Boron belongs to Group III-A of the periodic table and is the only nonmetal among the plant micronutrients. It has an atomic weight of 10.811, a melting point of 2,300°C, with specific gravity of crystals, 2.34. Boron has two stable isotopes in nature, 10B (18.98%) and 11B (81.02%). At room temperature, B is inert except to strong oxidizing agents, such as HNO3. When fused with oxidizing alkaline mixtures, such as NaOH and NaNO3, it forms borates. The only important oxide is boric oxide (B2O3), which is acidic, soluble in water, and forms boric acid B(OH)3, a very weak acid. In nature, B is fairly rare and occurs primarily as the borates of Ca and Na. Borax (Na2B4O7•10H2O) is the most common compound, along with boric or boracic acid. By far the most important source of B is the mineral kernite (Na2B4O7•4H2O), an evaporite deposit found in the Mojave desert of California. It almost always occurs in chemical combination with O2, as a borate, usually coordinated with three O atoms and occasionally with four. Boron, which has a constant oxidation number of III, never behaves as a cation.


Nile Delta Boron Deficiency Saturation Extract Boric Oxide Calcium Borate 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Adriano, D. C., A. L. Page, A. A. Elseewi, A. C. Chang, and I. Straughan. 1980. J Environ Qual 9: 333–344.Google Scholar
  2. Ahl, T., and E. Jönsson. 1972. Ambio 1: 66–70.Google Scholar
  3. Alt, D., and W. Schwarz. 1973. Plant Soil39: 277–283.Google Scholar
  4. Archer, F. C. 1980. Minist Agric Fish Food(Great Britain) 326: 184–190.Google Scholar
  5. Arora, C. L., V. K. Nayyar, and N. S. Randhawa. 1975. Indian J Agric Sci45: 8085.Google Scholar
  6. Aubert, H., and M. Pinta. 1977. Trace elements in soils. Elsevier, New York. Awad, F., and M. I. Mikhael. 1980. Egypt J Soil Sci 20: 89–98.Google Scholar
  7. Bagdasarashvili, Z. G., K. A. Abashidze, N. V. Koberidze, D. V. Abashidze, and N. M. Korkotadze. 1974. Soy Soil Sci7: 576–580.Google Scholar
  8. Baird, G. B., and J. E. Dawson. 1955. Soil Sci Soc Am Proc19:219–222. Baker, A. S., and R. L. Cook. 1956. Agron J 48: 564–568.Google Scholar
  9. Bandyopadhya, A. K. 1974. Ann Arid Zone13: 125–128.Google Scholar
  10. Bartlett, R. J., and C. J. Picarelli. 1973. Soil Sci 116: 77–88.Google Scholar
  11. Berger, K. C. 1949. Adv Agron1: 321–351.Google Scholar
  12. Berger, K. C., and E. Truog. 1939. Ind Eng Chem Anal Ed11: 540–545.Google Scholar
  13. Berger, K. C., and E. Truog. 1940. J Am Soc Agron 32:297–301.Google Scholar
  14. Berger, K. C., and E. Truog. 1946. Soil Sci Soc Am Proc 10:113–116.Google Scholar
  15. Berger, K. C., and P. F. Pratt. 1963. In M. H. McVickar, G. L. Bridger, and L. B. Nelson eds. Fertilizer technology and usage, 287–340. Soil Sci Soc Amer Inc, Madison, WI.Google Scholar
  16. Berrow, M. L., and J. Webber. 1972. J Sci Food Agric23: 93–100.Google Scholar
  17. Biggar, J. W., and M. Fireman. 1960. Soil Sci Soc Am Proc 24:115–20. Bingham, F. T. 1973. Adv Chem Ser123: 130–138.Google Scholar
  18. Bingham, F. T., R. J. Arkley, N. T. Coleman, and G. R. Bradford. 1970a. Hilgardia 40: 193–204.Google Scholar
  19. Bingham, F. T., A. A. Elseewi, and J. J. Oertli. 1970b. Soil Sci Soc Am Proc34: 613–617.Google Scholar
  20. Bingham, F. T., and A. L. Page. 1971. Soil Sci Soc Am Proc 35:892–893. Bingham, F. T., A. L. Page, N. T. Coleman, and K. Flach. 1971. Soil Sci Soc Am Proc35: 546–550.Google Scholar
  21. Bingham, F. T., A. W. Marsh, R. Branson, R. Mahler, and R. Ferry. 1972. Hilgardia 41: 195–211.Google Scholar
  22. Bonilla, I., C. Cadahia, and O. Carpena. 1980. Plant Soil57: 3–9.Google Scholar
  23. Bowen, H. J. M. 1979.Environmental chemistry of the elements. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  24. Bowen, J. E. 1977. Crops Soils(Aug-Sept):12–14.Google Scholar
  25. Boyd, C. E., and W. W. Walley. 1972. Am Midl Nat88: 1–14.Google Scholar
  26. Bradford, G. R. 1965. In H. D. Chapman ed. Diagnostic criteria for plants and soils, 33–61. Quality Printing Co, Abilene, TX.Google Scholar
  27. Bradford, G. R., and R. B. Harding. 1957. Proc Am Soc Hort Sci 70:252–256. Bradford, G. R., A. L. Page, L. J. Lund, and W. Olmstead. 1975. J Environ Qual4: 123–127.Google Scholar
  28. Brown, J. C., and J. E. Ambler. 1973. Soil Sci Soc Am Proc 37:63–66. Burrell, A. B. 1958. Proc Am Soc Hort Sci71: 20–25.Google Scholar
  29. Caulker, N. E., and P. L. Brezonik. 1978. J Environ Qual7: 516–522.Google Scholar
  30. Cartwright, B., K. G. Tiller, B. A. Zarcinas, and R. L. Spouncer. 1983. Aust J Soil Res 21: 321–332.Google Scholar
  31. Chude, V., and G. O. Obigbesan. 1983. Plant Soil74: 145–147.Google Scholar
  32. Clark, R. B. 1975. Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal6: 451–464.Google Scholar
  33. Clark, M. C., and D. J. Swaine. 1962. CSIRO Tech Commun45. Chatswood, Australia.Google Scholar
  34. Cook, R. L., and C. E. Millar. 1939. Soil Sci Soc Am Proc4: 297–301.Google Scholar
  35. Cox, F. R., and E. J. Kamprath. 1972. In J. J. Mortvedt, P. M. Giordano, andGoogle Scholar
  36. W. L. Lindsay, eds. Micronutrients in agriculture. 289–313. Soil Sci Soc Am, Inc, Madison, WI.Google Scholar
  37. Cresswell, C. F., and H. Nelson. 1972. Proc Grass Soc So Afr 7:133–137. DeTurk, E. E., and L. C. Olson. 1941. Soil Sci52: 351–357.Google Scholar
  38. Dowdy, R. H., and W. E. Larson. 1975. J Environ Qual4: 278–282.Google Scholar
  39. Drake, M., D. H. Sieling, and G. D. Scarseth. 1941. J Am Soc Agron 32:454462.Google Scholar
  40. Eaton, F. M. 1944. J Agric Res69: 237–277.Google Scholar
  41. Eaton, S. V. 1940. Plant Physiol15: 95–107.Google Scholar
  42. Eaton, F. M., and L. V. Wilcox. 1939. In The behavior of boron in soils. USDA Tech Bull 696. 58 pp.Google Scholar
  43. El-Damaty, A. H., H. Hamdi, A. F. El-Kholi, and A. A. Hamdi. 1970. UAR J Soil Sci10: 39–58.Google Scholar
  44. Ellis, B. G., and B. D. Knezek. 1972. In J. J. Mortvedt, P. M. Giordano, and W. L. Lindsay, eds. Micronutrients in agriculture, 59–78. Soil Sci Soc Am Inc, Madison, WI.Google Scholar
  45. Elrashidi, M. A., and G. A. O’Connor. 1982. Soil Sci Soc Am J 46:27–31. Elseewi, A. A., and A. E. Elmalky. 1979. Soil Sci Soc Am J 43:297–300. Fairhall, L. T. 1941. New England Water Works Assoc J 55:400–410. Fleet, M. E. L. 1965. Clay minerals Bull. 6: 3–16.Google Scholar
  46. Fleming, G. A. 1980. In B. E. Davis, ed. Applied soil trace elements, 155–197. Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  47. Fogg, T. R. 1983. Sources and sinks of atmospheric boron. PhD dissertation, Univ Rhode Island, Kingston. 319 pp.Google Scholar
  48. Fogg, T. R., and R. A. Duce, 1985. American Geophysical Union Paper no. 4D1385. AGU, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  49. Follett, R. H., L. S. Murphy, and R. L. Donahue. 1981. Fertilizers and soil amendments. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ. 557 pp.Google Scholar
  50. Fox, R. H. 1968. Soil Sci 106: 435–439.Google Scholar
  51. Frederickson, A. F., and R. C. Reynolds, Jr. 1959. Clays Clay Miner. 8:203–213. Furr, A. K., T. F. Parkinson, R. A. Hinrichs, D. R. van Campen, C. A. BacheGoogle Scholar
  52. W. H. Gutenmann, L. E. St. John, I. S. Pakkala, and D. J. Lisk. 1977. EnvironGoogle Scholar
  53. Sci Technol 11:1104–1112.Google Scholar
  54. Gauch, H. G. 1972. In Organic plant nutrition, 243–259. Dowden, Hutchinson and Ross, Strousburg, PA.Google Scholar
  55. Gestring, W. D., and P. N. Soltanpour. 1984. Soil Sci Soc Am J48:96–100. Gladney, E. S., L. E. Wangen, D. B. Curtis, and E. T. Jurney. 1978. Environ Sci Technol 12: 1084–1085.Google Scholar
  56. Graham, E. R. 1957. Soil Sci Soc Am Proc21: 505–508.Google Scholar
  57. Gupta, U. C. 1968. Soil Sci Soc Am Proc32: 45–48.Google Scholar
  58. Gupta, U. C. 1968. 1972a. Soil Sci Soc Am Proc36:332–334.Google Scholar
  59. Gupta, U. C. 1972b. Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal3:355–365.Google Scholar
  60. Gupta, U. C. 1979. Adv Agron 31:273–307.Google Scholar
  61. Gupta, U. C. 1984. Soil Sci 137:16–22.Google Scholar
  62. Gupta, U. C., and J. A. Cutcliffe. 1972. Soil Sci Soc Am Proc 36:936–939. 1973. Can J Soil Sci53: 275–279.Google Scholar
  63. Gupta, U. C., and J. A. MacLeod. 1973. Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal 4: 389–395.Google Scholar
  64. Gupta, U. C., and J. A. MacLeod. 1977. Soil Sci 124:279–284.Google Scholar
  65. Gupta, U. C., and J. A. MacLeod. 1981. Soil Sci 131:20–25.Google Scholar
  66. Gupta, U. C., J. A. MacLeod, and J. D. E. Sterling. 1976. Soil Sci Soc Am J 40: 723–726.Google Scholar
  67. Gupta, U. C., and D. C. Munro. 1969. Soil Sci Soc Am Proc33:424–426. Hamilton, E. I., and M. J. Minski. 1972. Sci Total Environ 1:375–394. Hatcher, J. T., and C. A. Bower. 1958. Soil Sci 85: 319–323.Google Scholar
  68. Hatcher, J. T., C. A. Bower, and M. Clark. 1967. Soil Sci 104:422–426. Heathcote, R. G., and J. B. Smithson. 1974. Exp Agric 10:199–208. Hill, W. E., and L. G. Morrill. 1974. Soil Sci Soc Am Proc 38:791–794. 1975. Soil Sci Soc Am Proc39: 80–83.Google Scholar
  69. Hingston, F. J. 1964. Aust J Soil Res2: 83–95.Google Scholar
  70. Hopmans, P., and D. W. Flinn. 1984. Plant Soil79: 295–298.Google Scholar
  71. II’in, V. B., and A. P. Anikina. 1974. Soy Soil Sci6: 68–75.Google Scholar
  72. Jackson, M. L. 1965. Soil chemical analysis. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ. 498 pp.Google Scholar
  73. Jackson, J. F., and K. S. R. Chapman. 1975. In D. J. D. Nicholas and A. R. Egan, eds. Trace elements in soil-plant-animal systems, 213–225. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  74. James, W. D., C. C. Graham, M. D. Glascock, and A. G. Hanna. 1982. Environ Sci Technol 16: 195–197.Google Scholar
  75. Jones, J. B., Jr. 1970. Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal1: 27–34.Google Scholar
  76. Jones, J. B., Jr. 1972. In J. J. Mortvedt, P. M. Giordano, and W. L. Lindsay, eds. Mi- cronutrients in agriculture, 319–346. Soil Sci Soc Am Inc, Madison, WI. Jones, H. E., and G. D. Scarseth. 1944. Soil Sci 57: 15–24.Google Scholar
  77. Keren, R., and R. G. Gast. 1981. Soil Sci Soc AmJ 45: 478–482.Google Scholar
  78. Keren, R., R. G. Gast, and B. Bar-Yosef. 1981. Soil Sci Soc Am J 45:45–48. Krauskopf, K. B. 1972. In J. J. Mortvedt, P. M. Giordano, and W. L. Lindsay,eds. Micronutrients in agriculture, 4–40. Soil Sci Soc Am Inc., Madison, WI. Krauskopf, K. B. 1979. Introduction to geochemistry. 2nd ed. McGraw-Hill, New York. 617 pp.Google Scholar
  79. Kubota, J., K. C. Berger, and E. Truog. 1948. Soil Sci Soc Am Proc 13:130–134. Kubota, J., and W. H. Allaway. 1972. In J. J. Mortvedt, P. M. Giordano, andGoogle Scholar
  80. W. L. Lindsay, eds. Micronutrients in agriculture, 525–554. Soil Sci Soc Am Inc, Madison, WI.Google Scholar
  81. Labanauskas, C. K., W. W. Jones, and T. W. Embleton. 1959. Proc Am Soc Hort Sci74: 300–307.Google Scholar
  82. Lindsay, W. L. 1972. In J. J. Mortvedt, P. M. Giordano, and W. L. Lindsay, eds. Micronutrients in agriculture, 41–57. Soil Sci Soc Am Inc, Madison, WI.Google Scholar
  83. Liu, Z., Q. Q. Zhu, and L. H. Tang. 1983.Soil Sci135: 40–46.Google Scholar
  84. Lucas, R. E. 1967. Ext Bull E-486. Michigan State Univ, East Lansing, MI. 13 pp.Google Scholar
  85. Martens, D. C. 1968. Soil Sci106: 23–28.Google Scholar
  86. McPhail, M., A. L. Page, and F. T. Bingham. 1972. Soil Sci Soc Am Proc36:510514.Google Scholar
  87. Midgley, A. R., and D. E. Dunklee. 1939. Soil Sci Soc Am Proc 4:302–307. Mortvedt, J. J. 1968. Soil Sci Soc Am Proc32: 433–437.Google Scholar
  88. Mortvedt, J. J., and G. Osborn. 1965. Soil Sci Soc Am Proc29:187–191. Murphy, L. S., and L. M. Walsh. 1972. In J. J. Mortvedt, P. M. Giordano, andGoogle Scholar
  89. W. L. Lindsay, eds. Micronutrients in agriculture, 347–387. Soil Sci Soc Am Inc, Madison, WI.Google Scholar
  90. Murphy, E. W., B. K. Watt, and L. Page. 1970. Trace Subs. Environ. Health4: 194–205.Google Scholar
  91. Murphy, L. S., R. Ellis, Jr., and D. C. Adriano. 1981. J Plant Nutri 3:593–613. Neary, D. G., G. Schneider, and D. P. White. 1975. Soil Sci Soc Am Proc 39: 98 1982.Google Scholar
  92. Norrish, K. 1975. In D. J. D. Nicholas and A. R. Egan, eds. Trace elements in soil-plant-animal systems, 55–81. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  93. Oertli, J. J., and H. C. Kohl. 1961. Soil Sci 92: 243–247.Google Scholar
  94. Oertli, J. J., and J. A. Roth. 1969. Agron J 61: 191–195.Google Scholar
  95. Oertli, J. J., and E. Grgurevic. 1975. Agron J 67: 278–280.Google Scholar
  96. Okazaki, E., and T. T. Chao. 1968. Soil Sci 105: 255–259Google Scholar
  97. Olson, R. V., and K. C. Berger. 1946. Soil Sci Soc Am Proc11:216–220. Ouellette, G. J. 1958. Can J Soil Sci 38: 77–84.Google Scholar
  98. Ouellette, G. J., and R. O. Lachance. 1954. Can J Agric Sci 34: 494–503.Google Scholar
  99. Page, A. L., A. A.Elseewi, and I. R. Straughan. 1979. Residue Rev 71:83–120. Page, N. R., and W. R. Paden. 1954. Soil Sci 77: 427–434.Google Scholar
  100. Paliwal, K. V., and K. K. Mehta. 1973. Indian J Agric Sci 43:766–772. Parker, D. R., and E. H. Gardner. 1982. Soil Sci Soc Am J 46:573–578. Peterson, L. A., and R. C. Newman. 1976. Soil Sci Soc Am J 40:280–282. Piland, J. R., C. F. Ireland, and H. M. Reisenauer. 1944. Soil Sci 57:75–84. Powers, W. L. 1941. Better Crops Plant Food 15(6): 17–19; 36–37.Google Scholar
  101. Powers, W.L., and J. V. Jordan. 1950. Soil Sci 70: 99–107.Google Scholar
  102. Price, C. A., H. E. Clark, and E. A. Funkhouser. 1972. In J. J. Mortvedt, P. M. Giordano, and W. L. Lindsay, eds. Micronutrients in agriculture, 231–242. Soil Sci Soc Am Inc, Madison, WI.Google Scholar
  103. Rajaratnam, J. A. 1973. Exp Agric 9: 233–240.Google Scholar
  104. Raupach, M. 1975. In D. J. D. Nicholas and A. R. Egan, eds. Trace elements in soil-plant-animal systems, 353–369. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  105. Reeve, E., and J. W. Shive. 1944. Soil Sci 57: 1–14.Google Scholar
  106. Reeve, R. C., A. F. Pillsbury, and L. V. Wilcox. 1955. Hilgardia 24:69–91. Rhoades, J. D., R. D.Ingvalson, and J. T. Hatcher. 1970. Soil Sci Soc Am Proc 34: 871–875.Google Scholar
  107. Rieke, P. E., and J. F. Davis. 1964. Mich Agric Exp Sta Quart Bull 46:401–406. Robertson, L. S., B. D. Knezek, and J. O. Belo. 1975. Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal6: 359–373.Google Scholar
  108. Robertson, L. S., R. E. Lucas, and D. R. Christenson. 1976. In Mich Coop Ext Bull E-1037.Google Scholar
  109. Rogers, H. T. 1947. J Am Soc Agron 39: 914–928.Google Scholar
  110. Sauchelli, V. 1969. In Trace elements in agriculture, 81–106. Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York.Google Scholar
  111. Schalscha,E. B., F. T. Bingham, G. G. Galindo, and H. P. Galvan. 1973. Soil Sci 116: 70–76.Google Scholar
  112. Scott, H. D., S. D. Beasley, and L. F. Thompson. 1975. Soil Sci Soc Am Proc39: 1116–1121.Google Scholar
  113. Shirokov, V. V., and V. I. Panasin. 1972. Soy Soil Sci4: 341–344.Google Scholar
  114. Sims, J. R., and F. T. Bingham. 1967.Soil Sci Soc Am Proc31: 728–732.Google Scholar
  115. Sims, J. R., and F. T. Bingham. 1968a. Soil Sci Soc Am Proc32:364–369.Google Scholar
  116. Sims, J. R., and F. T. Bingham. 1968b. Soil Sci Soc Am Proc32:369–373.Google Scholar
  117. Singh, M. 1970. J Indian Soc Soil Sci18: 141–146.Google Scholar
  118. Skok, J. 1957. Plant Physiol32: 648–658.Google Scholar
  119. Sopper, W. E., and L. T. Kardos. 1973. In Recycling treated wastewater and sludge through forest and cropland, 271–294. Penn State Univ, Univ Park, PA. Sparr, M. C. 1970. Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal 1: 241–262.Google Scholar
  120. Sprague, R. W. 1972. The ecological significance of boron. US Borax Corp, Anaheim, CA. 58 pp.Google Scholar
  121. Stewart, F. B., and J. H. Axley. 1956. Agron J 48: 259–262.Google Scholar
  122. Stinson, C. H. 1953. Soil Sci 75: 31–36.Google Scholar
  123. Stone, E. L., and G. Baird. 1956. J Forest54: 11–12.Google Scholar
  124. Swaine, D. J. 1955. The trace elements content of soils. Commonwealth Bureau of Soil Science ( GB ), Tech Commun 48.Google Scholar
  125. Swanson, V. E., J. M. Medlin, J. R. Hatch, S. L. Coleman, G. H. Wood, Jr., S.Google Scholar
  126. D. Woodruff, and R. T. Hildebrand. 1976. USGS Report 76–468. 503 pp. Talati, N. R., and S. K. Agarwal. 1974. JIndian Soc Soil Sci22:262–268. Thornton, I., and J. S. Webb. 1980. In B. Davies, ed. Applied soil trace elementsGoogle Scholar
  127. 381-.
    Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  128. Touchton, J. T., and F. C. Boswell. 1975. Agron J 67: 197–200.Google Scholar
  129. Trudinger, P. A., D. J. Swaine, and G. W. Skyring. 1979. In P. A. Trudinger and D. J. Swaine, eds. Biogeochemical cycling of mineral forming elements, 1–27. Elsevier, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  130. US Bureau of Mines. 1980. Minerals yearbook. Metals and Minerals. US Dept of Interior, Washington, DC. of Interior, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  131. US Environmental Protection Agency (US-EPA). 1976. Quality criteria for water. US-EPA, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  132. US Public Health Service (US-PHS). 1970. Community water supply study, Analysis of National Survey Findings. US Dept Health, Education, and Welfare, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  133. Vinogradov, A. P. 1959. The geochemistry of rare and dispersed chemical elements in soils. Consultants Bureau, Inc, New York. 209 pp.Google Scholar
  134. Vitosh, M. L., D. D. Warncke, and R. E. Lucas. 1973. Ext Bull E-486. Mich State Univ, East Lansing, MI. 19 pp.Google Scholar
  135. Wear, J. I. 1965. In C. A. Black, ed. Methods of soil analysis. Agron 9: 10591063.Google Scholar
  136. Wear, J. I., and R. M. Patterson. 1962.Soil Sci Soc Am Proc26:344–346. Whetstone, R. R., W. O. Robinson, and H. G. Byers. 1942. USDA Tech Bull no 797: 1–32.Google Scholar
  137. Wilcox, L. V. 1960. In USDA Info Bull 211. 7 pp.Google Scholar
  138. Wildes, R. A., and T. E. Neales. 1969. J Exp Bot 20: 591–603.Google Scholar
  139. Will, G. M. 1971.N Z Forest Sery Leaflet32: 1–4.Google Scholar
  140. Williams, C. H. 1977. J Aust Inst Agric Sci(Sept-Dec):99–109.Google Scholar
  141. Wilson, C. M., R. L. Lovvoron, and W. W. Woodhouse. 1951. Agron J 43:363367.Google Scholar
  142. Winsor, H. W. 1952. Soil Sci74: 459–466.Google Scholar
  143. Wolf, B. 1940. Soil Sci50: 209–217.Google Scholar
  144. Woodbridge, C. G. 1937. Sci Agric18: 41–48.Google Scholar
  145. World Health Organization (WHO) 1973. In WHO Tech Rep Ser no 532, Geneva, Switzerland.Google Scholar
  146. Yousif, Y. H., F. T. Bingham, and D. M. Yermanos. 1972. Soil Sci Soc Am Proc 36: 923–926.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. C. Adriano
    • 1
  1. 1.Biogeochemical Ecology Division, Savannah River Ecology LaboratoryUniversity of Georgia Institute of EcologyAikenUSA

Personalised recommendations