Manganese (atomic no. 25; atomic wt. 54.938; melting pt. 1,244 ± 3°C, specific gravity 7.21 to 7.22, depending on the allotropic form) is a member of Group VII-A of the periodic table. It is next to Fe in the atomic series, is similar to it in chemical behavior, and is often closely associated with it in its natural occurrence. It can exist in its compounds in the oxidation states of I, II, III, IV, VI, and VII. Its most stable salts are those of oxidation states II, IV, VI, and VII. The lower oxides, MnO and Mn2O3, are basic; the higher oxides are acidic. Manganese is a whitish-gray metal, harder than iron but quite brittle. Manganese metal oxidizes superficially in air and rusts in moist air.


Plant Soil Calcareous Soil Relative Yield Manganese Toxicity Manganese Deficiency 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Adams, F., and J.I. Wear. 1957. Soil Sci Soc Am Proc 21: 305–308.Google Scholar
  2. Adriano, D. C., A. L. Page, A. A. Elseewi, A. C. Chang, and I. Straughan. 1980. J Environ Qual 9: 333–344.Google Scholar
  3. Agrawal, H. P., and C. J. Reddy. 1972. J Indian Soc Soil Sci 20: 241–247.Google Scholar
  4. Alexander, M. 1977. Introduction to soil microbiology. Wiley, New York. 467 pp.Google Scholar
  5. Anderson, O. E., and F. C. Boswell. 1968. Agron J 60: 488–493.Google Scholar
  6. Anderson, O. E., and K. Ohki. 1977. J Fert Solutions 21 (6): 30.Google Scholar
  7. Anderson, O. E., and J. J. Mortvedt, eds. 1982. In Soybeans: diagnosis and correction of manganese and molybdenum problems. Southern Coop Series BullGoogle Scholar
  8. Andersson, A. 1977. Swedish J Agric Res 7: 7–20.Google Scholar
  9. Andersson, A., and K. O. Nilsson. 1972. Ambio 1: 176–179.Google Scholar
  10. Atkinson, H. J., G. R. Giles, and J. G. Desjardins. 1954. Can J Agric Sci 34: 76–80.Google Scholar
  11. Aubert, H., and M. Pinta. 1977. Trace elements in soils. Elsevier, New York.Google Scholar
  12. Berger, K. C., and G. C. Gerloff. 1948. Soil Sci Soc Am Proc 12: 310–314.Google Scholar
  13. Berrow, M. L., and R. L. Mitchell. 1980. Trans Royal Soc (Edinburgh): Earth Sci 71: 103–121.Google Scholar
  14. Berrow, M. L., and G. A. Reaves. 1984. In Proc Intl Conf Environ Contamination, 333–340. CEP Consultants Ltd, Edinburgh, UK.Google Scholar
  15. Bloom, P. R. 1981. In R. H. Dowdy, J. A. Ryan, V. V. Volk, and D. E. Baker, eds. Chemistry in the soil environment, 129–150. ASA Spec Publ. no. 40, Madison, WI.Google Scholar
  16. Boken, E. 1968. Plant Soil 9: 269–285.Google Scholar
  17. Bowen, H. J. M. 1979. Environmental chemistry of the elements. Academic Press, New York. 333 pp.Google Scholar
  18. Boxma, R., and A. J. de Groot. 1971. Plant Soil 34: 741–749.Google Scholar
  19. Capar, S. G., J. T. Tanner, M. H. Friedman, and K. W. Boyer. 1978. Environ Sci Technol 7: 785–790.Google Scholar
  20. Chaney, R. L. 1983. In J. F. Parr, P. B. Marsh, and J. M. Kla, eds. Land treatment of hazardous wastes. Noyes Data Corp, Park Ridge, NJ.Google Scholar
  21. Chaudhry, M. S., and E. O. McLean. 1963. Agron J 55: 565–567.Google Scholar
  22. Cheng, B. T., and G. J. Ouellette. 1971. Plant Soil 34: 165–181.Google Scholar
  23. Childs, C. W. 1975. Geoderma 13: 141–152.Google Scholar
  24. Chino, M. 1981. In K. Kitagishi and I. Yamane, eds. Heavy metal pollution in soils of Japan. Japan Sci Soc Press, Tokyo. pp. 65–80.Google Scholar
  25. Christensen, P. D., S. J. Toth, and F. E. Bear. 1951. Soil Sci Soc Am Proc 15:279-Google Scholar
  26. Clark, F., D. C. Nearpass, and A. W. Specht. 1957. Agron J 49: 586–589.Google Scholar
  27. Council for Agricultural Science and Technology (CAST). 1976. Application of sewage sludge to cropland: appraisal of potential hazards of the heavy metals to plants and animals. EPA–430–9–76–013.Google Scholar
  28. General Sery Admin, Denver. 63 pp. Cox, F. R. 1968. Agron J 60: 521–524.Google Scholar
  29. Cunningham, J. D., D. R. Keeney, and J. A. Ryan. 1975. J Environ Qual 4:448454.Google Scholar
  30. Curtin, D., J. Ryan, and R. A. Chaudhary. 1980. Soil Sci Soc Am J 44:947–950. DeHuff, G. L., and T. S. Jones. 1980. In Minerals yearbook, vol. 1, Metals and minerals, 543–553. US Bureau of Mines, US Dept of Interior, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  31. Dokiya, Y., N. Owa, and S. Mitsui. 1968. Soil Sci Plant Nutr 14:169–174. Ehrlich, H. L. 1968. Appl Microbiol 16: 197–202.Google Scholar
  32. Fergus, I. F. 1953. Queensland J Agric Sci 10: 15–27.Google Scholar
  33. Follett, R. H., and W. L. Lindsay. 1970. In Profile distribution of zinc, iron, manganese, and copper in Colorado soils. Colorado Agric Exp Sta Tech Bull 110: 1–78.Google Scholar
  34. Follett, R. H., L. S. Murphy, and R. L. Donahue. 1981. Fertilizers and soil amendments. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ. 557 pp.Google Scholar
  35. Foy, C. D., R. L. Chaney, and M. C. White. 1978. Ann Rev Plant Physiol 29: 51 1566.Google Scholar
  36. Foy, C. D., H. W. Webb, and J. E. Jones. 1981. Agron J 73: 107–111.Google Scholar
  37. Foy, C. D., and T. A. Campbell. 1984. J Plant Nutr 7: 1365–1388.Google Scholar
  38. Frank, R., K. Ishida, and P. Suda. 1976. Can J Soil Sci 56: 181–196.Google Scholar
  39. Freedman, B., and T. C. Hutchinson. 1981. In N. W. Lepp, ed. Effect of heavy metal pollution in plants, Vol. 2, Metals in the environment, 35–94. Applied Science Publishers, London.Google Scholar
  40. Gambrell, R. P., and W. H. Patrick. 1978. In D. D. Hook and R. M. M. Crawford, eds. Plant life in anaerobic environments, 375–423. Ann Arbor Sci Publ, Ann Arbor, MI.Google Scholar
  41. Garrels, R. M., F. T. MacKenzie, and C. Hunt, eds. 1973. Chemical cycles and the global environment: assessing human influences. W. Kaufmann Inc, Los Angeles, CA 206 pp.Google Scholar
  42. Geering, H. R., J. F. Hodgson, and C. Sdano. 1969. Soil Sci Soc Am Proc 33: 8185.Google Scholar
  43. Gerald, C. G., P. R. Stout, and L. H. Jones. 1959. Plant Physiol 34: 608–613.Google Scholar
  44. Ghiorse, W. C., and H. L. Ehrlich. 1976. Appl Environ Microbiol 31: 977–985.Google Scholar
  45. Godo, G. H., and H. M. Reisenauer. 1980. Soil Sci Soc Am J 44: 993–995.Google Scholar
  46. Goldberg, S. P., and K. A. Smith. 1984. Soil Sci Soc Am J 48: 559–564.Google Scholar
  47. Gotoh, S., and W. H. Patrick, Jr. 1972. Soil Sci Soc Am Proc 36: 738–742.Google Scholar
  48. Graham, R. D., and A. D. Rovira. 1984. Plant Soil 78: 441–444.Google Scholar
  49. Grass, L. B., A. J. MacKenzie, B. D. Meek, and W. F. Spencer. 1973a. Soil Sci Soc Am Proc 37: 14–17.Google Scholar
  50. Grass, L. B. 1973b. Soil Sci Soc Am Proc 37:17–21.Google Scholar
  51. Gupta, U. C., E. W. Chipman, and D. C. MacKay. 1970. Soil Sci Soc Am Proc 34: 762–764.Google Scholar
  52. Hamilton, E. I. 1979. Trace Subs Environ Health 13: 3–15.Google Scholar
  53. Hammes, J. K., and K. C. Berger. 1960. Soil Sci Soc Am Proc 24: 361–364.Google Scholar
  54. Heenan, D. P., and L. C. Campbell. 1983. Plant Soil 70: 317–326.Google Scholar
  55. Heintze, S. G. 1946. J Agric Sci 36: 227–238.Google Scholar
  56. Hiatt, A. J., and J. L. Ragland. 1963. Agron J 55: 47–49.Google Scholar
  57. Hoff, D. J., and H. J. Mederski. 1958. Soil Sci Soc Am Proc 22: 129–132.Google Scholar
  58. Holmes, R. S., and J. C. Brown. 1955. Soil Sci 80: 167–179.Google Scholar
  59. Horst, W. J. 1983. Plant Soil 72: 213–218.Google Scholar
  60. Hoyt, P. B., and M. Nyborg. 1971. Soil Sci Soc Am Proc 35: 241–244.Google Scholar
  61. Hoyt, P. B., and M. D. Webber. 1974. Can J Soil Sci 54: 53–61.Google Scholar
  62. Hutchinson, T. C., and L. M. Whitby. 1974. Environ Consery 1:123–132.Google Scholar
  63. Jauregui, M. A., and H. M. Reisenauer. 1982. Soil Sci 134: 105–110.Google Scholar
  64. Jenne, E. A. 1968. Adv Chem 73: 337–387.Google Scholar
  65. Jones, J. B., Jr., 1972. In J. J. Mortvedt, P. M. Giordano, and W. L. Lindsay eds. Micronutrients in agriculture, 319–346, Soil Sci Soc Am Inc, Madison, WI.Google Scholar
  66. Jones, L. H. P., and G. W. Leeper. 1951. Plant Soil 3: 141–153.Google Scholar
  67. Jugsujinda, A., and W. H. Patrick, Jr. 1977. Agron J 69: 705–710.Google Scholar
  68. Kirkpatrick, D. C., and D. E. Coffin. 1974. J Inst Can Sci Technol Aliment 7: 5658.Google Scholar
  69. Knezek, B. D., and H. Greinert. 1971. Agron J 63: 617–619.Google Scholar
  70. Knezek, B. D., and B. G. Ellis. 1980. In B. E. Davis, ed. Applied soil trace elements, 259–286. Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  71. Krauskopf, K. B. 1972. In J. J. Mortvedt, P. M. Giordano, and W. L. Lindsay, eds. Micronutrients in agriculture, 7–40. Soil Sci Soc Am, Inc, Madison, WI. 1979. Introduction to geochemistry. 2nd ed. McGraw-Hill, New York. 617 pp.Google Scholar
  72. Krupskiy, N. K., L. P. Golovina, A. M. Aleksandrova, and T. I. Kisel. 1978. Soy Soil Sci 10: 670–675.Google Scholar
  73. Labanauskas, C. K. 1965. In H. D. Chapman, ed. Diagnostic criteria for plants and soils, 264–285.Google Scholar
  74. Quality Print Co, Abilene, TX. Lal, F., and T. D. Biswas. 1974. J Indian Soc Soil Sci 22:333–346.Google Scholar
  75. Langille, A. R., and R. I. Batteese. 1974. Can J Plant Sci 54:375–381. Leeper, G. W. 1947. Soil Sci 63: 79–94.Google Scholar
  76. LeMare, P. H. 1977. Plant Soil 47: 607–620.Google Scholar
  77. Lindsay, W. L., and W. A. Norvell. 1978. Soil Sci Soc Am J 42:421–428. Liu, Z., Q. Q. Zhu, and L. H. Tang. 1983. Soil Sci 135: 40–46.Google Scholar
  78. Lucas, R. E. 1967. In Micronutrients for vegetables and field crops. Ext Bull E486. Mich State Univ, East Lansing, MI.Google Scholar
  79. Lucas, R. E., and B. D. Knezek. 1972. In J. J. Mortvedt, P. M. Giordano, and W. L. Lindsay, eds. Micronutrients in agriculture, 265–288. Soil Sci Soc Am Inc, Madison, WI.Google Scholar
  80. Mandai, L. N., and R. R. Mitra. 1982. Plant Soil 69: 45–56.Google Scholar
  81. Marrack, D. 1980. In Environment and health, 184–185. Ann Arbor Science, Ann Arbor, MI.Google Scholar
  82. McBride, M. B. 1979. Soil Sci Soc Am J 43: 693–698.Google Scholar
  83. McKeague, J. A., and M. S. Wolynetz. 1980. Geoderma 24: 299–307.Google Scholar
  84. Meek, B. D., A. J. MacKenzie, and L. B. Grass. 1968. Soil Sci Soc Am Proc 32: 634–638.Google Scholar
  85. Meek, B. D., A. L. Page, and J. P. Martin. 1973. Soil Sci Soc Am Proc 37: 54 2548.Google Scholar
  86. Melsted, S. W., H. L. Motto, and T. R. Peck. 1969. Agron J 61: 17–20.Google Scholar
  87. Mena, I. 1980. In H. A. Waldron, ed. Metals in the environment, 199–220. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  88. Morris, H. D. 1949. Soil Sci Soc Am Proc 13: 362–371.Google Scholar
  89. Mortvedt, J. J. 1980. Soil Sci Soc Am J 44: 621–626.Google Scholar
  90. Mulder, E. G., and F. C. Gerretsen. 1952. Adv Agron 4: 221–277.Google Scholar
  91. Murakami, Y., Y. Suzuki, T. Yamagata, and N. Yamagata. 1965. J Rad Res 6: 105–110.Google Scholar
  92. Murphy, L. S., R. Ellis, Jr., and D. C. Adriano. 1981. J Plant Nutri 3: 593–613.Google Scholar
  93. National Academy of Sciences (NAS). 1973. Manganese. NAS, Washington, DC. 191 pp.Google Scholar
  94. National Academy of Sciences (NAS). 1977. In Geochemistry and the environment,29–39.Google Scholar
  95. NAS, Washington,DC. Nelson, L. E. 1983. Agron J 75:134–138.Google Scholar
  96. Norrish, K. 1975. In D. J. D. Nicholas and A. R. Egan, eds. Trace elements in soil-plant-animal systems, 55–81. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  97. Norvell, W. A. 1972. In J. J. Mortvedt, P. M. Giordano, and W. L. Lindsay, eds. Micronutrients in agriculture, 115–138.Google Scholar
  98. Soil Sci Soc Am Inc, Madison, WI. Norvell, W. A., and W. L. Lindsay. 1969.Google Scholar
  99. Soil Sci Soc Am Proc 33:86–91.Google Scholar
  100. Norvell, W. A. 1972. Soil Sci Soc Am Proc 36: 778–783.Google Scholar
  101. Ohki, K. 1973. Agron J 65: 482–485.Google Scholar
  102. Ohki, K. 1975. Agron J 67: 204–207.Google Scholar
  103. Ohki, K., D. O. Wilson, and O. E. Anderson. 1980. Agron J 72: 713–716.Google Scholar
  104. Page, E. R. 1962. Plant Soil 16: 247–257.Google Scholar
  105. Parker, M. B., F. C. Boswell, K. Ohki, L. M. Shuman, and D. O. Wilson. 1981. Agron J 73: 643–646.Google Scholar
  106. Patel, M. S., P. M. Mehta, and H. G. Pandya. 1972. J Indian Soc Soil Sci 20: 7990.Google Scholar
  107. Pavanasasivam, V. 1973. Plant Soil 38: 245–255.Google Scholar
  108. Peterson, L. 1966. Acta Agric Scan 16: 120–128.Google Scholar
  109. Petrie, S. E., and T. L. Jackson. 1984a. Soil Sci Soc Am J 48: 315–318. 1984b.Google Scholar
  110. Soil Sci Soc Am J 48:319–322.Google Scholar
  111. Ponnamperuma, F. N. 1972. Adv Agron 24: 29–96.Google Scholar
  112. Randall, G. W., E. E. Schulte, and R. B. Corey. 1975. Agron J 67: 502–507.Google Scholar
  113. Randall, G. 1976. Soil Sci Soc Am J 40: 282–287.Google Scholar
  114. Reddy, M. R., and H. F. Perkins. 1976. Soil Sci 121: 21–24.Google Scholar
  115. Robinson, W. O. 1929. Soil Sci 27: 335–350.Google Scholar
  116. Rumpel, J., A. Kozakiewicz, B. Ellis, G. Lessman, and J. Davis. 1967. Mich Agric Exp Sta Quart Bull 50 (1): 4–11.Google Scholar
  117. Safo, E. Y., and L. E. Lowe. 1973. Can J Soil Sci 53: 95–101.Google Scholar
  118. Salcedo, I. H., B. G. Ellis, and R. E. Lucas. 1979b. Soil Sci Soc Am J 43:138141.Google Scholar
  119. Sanchez, C., and E. J. Kamprath. 1959. Soil Sci Soc Am Proc 23: 302–304.Google Scholar
  120. Sanders, J. R. 1983. J Soil Sci 34: 315–323.Google Scholar
  121. Scott, W. O., and S. R. Aldrich. 1970. The Farm Quarterly, Cincinnati, OH. pp. 8485.Google Scholar
  122. Shacklette, H. T., J. C. Hamilton, J. C. Boerngen, and J. M. Bowles. 1971. USGS Prof Paper 574-D, Washington, DC. 71 pp.Google Scholar
  123. Shannon, L. M., and J. S. Mohl. 1956. In A. Wallace, ed. Sympos on the use of metal chelates in plant nutrition, 50–54. Los Angeles, CA.Google Scholar
  124. Sharpe, R. R., and W. L. Parks. 1982. Agron J 74: 785–788.Google Scholar
  125. Sherman, G. D., and P. M. Harmer. 1942. Soil Sci Soc Am Proc 7: 398–405.Google Scholar
  126. Sherman, G. D., J. S. McHargue, and W. S. Hodgkiss. 1942. Soil Sci 54: 253–257.Google Scholar
  127. Shuman, L. M., and O. E. Anderson. 1974. Soil Sci Soc Am Proc 38: 788–791.Google Scholar
  128. Shuman, L. M. 1976. Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal 7: 542–557.Google Scholar
  129. Sideris, C. P., and H. Y. Young. 1949. Plant Physiol 24: 416–440.Google Scholar
  130. Sillanpaa, M. 1972. Trace elements in soils and agriculture. Soils Bull no. 17. FAO of the United Nations, Rome. 67 pp.Google Scholar
  131. Siman, A., F. W. Cradock, P. J. Nicholls, and H. C. Kirton. 1971. Aust J Agric Res 22: 201–214.Google Scholar
  132. Siman, A., F. W. Cradock, and A. W. Hudson. 1974. Plant Soil 41: 129–140.Google Scholar
  133. Sims, J. L., and W. H. Patrick, Jr. 1978. Soil Sci Soc Am J 42: 258–262.Google Scholar
  134. Sims, J. L., P. Duangpatra, J. H. Ellis, and R. E. Phillips. 1979. Soil Sci 127:270274.Google Scholar
  135. Smith, R. G. 1972. In D. H. K. Lee, ed. Metallic contaminants and human health, 139–162. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  136. Soman, S. D., V. K. Panday, K. T. Joseph, and S. J. Raut. 1969. Health Phys 17: 35–40.Google Scholar
  137. Somers, I. I., and J. W. Shive. Plant Physiol 17: 582–602.Google Scholar
  138. Snider, H. J. 1943. Soil Sci 56: 187–195.Google Scholar
  139. Spencer, W. F., R. Patrick, and H. W. Ford. 1963. Soil Sci Soc Am Proc 27:134141.Google Scholar
  140. Stahlberg, S., and S. Sombatpanit. 1974. Acta Agric Scan 24:179–194. Steenbjerg, F. 1935. Third Intl Congr Soil Sci Trans (Oxford) 1: 198–201.Google Scholar
  141. Strain, W. H., A. Flynn, E. G. Mansour, F. R. Plecha, W. J. Pories, and O. A.Google Scholar
  142. Hill. 1975. In Proc Intl Conf Heavy Metals in the Environ, 1003–1011. Toronto, Ontario, Canada.Google Scholar
  143. Swaine, D. J. 1955. The trace element content of soils. Commonwealth Bur Soil Sci (Great Britain) Tech Commun 48. Herald Printing Works, York, England. 157 pp.Google Scholar
  144. Taylor, R. M., and R. M. McKenzie. 1966. Aust J Soil Res 4: 29–39.Google Scholar
  145. Tyler, P. A., and K. C. Marshall. 1967. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 33: 171–183.Google Scholar
  146. Underwood, E. J. 1973. In Toxicants occurring naturally in foods, 43–87. NAS, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  147. US Environmental Protection Agency (US-EPA). 1976. Quality criteria for water. US-EPA, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  148. Vinogradov, A. P. 1959. The geochemistry of rare and dispersed chemical elements in soils. Consultants Bureau Inc, New York. 209 pp.Google Scholar
  149. Vlamis, J., and D. E. Williams. 1962. Plant Physiol 37: 650–655.Google Scholar
  150. Vlamis, J. 1964. Plant Soil 20: 221–231.Google Scholar
  151. Walker, J. M., and S. A. Barber. 1960. Soil Sci Soc Am Proc 24: 485–488.Google Scholar
  152. Wallace, A. 1958. Agron J 50: 285–286.Google Scholar
  153. Wallace, A. ed. 1962. Decade of synthetic chelating agents in inorganic plant nutrition. Los Angeles, CA.Google Scholar
  154. Wallace, A., L. M. Shannon, O. R. Lunt, and R. L. Impley. 1957. Soil Sci 84: 2741Google Scholar
  155. Warington, K. 1954. Ann Appl Biol 41: 1–22.Google Scholar
  156. White, R. P. 1970. Soil Sci Soc Am Proc 34: 625–629.Google Scholar
  157. White, R. P., E. C. Doll, and J. R. Melton. 1970. Soil Sci Soc Am Proc 34:268271.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. C. Adriano
    • 1
  1. 1.Biogeochemical Ecology Division, Savannah River Ecology LaboratoryUniversity of Georgia Institute of EcologyAikenUSA

Personalised recommendations