Degenerative Conditions of the Vitreous

  • J. J. Weiter
  • D. M. Albert

Abstract

This chapter discusses three conditions, asteroid hyalosis, synchysis scintillans, and amyloidosis of the vitreous, commonly referred to as vitreous degenerations. The term vitreous degeneration is imprecise since it implies a primary process in the vitreous gel itself. The vitreous gel is composed of a liquid and a solid phase. The solid components of the vitreous constitute only 1% of its weight and consist of collagen fibrils, peripheral cells, and small amounts of other proteins. The liquid phase (99%) is essentially water with the addition of hyaluronic acid, inorganic salts, ascorbic acid, and sugars. This type of configuration suggests that the major function of the vitreous is to modulate the passage of metabolites and other biochemical substances to and from adjacent tissues. Most likely, the only primary degeneration of the vitreous body itself is syneresis and vitreous detachment. Most vitreous degenerations are secondary to primary retinal degenerations and are referred to as hyaloideoretinopathies. The vitreous gel may entrap material from surrounding tissues when they are diseased. Plasma proteins and inflammatory cells may enter the vitreous when the adjacent structures are inflamed.

Keywords

Retinal Detachment Retinal Vein Occlusion Vitreous Hemorrhage Central Retinal Vein Occlusion Vitreous Body 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. (1).
    BENSON, A. H. — Diseases of the vitreous. Trans. Ophthalmol Soc. UK, 1894, 14, 101–104.Google Scholar
  2. (2).
    WIEGMANN, E. — Ein Beitrag zur Genese und zum Bilde der Synchysis scintillans. Klin. Montasbl. Augenheilkd., 1918, 61, 82–88.Google Scholar
  3. (3).
    LUXENBERG, M., SIME, D. — Relationship of asteroid hyalosis to diabetes mellitus and plasma lipid levels. Am. J. Ophthalmol., 1969, 67, 406–413.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. (4).
    SMITH, J.L. — Asteroid hyalitis: incidence of diabetes mellitus and hypercholesterolemia. Jama, 1958, 168, 891–893.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. (5).
    BARD, L.A. — Asteroid hyalitis: relationship to diabetes mellitus and hypercholesterolemia. Am. J. Ophthalmol., 1964, 58, 239–242.Google Scholar
  6. (6).
    SMITH, J.L. — Asteroid hyalitis and diabetes mellitus. Trans. Am. Acad. Ophthalmol. Otolaryngol., 1965, 69, 269–277.Google Scholar
  7. (7).
    JERVEY, E.D., Anderson, W.B. — Asteroid hyalitis: a study of serum calcium levels in affected patients. South. Med. J., 1965, 58, 191–194.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. (8).
    TOPILOW, H.W., KENYON, K.R., TAKAHASHI, M., FREEMAN, H.M., TOLENTINO, F.I., HANNINEN, L.A. — Asteroid hyalosis: biomicroscopy, ultrastructure, and composition. Arch. Ophthalmol., 1982, 100, 964–968.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. (9).
    HAMPTON, G.R., NELSON, P.T., HAY, P.B. — Viewing through the asteroids. Ophthalmology, 1981, 88, 669–672.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. (10).
    CIBIS, P. — Vitreoretinal pathology and surgery in retinal detachment. St. Louis: C.V. Mosby, 1965, 193.Google Scholar
  11. (11).
    YAMADA, K., SHIMIZU, H. — Asteroid hyalosis causing visual disturbance. Jpn. J. Clin. Ophthalmol., 1976, 30, 787.Google Scholar
  12. (12).
    TOLENTINO, F.I., SCHEPENS, C.L., FREEMAN, H.M. — Vitreoretinal disorders: diagnosis and management. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders, 1976, 230.Google Scholar
  13. (13).
    VERHOEFF, F.H. — Microscopic findings in a case of asteroid hyalitis. Am. J. Ophthalmol., 1921, 4, 155–160.Google Scholar
  14. (14).
    RODMAN, H.F., JOHNSON, F.B., ZIMMERMAN, L. E. — New histopathological and histochemical observations concerning asteroid hyalitis. Arch. Ophthalmol., 1961, 66, 552–563.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. (15).
    MARCH, W.F., SHOCH, D., O’GRADY, R. — Composition of asteroid bodies. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci., 1974, 13, 701–707.Google Scholar
  16. (16).
    STREETEN, B.W. — Vitreous asteroid bodies: ultrastructural characteristics and composition. Arch. Ophthalmol., 1982, 100, 969–975.Google Scholar
  17. (17).
    MILLER, H., MILLER, B., RABINOWITZ, H., ZONIS, S., NIR, I. — Asteroid bodies. An ultrastructural study. Invest. Ophthalmol Vis. Sci., 1983, 24, 133–136.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. (18).
    YU, S.Y., BLUMENTHAL, H.T. — The calcification of elastic tissue. In: Wagner B.M., Smith D.E. (eds.), The connective tissue. Baltimore• Williams & Williams, 1967, 17–49.Google Scholar
  19. (19).
    ZAUBERMAN, H., LIONI, N. — Experimental vascular occlusion in hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Invest. OphthalmoL Vis. Sci., 1981, 21, 248–255.Google Scholar
  20. (20).
    LAMBA, P.A., SHUKLA, K. N. — Experimental asteroid hyalopathy. Br. J. Ophthalmol., 1971, 55, 279–283.Google Scholar
  21. (21).
    SICHEL, J. — Note complémentaire sur le synchésis étincellant. Ann. Oculistique, 1846, 15, 248.Google Scholar
  22. (22).
    HOGAN, M. J., ZIMMERMAN, L. E. (eds.). — Ophthalmic Pathology, 2nd ed. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders, 1962, 650–654.Google Scholar
  23. (23).
    JAFFE, N.S. — The vitreous in clinical ophthalmology. St. Louis: C.V. Mosby, 1969, 223–226.Google Scholar
  24. (24).
    WAND, M., SMITH, T.R., COGAN, D. G. — Cholesterosis bulbi: the ocular abnormality known as synchysis scintillans. Am. J. OphthalmoL, 1975, 80, 177–183.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. (25).
    WAND, M., GORN, R. A. — Cholesterolosis of the anterior chamber. Am. J. Ophthalmol., 1974, 78, 143–144.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. (26).
    ANDREWS, J.S., LYNN, C., SCOBEY, J.W., ELLIOTT, J.W. — Cholesterosis bulbi: case report with modern chemical identification of the ubiquitous crystals. Br. J. Ophthalmol., 1973, 57, 838–844.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. (27).
    GLENNER, G. G. — Amyloid deposits and amyloidosis. Part I. N. Engl. J. Med., 1980, 302, 1283–1292.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. (28).
    GLENNER, G. G. — Amyloid deposits and amyloidosis. Part II. N. EngL J. Med., 1980, 302, 1333–1343.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. (29).
    VIRCHOW, R. — Cellular pathology as based upon physiological and pathological histology. Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott, 1963, 554.Google Scholar
  30. (30).
    KANTARJIAN, A.D., DEJONG, R. N. — Familial primary amyloidosis with nervous system involvement. Neurology, 1953, 3, 399–409.Google Scholar
  31. (31).
    RUKAVINA, J.G., BLOCK, W.D., JACKSON, C.E. et al. Primary systemic amyloidosis: a review and an experimental, genetic and clinical study of 29 cases with particular emphasis on the familial form. Medicine, 1956, 35, 239–334.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. (32).
    FERRY, A. P., LIEBERMAN, T. W. — Bilateral amyloidosis of the vitreous body. Report of a case without systemic or familial involvement. Arch. Ophthalmol., 1976, 94, 982–991.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. (33).
    SCHWARTZ, M.F., GREEN, W.R., MICHELS, R.G. et al. An unusual case of ocular involvement in primary systemic nonfamilial amyloidosis. Ophthalmology, 1982, 89, 394–401.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. (34).
    HITCHINGS, R.A., TRIPATHI, R.C. — Vitreous opacities in primary amyloid disease: a clinical, histochemical, and ultrastructural report. Br. J. Ophthalmol., 1976, 60, 41–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. (35).
    WANG, V. G., MCFARLIN, D. E. — Primary familial amyloidosis. Arch. Ophthalmol., 1967, 78, 208–213.Google Scholar
  36. (36).
    KAUFMAN, H.E., THOMAS, L.B. — Vitreous opacities diagnostic of familial primary amyloidosis. N. Engl. J. Med., 1959, 261, 1267–1271.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. (37).
    TSUKAHARA, S., MATSUO, T. — Fluorographical findings in familial primary amyloidosis. Ophthalmologica, 1978, 176, 301–307.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. (38).
    SAVAGE, D.J., MANGO, C.A., STREETEN, B.W. — Amyloidosis of the vitreous. Fluorescein angiographic findings and association with neovascularization. Arch. Ophthalmol., 1982, 100, 1776–1779.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. (39).
    INOMATA, H., OKAYAMA, M., OSHIMA, K. — Familial primary amyloidosis. Jpn. J. Ophthalmol., 1976, 20, 51–62.Google Scholar
  40. (40).
    KASNER, O., MILLER, G. R., TAYLOR, W.H., SEVER, R.J., NORTON, E. W. D. — Surgical treatment of amyloidosis of the vitreous. Trans. Am. Acad. Ophthalmol. Otolaryngol., 1968, 72, 410–418.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. (41).
    MATSUI, M., TASHIRO, T., ASAI, Y. — A case of bilateral vitreous amyloidosis which was successfully treated with vitreous surgery. Acta Soc. Ophthalmol. Jpn., 1976, 80, 142–146.Google Scholar
  42. (42).
    IRVINE, A.R., CHAR, D.H. — Recurrent amyloid involvement in the vitreous body after vitrectomy. Am. J. Ophthalmol., 1976, 82, 705–708.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. (43).
    EANES, E. D., GLENNER, G. G. — X-ray diffraction studies of amyloid filaments. J. Histochem. Cytochem., 1968, 16, 673–677.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. (44).
    DOFT, B.H., RUBINOW, A., COHEN, A.S. — Immunocytochemical demonstration of prealbumin in the vitreous in heredofamilial amyloidosis. Am. J. Ophthalmol., 1984, 97, 296–300.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. J. Weiter
  • D. M. Albert

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations