Introduction to the Renal-Body Fluid Regulating System

  • Esmail Koushanpour
  • Wilhelm Kriz


All cells of the body are bathed by a fluid called the interstitial fluid, which provides the internal environment of the cells. Both volume and composition of the interstitial fluid must remain within narrow limits, or malfunctions result. Abnormal volumes of vascular and interstitial fluids impair cardiovascular function, and abnormal composition of interstitial fluid impairs cell function. The relevant concentrations include those of electrolytes (e.g., sodium, potassium, bicarbonate, chloride, phosphate, sulfate, and hydrogen ions), metabolic waste products, and even water (osmotic effects).


Interstitial Fluid Extracellular Volume Fluid Compartment Sulfate Sulfur Interstitial Compartment 
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    Koushanpour E: Renal Physiology: Principles and Functions, ed 1. Philadelphia, WB Saunders Co, 1976.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • Esmail Koushanpour
    • 1
  • Wilhelm Kriz
    • 2
  1. 1.Northwestern University Medical SchoolChicagoUSA
  2. 2.University of HeidelbergHeidelbergFederal Republic of Germany

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