Abstract

The bluish-white, lustrous, very brittle metal (atomic no. 51, atomic wt., 121.75; specific gravity, 6.691; melting pt., 631°C) is found in nature in more than 100 minerals. However, only about one dozen ores are commercially important, such as Sb oxides and sulfides, and complex Cu-, Pb-, and Hg-Sb sulfides, the most important of which is stibnite (Sb2S3). In nature, it occurs primarily in the III oxidation state.

Keywords

Black Shale Phosphate Rock Versus Content Quality Printing Crustal Abundance 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Adams, S. N., J. L. Honeysett, K. G. Tiller, and K. Norrish. 1969. Aust J Soil Res 7: 29–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Adriano, D. C., M. Delaney, and D. Paine. 1977. Common Soil Sci Plant Anal 8: 615–628.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Adriano, D. C., and H. E. Doner. 1982. In A. L. Page, ed. Methods of soil analysis. Part 2, 449–483. Am Soc Agron Inc, Madison, WI.Google Scholar
  4. Alban, L. A., and J. Kubota. 1960. Soil Sci Soc Am Proc 24: 183–185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Allen, R. O., and E. Steinnes. 1979. In Proc Intl Conf on Heavy Metals in the Environ, 271–274. CEP Consultants Ltd, Edinburgh, UK.Google Scholar
  6. Anderson, A. J., D. R. Meyer, and F. K. Mayer. 1973. Aust J Agric Res 24:557571.Google Scholar
  7. Arnon, D. I., and G. Wessel. 1953. Nature. 172: 1039–1040.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Arnon, D. I. 1954. Intl Cong Bot (8th) Proc (Paris) 11: 73–80.Google Scholar
  9. Askew, H. O., and J. K. Dixon, 1937. N Z J Sci Technol 18: 688–693.Google Scholar
  10. Bakulin, A. A., and V. F. Mokiyenko. 1966. Pochrovedenie 4:66 (as cited by Kabata-Pendias and Pendias, 1984 ).Google Scholar
  11. Barnes, R. D., A. T. Bull, and R. C. Poller. 1971. Chem Ind (London) 7:204. Basiouny, F. M. 1984. J Plant Nutr 7: 1059–1073.Google Scholar
  12. Bengtsson, S., and G. Tyler. 1976. In Vanadium in the environment. MARC Tech Rep no 2. Monit Assess Res Center, Univ London.Google Scholar
  13. Berrow, M. L., and R. L. Mitchell. 1980. Trans Royal Soc (Edinburgh) Earth Sci 71: 103–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Berry, W. L. 1978. In D. C. Adriano and I. L. Brisbin, eds. Environmental chemistry and cycling processes, 582–589. CONF. 7604–29. NTIS, Springfield, VA.Google Scholar
  15. Bertrand, D. 1950. Bull Am Mus Nat Hist 94: 405–455.Google Scholar
  16. Bertrand, D., and L. Silberstein. 1928. Compt Rend Acad Sci (Paris) 186:335338.Google Scholar
  17. Bowen, H. J. M. 1979. Environmental chemistry of the elements. Academic Press, New York. 333 pp.Google Scholar
  18. Brewer, R. F. 1965. In H. D. Chapman, ed. Diagnostic criteria for plants and soils, 180–196. Quality Printing Co Inc., Abilene, TX.Google Scholar
  19. Cannon, H. L. 1963. Soil Sci 96: 196–204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Carlson, R. W., F. A. Bazzaz, and G. L. Rolfe. 1975. Environ Res 10: 113–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Can, M. H., and K. K. Turekian 1961. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 23: 9–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Carson, B. L., and I. C. Smith. 1977. In Midwest Res Inst Tech Rep 5. Kansas City, MO. 386 pp.Google Scholar
  23. Charley, R. C., and A. T. Bull. 1979. Arch Microbiol 123: 239–244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Chaudry, F. M., A. Wallace, and R. T. Mueller. 1977. Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal 8. 795–797.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Connor, J. J., and H. T. Shacklette. 1975. In USGS Prof Paper 574-F. Denver, CO.Google Scholar
  26. Cooper, C. F., and W. C. Jolly. 1970. Water Resour Res 6: 88–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Crecelius, E. A., C. J. Johnson, and G. C. Hofer. 1974. Water, Air, Soil Pollut 3: 337–342.Google Scholar
  28. Crecelius, E. A., M. H. Bothner, and R. Carpenter. 1975. Environ Sci Technol 9: 325–333.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Davidson, R. L., D. F. S. Natusch, C. A. Evans, and P. Williams. 1976. Science 191: 852–854.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Davis, R. D., P.H.T. Beckett, and E. Wollan. 1978. Plant Soil 49: 395–408.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Duke, J. A. 1970. Econ Bot 24: 344–366.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Dvornikov, A. G., L. B. Ovsyannikova, and O. G. Sidenko. 1976. Geokhimiya 4:626–633 (as cited by Gough et al, 1979 ).Google Scholar
  33. Filipovic, Z., B. Stankovic, and Z. Dusic. 1961. Soil Sci 91: 147–150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Fishbein, L. 1974. Sci Total Environ 2: 341–371.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Fleischer, M., and W. O. Robinson. 1963. Roy Soc Can Spec Publ 6: 58–75.Google Scholar
  36. Flühler, H., J. Polomski, and P. Blaser. 1982. J Environ Qual 11: 461–468.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Frank, R., K. I. Stonefield, and P. Suda. 1979. Can J Soil Sci 59: 99–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Fujimoto, G., and G. D. Sherman. 1950. Agron J 42: 577–581.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Geilmann, W., K. Beyermann, K. H. Neeb, and R. Neeb. 1960. Biochem Z 333:62–70 (as cited by Schoer, 1984 ).Google Scholar
  40. Gille, G. L., and E. R. Graham. 1971. Soil Sci Soc Am Proc 35: 414–416.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Gilpin, L., and A. H. Johnson. 1980. Soil Sci Soc Am J 44: 255–258.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Graham, E. R., and D. D. Killion. 1962. Soil Sci Soc Am Proc 26: 545–547.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Hansen, E. D., H. H. Wiebe, and W. Thorne. 1958. Agron J 50: 565–568.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Hodgson, J. F. 1960. Soil Sci Soc Am Proc 24: 165–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Hodgson, J. F., K. G. Tiller, and M. Fellows. 1969. Soil Sci 108: 391–396.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Hoffman, G., P. Schweiger, and W. Scholl. 1982. Landwirtsch Forschung. 35:4554 (as cited by Schoer, 1984 ).Google Scholar
  47. Hopkins, D. M. 1977. J Res USGS. 5: 589–593.Google Scholar
  48. Horovitz, C. T., and O. Petrescu. 1964. In Trans 8th Intl Cong Soil Sci 4: 1205 1213.Google Scholar
  49. Horovitz, C. T., H. H. Schock, and L. A. Horovitz-Kisimova. 1974. Plant Soil 40: 397–403.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Howe, H. E., and A. A. Smith. 1970. J Electrochem Soc 97: 167C - 170C.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Jones, K. C., P. J. Peterson, and B. E. Davies. 1984. Geoderma 33: 157–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Kabata-Pendias, A., and H. Pendias. 1984. Trace elements in soils and plants. CRC Press Inc, Boca Raton, FL. 315 pp.Google Scholar
  53. Kaminskaya, S. E. 1941. Compt Rend Acad Sci (USSR) 33: 50–53.Google Scholar
  54. Kick, H., R. Nosbers, and J. Warnusz. 1971. In Proc Intl Symp on Soil Fertility Evaluation (New Delhi) 1: 1039–1045.Google Scholar
  55. Kidson, E. B. 1938. J Soc Chem Ind (London) 57: 95–96.Google Scholar
  56. King, H. 1977. US Geol Survey Bull 1466: 80.Google Scholar
  57. Kipling, M. D. 1980. In H. A. Waldron, ed. Metals in the environment, 133–153. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  58. Klein, D. A. 1978. In D.A. Klein, ed. Environmental impacts of artificial ice nucleating agents, 109–126. Dowden, Hutchinson, and Ross Inc, Stroudsburg, PA.Google Scholar
  59. Krauskopf, K. B. 1979. Introduction to geochemistry. 2nd edition. McGraw-Hill, New York. 617 pp.Google Scholar
  60. Kubota, J. 1965. Soil Sci 99: 166–174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Kubota, J. 1980. In B. E. Davies, ed. Applied soil trace elements,441–466. Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  62. Kumpulainen, J., and P. Koivistoinen. 1977. Residue Rev 68:37–57. Lambert, T. I., and C. Blincoe. 1971. J Sci Fed Agric 22: 8–9.Google Scholar
  63. Larsen, S., and A. E. Widdowson. 1971. J Soil Sci 22: 210–221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Laycock, D. H. 1954. J Sci Food Agric 5: 266–269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Lee, C. K. 1943. Soil Sci 55: 343–349.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. LeRiche, H. H., and A. H. Weir. 1963. J Soil Sci 14: 225–235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Lim, M. Y. 1979. In Trace elements from coal combustion atmospheric emissions. Intl Energy Agency, Coal Res, London.Google Scholar
  68. Lindsay, W. L. 1979. Chemical equilibria in soils. Wiley, New York. 449 pp.Google Scholar
  69. Lindsay, W. L., and M. Sadiq. 1978. In D. A. Klein, ed. Environmental impacts of artificial ice nucleating agents, 25–40. Dowden, Hutchinson, and Ross Inc, Stroudsburg, PA.Google Scholar
  70. Lyon, G. L., R. R. Brooks, P. J. Peterson, and G. W. Butler. 1968. Plant Soil 29: 225–240.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Lyon, G. L., R. R. Brooks, P. J. Peterson, and G. W. Butler. 1971. J Ecol 49: 421–429.Google Scholar
  72. Malaisse, F., J. Gregoire, R. S. Morrison, R. R. Brooks, and R. D. Reeves. 1979. Oikos 33: 472–478.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. McKenzie, R. M. 1975. In D. J. D. Nicholas and A. R. Egan, eds. Trace elements in soil-plant-animal systems, 83–93. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  74. McKenzie, R. M. 1978. Aust J Soil Res 16: 209–214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Menzel, R. G. 1954. Soil Sci 77: 419–425.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Mitchell, R. L. 1944. Proc Nutr Soc 1: 183–189.Google Scholar
  77. Mitchell, R. L. 1945. Soil Sci. 60: 63–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Mitchell, R. L. 1971. In Tech Bull no. 21. Her Majesty’s Stat Off, London.Google Scholar
  79. Mitchell, R. L., and J. C. Burridge. 1979. Phil Trans R Soc (London) B288: 1524.Google Scholar
  80. National Academy of Sciences (NAS). 1971. Fluorides. In Comm Biol Effects of Air Pollut. NAS, Washington, DC. 295 pp.Google Scholar
  81. National Academy of Sciences (NAS). 1974. In Vanadium. Washington, DC. 117 pp.Google Scholar
  82. National Research Council of Canada (NRCC). 1977. In Environmental fluoride. NRCC no. 16081. Ottawa, Ontario. 151 pp.Google Scholar
  83. Newland, L. W. 1982. In O. Hutzinger, ed. The handbook of environmental chemistry. Vol. 3(B): Anthropogenic compounds, 27–67. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.Google Scholar
  84. Nicholas, D. J. D. 1975. In D. J. D. Nicholas and A. R. Egan, eds. Trace elements in soil-plant-animal systems, 181–198. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  85. Nömmik, H. 1953. Acta Polytech 127: 1–121.Google Scholar
  86. Norrish, K. 1975. In D. J. D. Nicholas and A. R. Egan, eds. Trace elements in soil-plant-animal systems, 55–81. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  87. Omueti, J. A. I., and R. L. Jones. 1977a. J Soil Sci 28: 564–572.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Omueti, J. A. I., and R. L. Jones. 1977b. Soil Sci Soc Am J 41: 1023–1024.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Omueti, J. A. I., and R. L. Jones. 1980. Soil Sci Soc Am J 44: 247–249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Pais, I. 1983. J Plant Nutr 6: 1–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Pais, I., M. Feher, E. Farkas, Z. Szabo, and I. Cornides. 1977. Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal 8: 407–410.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Pais, I., M. Feher, E. Farkas, Z. Szabo, and I. Cornides. 1979. Acta Agron Hung 28: 378–383.Google Scholar
  93. Parker, R. D. R., R. P. Sharma, and G. W. Miller. 1978. Trace Subs Environ Health. 12: 340–350.Google Scholar
  94. Patel, P. M., A. Wallace, and R. T. Mueller. 1976. J Am Soc Hort Sci 101(5):553556.Google Scholar
  95. Peterson, P. J., and C. A. Girling. 1981. In N. W. Lepp, ed. Effect of heavy metal pollution on plants. Vol. 1., pp. 213–278. Applied Science Publ, London.Google Scholar
  96. Peterson, P. J., M. A. S. Burton, M. Gregson, S. M. Nye, and E. K. Porter. 1976. Trace Subs Environ Health 10: 123–132.Google Scholar
  97. Pettersson, O. 1976. Plant Soil 45: 445–459.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Polomski, J., H. Flühler, and P. Blaser. 1982. J Environ Qual 11: 457–461.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Pratt, P. F. 1965a. In H. D. Chapman, ed. Diagnostic criteria for plants and soils, 480–483. Quality Printing Co Inc, Abilene, TX.Google Scholar
  100. Pratt, P. F. 1965b. In H. D. Chapman, ed. Diagnostic criteria for plants and soils,478–479. Quality Printing Co Inc, Abilene, TX.Google Scholar
  101. Price, N. O., W. N. Linkous, and R. W. Engel. 1955. J Agr Food Chem 3:226229.Google Scholar
  102. Prince, A. L. 1957. Soil Sci 84: 413–418.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Proctor, J., and S. R. J. Woodell. 1975. Adv Ecol Res 9: 255–366.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Prokhorov, V. M., L. P. Moskevich, and V. A. Kudyashov. 1979. Soy Soil Sci 11: 161–167.Google Scholar
  105. Ram, N., M. Verloo, and A. Cottenie. 1983. Plant Soil 73:285–290. Reisenauer, H. M. 1960. Nature 186: 375–376.Google Scholar
  106. Robinson, W. O., and G. Edgington. 1946. Soil Sci 61: 341–353.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Romney, E. M., and J. D. Childress. 1965. Soil Sci 100: 210–217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Romney, E. M., A. Wallace, and G. V. Alexander. 1975. Plant Soil 42: 585–589.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Ruhland, W. 1958. In Mineral nutrition of plants. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. 1210 pp.Google Scholar
  110. Schoer, J. 1984. In O. Hutzinger, ed. The handbook of environmental chemistry. Vol. 3(C):143–214. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.Google Scholar
  111. Schroeder, H. A., J. J. Balassa, and I. H. Tipton. 1963. J Chron Dis 16: 1047 1071.Google Scholar
  112. Schroeder, H. A., J. J. Balassa, and I. H. Tipton. 1964. J Chron Dis 17: 483–502.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Shacklette, H. T., and J. G. Boerngen. 1984. Element concentrations in soils and other surficial materials of the conterminous United States. USGS Prof Paper 1270. US Govt Printing Office, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  114. Slavek, J., H. Fan-ah, and W. F. Pickering. 1984. Water, Air, Soil Pollut 23:209220.Google Scholar
  115. Shaw, D. M. 1952. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 2: 118–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Sherman, G. D., Z. C. Foster, and C. K. Fujimoto. 1949. Soil Sci Soc Am Proc 1948. 13: 471–476.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Smith, I. C., and B. L. Carson. 1977a. Trace metals in the environment. Vol. 1: Thallium. Ann Arbor Science, Ann Arbor, MI. 394 pp.Google Scholar
  118. Smith, I. C., and B. L. Carson. 1977b. Trace metals in the environment. Vol. 2: Silver. Ann Arbor Science, Ann Arbor, MI. 469 pp.Google Scholar
  119. Söremark, R. 1967. J Nutr 92: 183–190.Google Scholar
  120. Steinkoenig, L. A. 1919. J Indus Eng Chem 11: 463–465.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Summers, A. O., and S. Silver. 1978. Ann Rev,Microbiol 32:637–672. Suzuki, N. 1958. In Sci Rep Res Inst (Tohoku Univ) 42:149–157.Google Scholar
  122. Swaine, D. J. 1977. Trace Subs Environ Health 11:107–116.Google Scholar
  123. Swaine, D. J.1979. In Trace elements in Australian bituminous coals and fly ashes. Proc of Conf on Combustion of Pulverized Coal-Effect of Mineral Matter. Univ Newcastle, Newcastle, England.Google Scholar
  124. Tamura, T., M. L. Jackson, and G. D. Sherman. 1955. Soil Sci Soc Am Proc 19: 435–439.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Taylor, R. M., and R. M. McKenzie. 1966. Aust J Soil Res 4: 29–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Teller, H. L., and D. A. Klein. 1974. In Oper Rep no 3, Colorado State Univ, Fort Collins. 105 pp.Google Scholar
  127. Tepper, L. B. 1980. In H. A. Waldron, ed. Metals in the environment, 25–60. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  128. Thornton, I., and J. S. Webb. 1980. In B. E. Davies, ed. Applied soil trace elements, 381–439. Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  129. Tiller, K. G., J. L. Honeysett, and E. G. Hallsworth. 1969. Aust J Soil Res 7: 43–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Trudinger, P. A., D. J. Swaine, and G. W. Skyring. 1979. In P. A. Trudinger and D. J. Swaine, eds. Biogeochemical cycling of mineral forming elements, 1–27. Elsevier, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  131. Tso, T. C., T. P. Sorokin, and M. E. Engelhaupt. 1973. Plant Physiol 51:805806.Google Scholar
  132. Underwood, E. J. 1977. Trace elements in human and animal nutrition. Academic Press, New York. 545 pp.Google Scholar
  133. US Environmental Protection Agency (US-EPA) 1976. In Quality criteria for water. US-EPA, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  134. van der Weijden, C. H., and E. C. Kruissink. 1977. Marine Chem 5: 93–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Vanselow, A. P. 1965a. Barium. In H. O. Chapman, ed. Diagnostic criteria for plants and soils, 24–32. Quality Printing Co Inc, Abilene, TX.Google Scholar
  136. Vanselow, A. P. 1965b. Cobalt. In H. D. Chapman, ed. Diagnostic criteria for plants and soils, 142–156. Quality Printing Co Inc, Abilene, TX.Google Scholar
  137. Vanselow, A. P. 1965c. Silver. In H. D. Chapman, ed. Diagnostic criteria for plants and soils, 405–408. Quality Printing Co Inc, Abilene, TX.Google Scholar
  138. Vinogradov, A. P. 1959. The geochemistry of rare and dispersed chemical elements in soils. Consultants Bureau Inc, New York. 209 pp.Google Scholar
  139. Voskresenskaya, N. T. 1968. Geochem Intern 5: 158–168.Google Scholar
  140. Wallace, A., and E. M. Romney. 1971. Agron J 63: 245–248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Wallace, A., G. V. Alexander, and F. M. Chaudry. 1971. Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal 8: 751–756.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Wallihan, E. F. 1965. In H. D. Chapman, ed. Diagnostic criteria for plants and soils, 476–477. Quality Printing Co Inc, Abilene, TX.Google Scholar
  143. Ward, N. I., E. Roberts, and R. R. Brooks. 1979. N Z J Sci 22:129–132. Warington, K. 1955. Ann Appl Biol 41: 1–22.Google Scholar
  144. Warington, K. 1956. Ann Appl Biol 44: 535–546.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Weaver, T. W., and D. Klarich. 1973. In Final Res Rep no. 42. Mont Agric Exp Sta, Montana State Univ, Bozeman. 18 pp.Google Scholar
  146. Welch, R. M., and E. W. D. Huffman, Jr. 1973. Plant Physiol 52: 183–185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Williams, R. J. B., and H. H. Riche. 1968. Plant Soil 29: 317–326.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Wright, J. R., and K. Lawton. 1954. Soil Sci 77:95–105.Google Scholar
  149. Yen, T. F. 1972. Trace Subs Environ Health 6: 347–353.Google Scholar
  150. Young, R. S. 1979. Cobalt in biology and biochemistry. Academic Press, London. 147 pp.Google Scholar
  151. Zenz, C. 1980. In H. A. Waldron, ed. Metals in the environment, 293–327. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  152. Zingaro, R. A. 1979. Environ Sci Technol 13: 282–287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Zubovic, P. 1969. In Proc of Beryllium Conference, MIT (as cited by Tepper, 1980 ).Google Scholar
  154. Zyka, V. 1970. Sbornick Geol Ved Technol Geochem 10:91–96 (as cited by Peterson and Girling, 1981 ).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. C. Adriano
    • 1
  1. 1.Biogeochemical Ecology Division, Savannah River Ecology LaboratoryUniversity of Georgia Institute of EcologyAikenUSA

Personalised recommendations