. Price, and J. Raich. 1981. Slash and burn impacts on a Costa Rican wet forest site. Ecology 62: 816–829.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Flaig, W., H. Beutelspacher, and E. Rietz. 1975. Chemical composition and physical properties of humic substances. In J. E. Gieseking (ed.), Soil Components, Vol. 1, Organic Components, pp. 1–211. Springer-Verlag, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Gardner, L. R. 1972. Origin of the Mormon Mesa caliche, Clark County, Nevada. Geol. Soc. Am., Bull. 83: 143–156.Google Scholar
  49. Gholz, H. L. and R. F. Fisher. 1982. Organic matter production and distribution in slash pine ( Pinus elliottii) plantations. Ecology 63: 1827–1839.Google Scholar
  50. Giddens, J. 1957. Rate of loss of carbon from Georgia soils. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc. 21: 513–515.Google Scholar
  51. Gile, L. H. 1977. Holocene soils and soil-geomorphic relations in a semiarid region of southern New Mexico. Quat. Res. 7: 112–132.Google Scholar
  52. Gile, L. H., J. W. Hawley, and R. B. Grossman. 1981. Soils and geomorphology in the Basin and Range area of southern New Mexico-guidebook to the desert project. Memoir No. 39. New Mexico Bureau of Mines and Mineral Resources, Socorro.Google Scholar
  53. Gill, A. C., J. R. McHenry, and J. C. Ritchie. 1976. Efficiency of nitrogen, carbon, and phosphorus retention by small agricultural reservoirs. J. Environ. Qual. 5: 310–315.Google Scholar
  54. Godlin, M. M. and M. P. Son’ko. 1970. Humus of ordinary steppe chernozems in the Ukraine. Sov. Soil Sci. 1970: 8–18.Google Scholar
  55. Goh, K. M., T. A. Rafter, J. D. Stout, and T. W. Walker. 1976. The accumulation of soil organic matter and its carbon isotope content in a chronosequence of soils developed on aeolian sand in New Zealand. J. Soil Sci. 27: 89–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Goh, K. M., J. D. Stout, and T. A. Rafter. 1977. Radiocarbon enrichment of soil organic matter fractions in New Zealand soils. Soil Sci. 123: 385–391.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Greaves, J. E. and A. F. Bracken. 1946. Effect of cropping on the nitrogen, phosphorus, and organic carbon content of a dry-farm soil and on the yield of wheat. Soil Sci. 62: 355–364.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Haas, H. J., C. E. Evans, and E. F. Miles. 1957. Nitrogen and carbon changes in Great Plains soils as influenced by cropping and soil treatments. U.S. Department of Agriculture Tech. Bull. 1164.Google Scholar
  59. Harcombe, P. A. 1977. Nutrient accumulation by vegetation during the first year of recovery of a tropical forest ecosystem. In J. Cairns, K. L. Dickson, and E. E. Herricks (eds.), Recovery and Restoration of Damaged Ecosystems, pp. 347–378. University of Virginia Press, Charlottesville.Google Scholar
  60. Hart, J. F. 1968. Loss and abandonment of cleared farmland in the Eastern United States. Annals Assoc. Am. Geogr. 58: 417–440.Google Scholar
  61. Hide, J. C. and W. H. Metzger. 1939. The effect of cultivation and erosion on the nitrogen and carbon of some Kansas soils. Agron. J. 31: 625–632.Google Scholar
  62. Hobbie, J. E. and G. E. Likens. 1973. Output of phosphorus, dissolved organic carbon, and fine particulate carbon from Hubbard Brook watersheds. Limnol. Oceanogr. 18: 734–742.Google Scholar
  63. Hobbs, J. A. and C. A. Thompson. 1971. Effect of cultivation on the nitrogen and organic carbon contents of a Kansas Argiustoll ( Chernozem ). Agron. J. 63: 66–68.Google Scholar
  64. Hofman, G. and M. Van Ruymbeke. 1980. Evolution of soil humus content and calculation of global humification coefficients on different organic matter treatments during a 12-year experiment with Belgian silt soils. Soil Sci. 129: 92–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Hosner, J. F. and D. L. Graney. 1970. The relative growth of three forest tree species on soils associated with different successional stages in Virginia. Am. Mid. Nat. 84: 418–427.Google Scholar
  66. Houghton, R. A., J. E. Hobbie, J. M. Melillo, B. Moore, B. J. Peterson, G. R. Shaver, and G. M. Woodwell. 1983. Changes in the carbon content of terrestrial biota and soils between 1860 and 1980: a net release of CO, to the atmosphere. Ecol. Monogr. 53: 235–262.Google Scholar
  67. Jenkinson, D. S. 1977. Studies on the decomposition of plant material in soil. V. The effects of plant cover and soil type on the loss of carbon from ‘4C labeled ryegrass decomposing under field conditions. J. Soil Sci. 28: 424–434CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Jenkinson, D. S. and J. H. Rayner. 1977. The turnover of soil organic matter in some of the Rothamsted classical experiments. Soil Sci. 123: 298–305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Jenny, H. 1980. The Soil Resource. Springer-Verlag, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Jones, M. J. 1973. The organic matter content of the savanna soils of west Africa. J. Soil Sci. 24: 42–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Jorgensen, J. R. and C. G. Wells. 1973. The relationship of respiration in organic and mineral soil layers to soil chemical properties. Plant Soil 39: 373–387.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Juo, A. S. R. and R. Lal. 1977. The effect of fallow and continuous cultivation on the chemical and physical properties of an alfisol in western Nigeria. Plant Soil 47: 567–584.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Juo, A. S. R., and R. Lal. 1979. Nutrient profile in a tropical alfisol under conventional and no-till systems. Soil Sci. 127: 168–173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Karmanov, I. I. 1971. Cinnamon-brown soils in the foothills of Dagestan. Soy. Soil Sci. 1971: 1–14.Google Scholar
  75. Kononova, M. M. 1975. Humus of virgin and cultivated soils. In J. E. Gieseking (ed.), Soil Components, Vol. 1: Organic Components, pp. 475–526. Springer-Verlag, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Krebs, J. E. 1975. A comparison of soils under agriculture and forest in San Carlos, Costa Rica. In F. B. Golley and E. Medina. (eds.), Tropical Ecological Systems, pp. 381–390. Springer-Verlag, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Larson, W. E., C. E. Clapp, W. H. Pierre, and Y. B. Morachan. 1972. Effect of increasing amounts of organic residues on continuous corn. II. Organic carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur. Agron. J. 64: 204–208.Google Scholar
  78. Lathwell, D. J. and D. R. Bouldin. 1981. Soil organic matter and soil nitrogen behavior in cropped soils. Trop. Agric. 58: 341–348.Google Scholar
  79. Lattman, L H. 1973. Calcium carbonate cementation of alluvial fans in southern Nevada. Geol. Soc. Am. Bull. 84: 3013–3028.Google Scholar
  80. Laws, W. D. and D. D. Evans. 1949. The effects of long-time cultivation on some physical and chemical properties of two rendzina soils. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc. 14: 15–19.Google Scholar
  81. Likens, G. E., F. H. Bormann, N. M. Johnson, D. W. Fisher, and R. S. Pierce. 1970. Effects of forest cutting and herbicide treatment on nutrient budgets in the Hubbard Brook Watershed-Ecosystem. Ecol. Monogr. 40: 23–47.Google Scholar
  82. Magaritz, M. and A. J. Amiel. 1981. Influence of intensive cultivation and irrigation on soil properties in the Jordan Valley, Israel: recrystalization of carbonate minerals. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 45: 1201–1205.Google Scholar
  83. Mann, L. K. A regional comparison of soil carbon in cultivated and uncultivated loess derived soils in the central United States (manuscript in preparation). Martel, Y. A. and A. F. MacKenzie. 1980. Long-term effects of cultivation and land use on soil quality in Quebec. Can. J. Soil Sci. 60: 411–420.Google Scholar
  84. Martel, Y. A. and E. A. Paul. 1974. Effects of cultivation on the organic matter of grassland soils as determined by fractionation and radiocarbon dating. Can. J. Soil Sci. 54: 419–426.Google Scholar
  85. Meentemeyer, V., E. O. Box, M. Folkoff, and J. Gardner. 1981. Climatic estimation of soil properties; soil pH, litter accumulation and soil organic content. Abstr., Ecol. Soc. Am. Bull. 62 (2): 104.Google Scholar
  86. Meints, V. W. and G. A. Peterson. 1977. The influence of cultivation on the distribution of nitrogen in soils of the Ustoll suborder. Soil Sci. 124: 334–342.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Meyer, J. L. and C. M. Tate. 1983. The effects of watershed disturbance on dissolved organic carbon dynamics of a stream. Ecology 64: 33–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Miller, P. C. (ed.). 1981. Carbon balance in north rn ecosystems and the potential effect of carbon dioxide induced climatic change. U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  89. Minderman, G. 1968. Addition, decomposition and accumulation of organic matter in forests. J. Ecol. 56: 355–362.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Mulholland, P. J. and J. W. Elwood. 1982. The role of lake and reservoir sediments as sinks in the perturbed global carbon cycle. Tellus 34: 490–499.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Newton, J. D., F. A. Wyatt, and A. L. Brown. 1945. Effects of cultivation and cropping on the chemical composition of some western Canada prairie province soils. Part III. Sci. Agric. 25: 718–737.Google Scholar
  92. Nye, P. H. and D. J. Greenland. 1960. The soil under shifting cultivation. Commonwealth Bureau of Soils Technical Communication 51, Harpenden, England.Google Scholar
  93. Nye, P. H., and D. J. Greenland. 1964. Changes in the soil after clearing tropical forest. Plant Soil 21: 101–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. O’Brien, B. J. and J. D. Stout. 1978. Movement and turnover of soil organic matter as indicated by carbon isotope measurements. Soil Biol. Biochem. 10: 309–317.Google Scholar
  95. Olson, J. S. 1963. Energy storage and the balance of producers and decomposers in ecological systems. Ecology 44: 322–331.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Osuji, G. E. and O. Babalola. 1983. Soil management as it affects nutrient losses from a tropical soil in Nigeria. J. Environ. Manage. 16: 109–116.Google Scholar
  97. Popenoe, H. 1959. The influence of the shifting cultivation cycle on soil properties in central America. Proceedings of the Ninth Pacific Science Congress 7: 7277.Google Scholar
  98. Porter, L. K., B. A. Stewart, and H. J. Haas. 1964. Effects of long-time cropping on hydrolyzable organic nitrogen fractions in some Great Plains soils. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc. 28: 368–370.Google Scholar
  99. Post, W. M., W. R. Emanuel, P. J. Zinke, and A. G. Stangenberger. 1982. Soil carbon pools and world life zones. Nature 298: 156–159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Prince, A. L., S. J. Toth, and A. W. Blair. 1938. The chemical composition of soil from cultivated land and from land abandoned to grass and weeds. Soil Sci. 46: 379–389.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Ramakrishnan, P. S. and O. P. Toky. 1981. Soil nutrient status of Hill agro-ecosystems and recovery pattern after slash and burn agriculture ( Jhum) in northeastern India. Plant Soil 60: 41–64.Google Scholar
  102. Reeves, C. C. 1970. Origin, classification, and geologic history of caliche on the southern High Plains, Texas and eastern New Mexico. J. Geol. 78: 352–362.Google Scholar
  103. Reeves, C. C. 1976. Caliche: Origin, Classification, Morphology and Uses. Estacado Books. Lubbock, Texas.Google Scholar
  104. Reinhorn, T. and Y. Avnimelech. 1974. Nitrogen release associated with the decrease in soil organic matter in newly cultivated soils. J. Environ. Qual. 3: 118–121.Google Scholar
  105. Revelle, R. and W. Munk. 1977. The carbon dioxide cycle and the biosphere. In Energy and Climate, pp. 140–158. National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  106. Richards, J. F., J. S. Olson, and R. M. Rotty. 1983. Development of a data base fir carbon dioxide releases resulting from conversion of land to agricultural uses. ORAU/IEA-81–10 (M), ORNL/TM-8801. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee.Google Scholar
  107. Rubilin, Y. V. and V. A. Dolotov. 1967. Effect of cultivation on the amounts and composition of humus in gray forest soils. Soy. Soil Sci. 1967: 733–738.Google Scholar
  108. Russel, J. C. 1929. Organic matter problems under dry farming conditions. J. Am. Soc. Agron. 21: 960–969.Google Scholar
  109. Salisbury, H. F., and W. A. Delong. 1940. A comparison of the organic matter of uncultivated and cultivated Appalachian upland podsol soils. Sci. Agric. 21: 121–132.Google Scholar
  110. Sanchez, P. A., D. E. Bandy, J. H. Villachica, and J. J. Nicholaides. 1982a. Amazon Basin soils: management for continuous crop production. Science 216: 821–827.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Sanchez, P. A., M. P. Gichuru, and L. B. Katz. 1982b. Organic matter in major soils of the tropical and temperate regions. 12th International Congress of Soil Science 1: 99–114.Google Scholar
  112. Schlesinger, W. H. 1977. Carbon balance in terrestrial detritus. Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 8: 51–81.Google Scholar
  113. Schlesinger, W. H. 1982. Carbon storage in the caliche of arid soils: A case study from Arizona. Soil Sci. 133: 247–255.Google Scholar
  114. Schlesinger, W. H. 1984. Soil organic matter: A source of atmospheric CO2. In G. M. Woodwell (ed.). The Role of Terrestrial Vegetation in the Global Carbon Cycle, SCOPE 23, pp. 111–127. John Wiley and Sons, New York.Google Scholar
  115. Schlesinger, W. H. 1985. The formation of caliche in soils of the Mojave Desert, California. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 49 57–66.Google Scholar
  116. Schlesinger, W. H. and M. M. Hasey. 1981. Decomposition of chaparral shrub foliage; losses of organic and inorganic constituents from deciduous and evergreen leaves. Ecology 62: 762–774.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Seubert, C. E., P. A. Sanchez, and C. Valverde. 1977. Effects of land clearing methods on soil properties of an Ultisol and crop performance in the Amazon jungle of Peru. Trop. Agric. 54: 307–321.Google Scholar
  118. Smith, R. M., G. Samuels, and C. F. Cernuda. 1951. Organic matter and nitrogen build-ups in some Puerto Rican soil profiles. Soil Sci. 72: 409–427.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Smith, R. M., D. O. Thompson, J. W. Collier, and R. J. Hervey. 1954. Soil organic matter, crop yields, and land use in the Texas Blackland. Soil Sci. 77: 377–388.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Smith, S. J. and L. B. Young. 1975. Distribution of nitrogen forms in virgin and cultivated soils. Soil Sci. 120: 354–360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Spycher, G., P. Sollins, and S. Rose. 1983. Carbon and nitrogen in the light fraction of a forest soil: vertical distribution and seasonal patterns. Soil Sci. 135: 79–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Staaf, H. and B. Berg. 1982. Accumulation and release of plant nutrients in decomposing Scots pine needle litter. Long-term decomposition in a Scots Pine forest II. Can. J. Bot. 60: 1561–1568.Google Scholar
  123. Stephenson, R. E. and C. E. Shuster. 1942. Soil properties of tilled orchards compared with untilled areas. Soil Sci. 54: 325–334.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Stewart, R. and C. T. Hirst. 1914. Nitrogen and organic matter in dry-farm soils. J. Am. Soc. Agron. 6: 49–56.Google Scholar
  125. Stuiver, M. 1978. Atmospheric carbon dioxide and carbon reservoir changes. Science 199: 253–258.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Swanson, C. O. and W. L. Latshaw. 1919. Effect of alfalfa on the fertility elements of the soil in comparison with grain crops. Soil Sci. 8: 1–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Tarnocai, C. 1972. Some characteristics of cryic organic soils in Northern Manitoba. Can. J. Soil Sci. 52: 485–496.Google Scholar
  128. Tate, C. M. and J. L. Meyer. 1983. The influence of hydrologic conditions and successional state on dissolved organic carbon export from forested watersheds. Ecology 64: 25–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Thompson, L. M., C. A. Black, and J. A. Zoellner. 1954. Occurrence and mineralization of organic phosphorus in soils, with particular reference to associations with nitrogen, carbon, and pH. Soil Sci. 77: 185–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Tiessen, H., J. W. B. Stewart, and J. R. Bettany. 1982. Cultivation effects on the amounts and concentrations of carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus in grassland soils. Agron. J. 74: 831–835.Google Scholar
  131. Van Veen, J. A. and E. A. Paul. 1981. Organic carbon dynamics in grassland soils. I. Background information and computer simulation. Can. J. Soil Sci. 61: 185–201.Google Scholar
  132. Vitousek, P. M., J. R. Gosz, C. C. Grier, J. M. Melillo, and W. A. Reiners. 1982. A comparative analysis of potential nitrification and nitrate mobility in forest ecosystems. Ecol. Monogr. 52: 155–177.Google Scholar
  133. Vitousek, P. M, K. Van Cleve, N. Balakrishnan, and D. Mueller-Dombois. 1983. Soil development and nitrogen turnover in montane rainforest soils on Hawai’i. Biotropica 15: 268–274.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Voroney, R. P., J. A. Van Veen, and E. A. Paul. 1981. Organic C dynamics in grassland soils. 2. Model validation and simulation of the long-term effects of cultivation and rainfall erosion. Can. J. Soil Sci. 61: 211–224.Google Scholar
  135. Williams, C. H. and J. Lipsett. 1961. Fertility changes in soils cultivated for wheat in southern New South Wales. Aust. J. Agric. Res. 12: 612–629.Google Scholar
  136. Wilson, A. T. 1978. Pioneer agriculture explosion and CO2 levels in the atmosphere. Nature 273: 40–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Wood, A. W. 1979. The effects of shifting cultivation on soil properties: An example from the Karimui and Bornai plateaux, Simbu Province, New Guinea. Papua New Guinea Agric. J. 30: 1–9.Google Scholar
  138. Zinke, P. J., S. Sabhasri, and P. Kunstadter. 1978. Soil fertility aspects of the Lua forest fallow system of shifting cultivation. In P. Kunstadter, E. C. Champ-man, and S. Sabhasri (eds.) Farmers in the Forest, pp. 136–159. University Press of Hawaii, Honolulu.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • William H. Schlesinger

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations