Radionuclide Voiding Cystography

  • U. V. Willi
  • S. T. Treves


Study of the ureters and bladder in pediatric nuclear medicine is limited to the use of radionuclide cystography for evaluation of suspected vesicoureteric reflux. This failure of the ureterovesical valve mechanism may be caused by a congenital variation, pathologic process, or immaturity that distorts the anatomy or function of the ureterovesical junction. The principal longterm consequence of vesicoureteric reflux of infected urine is the development of pyelonephritic scars that in turn may lead to hypertension and chronic renal failure.


Renal Pelvis Vesicoureteric Reflux Bladder Capacity Bladder Volume Intravesical Pressure 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Apperson JW, Atkins H, Fleming R. The value of the isotope cystogram in determining pressure and volume at which ureteral reflux occurs. J Urol 1963; 89: 405–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bailey RR. Sterile reflux: is it harmless? In: Hod-son J, Kinkaid-Smith P, eds. Reflux nephropathy New York: Masson, 1979.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Blaufox MD, Gruskin A, Sandler P, Goldman H. Radionuclide scintigraphy for detection of vesicoureteral reflux in children. J Pediatr 1971; 79: 239–46.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Conway J J, Kruglik GD. Effectiveness of direct and indirect radionuclide cystography in detecting vesicoureteral reflux. J Nucl Med 1976; 17: 81–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Conway J J, King LR, Belman AB, Thorson T. Detection of vesicoureteral reflux with radionuclide cystography. AJR 1972; 115: 720–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Conway JJ, Belman AB, King LR. Direct and indirect radionuclide cystography. Semin Nucl Med 1974; 4: 197–211.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Conway J J, Belman AB, King LR, Filmer RB. Direct and indirect radionuclide cystography. J Urol 1975; 113: 689–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Cremin BJ. Observations on vesico-ureteric reflux and intrarenal reflux: a review and survey of material. Clin Radiol 1979; 30: 607–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Dilman LD, Van der Lage FC. Radionuclide decay schemes and nuclear parameters for use in radiation dose estimation. In: MIRD pamphlet no. 10. New York: Society of Nuclear Medicine, September 1975.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Dodge EA. Vesico-ureteric reflux, diagnosis with iodine-131 sodium ortho-iodohippurate. Lancet 1963; 303–4.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Faure C. Le reflux vesico-ureteral. In: Lefebvre J, ed. Traite de radiodiagnostic, XVIII. Paris: Masson et Cie, Paris, 1973.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Fendei H. Radiation exposure due to urinary tract disease. In: Progress in pediatric radiology, Vol. 3: Genitourinary tract. Basel: Karger 1970.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Friedland GW. Recurrent urinary tract infections in infants and children. Radiol Clin North Am 1977; 15: 19–35.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Gierup P. Micturition studies in infants and children. Scand J Urol Nephrol 1970; 4: 191–207.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Gross GW, Lebowitz RL. Infection does not cause reflux. AJR 1981; 137: 929–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Handmaker H, McRae J, Buck EG. Intravenous radionuclide voiding cystography (IRVC). Radiology 1973; 108: 703–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Hass EA, Solomon DJ. Telling children about diagnostic radiology procedures. Radiology 1977; 124: 521.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Hodson CJ, Edwards D. Chronic pyelonephritis and vesicoureteric reflux. Clin Radiol 1960; 11: 219–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Hutch J A. Theory of maturation of the intravesical ureter. J Urol 1961; 86: 534–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Hutch JA. Aberrant micturition. J Urol 1966; 96: 743–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Jerkins GR, Noe HN. Familial vesicoureteral reflux: a prospective study. J Urol 1982; 128: 774–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    King LR. Vesicoureteral reflux: history, etiology, and conservative management. In: Kelalis PD, King LR, Belman AB, eds. Clinical pediatric urology. Philadelphia: WB Saunders, 1976.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Lattimer JK, Apperson JW, Gleason DM, Baker D, Fleming SS. The pressure at which reflux occurs, an important indicator of prognosis and treatment. J Urol 1963; 89: 395–404.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Lebowitz RL. Voiding cystourethrography in children. Contemp Diagn Radiol 1978; 5: 1–6.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Lebowitz RL, Avni FE. Misleading appearances in pediatric uroradiology. Pediatr Radiol 1980; 10: 15–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Leibovic SJ, Lebowitz RL. Reducing patient dose in voiding cystourethrography. Urol Radiol 1980; 2: 103–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Loevinger R, Berman M. A revised schema for calculating the absorbed dose from biologically distributed radionuclides. In: MIRD pamphlet no. 1 (revised). New York: Society of Nuclear Medicine, January 1975.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Lyon RP, Marshall S, Tanagho EA. Theory of maturation: a critique. J Urol 1970; 103: 795–800.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Nasrallah PF, Conway JJ, King LR, Belman AB, Weiss S. Quantitative nuclear cystogram. Urology 1978; 12: 654–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Normand ICS, Smellie J. Vesicoureteric reflux: the case for conservative management. In: Hodson J, Kincaid-Smith P, eds. Reflux nephropathy. New York: Masson 1979.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Orr WA, Kimbrough H, Gillenwater JY. Alterations in renal blood flow with voiding in the presence of vesicoureteral reflux. J Urol 1971; 106: 214–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Poznanski E, Poznanski A. Psychogenic influences on voiding: observations from voiding cystourethrography. Psychosomatics 1969; 10: 339–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Ransley PG. Vesicoureteral reflux: continuing surgical dilemma. Urology 1978; 12: 246.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Ransley PG. Vesicoureteric reflux. In: Williams DI, Johnston JH, eds. Pediatric urology, 2nd ed. London: Butterworth Medical, 1982.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Report of the International Reflux Study Committee. Medical versus surgical treatment of primary vesicoureteral reflux. Pediatrics 1981; 67: 392–400.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Rolleston GL, Shannon FT, Utley WLF. Relationship of infantile vesicoureteral reflux to renal damage. Br Med J 1970; 70: 460–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Rolleston GL, Maling TMJ, Hodson CJ. Intrarenal reflux and the scarred kidney. Arch Dis Child 1974; 49: 531–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Rolleston GL, Shannon FT, Utley WLF. Follow-up of vesicoureteric reflux in the newborn. Kidney Int 1975; 8: S59 - S64.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Rosenthall L. Residual urine determination by roentgenographic and isotope means. Radiology 1963; 80: 454–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Smellie J, Edwards D, Hunter N, Normand ICS, Prescod N. Vesicoureteral reflux and renal scarring. Kidney Int 1975; 8: S65 - S72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Smith JC. Urethral resistance to micturition. Br J Urol 1968; 40: 125–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Snyder WS, Cook MJ, Nasset ES. Report of the task group on reference man. Oxford: Pergammon Press, by The International Commission on Radiological Protection, 1975.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Snyder WS, Ford MR, Warner GG. Estimates of specific absorbed fractions for photon sources uniformly distributed in various organs of heterogenous phantom. In: MIRD pamphlet no. 5 (revised). New York: Society of Nuclear Medicine, January 1978.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Spencer RP, Treves S. Bladder emptying flow rates as a function of bladder volume. Yale J Biol Med 1971; 44: 199–205.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Starfield B. Functional bladder capacity in enuretic and nonenuretic children. J Pediatr 1974; 111: 167–72.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Stephens FD. Urologie aspects of recurrent urinary tract infections in children. J Pediatr 1972; 80: 725–37.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Stephens FD, Lenaghan D. The anatomical basis and dynamics of vesicoureteral reflux. J Urol 1962; 87: 669–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Strauss BS, Blaufox MD. Estimation of residual urine and urine flow rates without urethral catheterization. J Nucl Med 1970; 11: 81–84.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Tanagho EA, Meyers FH, Smith DR. Urethral resistance: its components and implications. I. Smooth muscle component. Invest Urol 1969; 7: 136–49.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Tanagho EA, Meyers FH, Smith DR. Urethral resistance: its components and implications. II. Striated muscle component. Invest Urol 1969; 7: 195–205.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Timmermans L, Merchie G. Les radionuclides dans le diagnostic de maladies des reins et des voies urinaires: E reflux vesicoureterorenaux. Acta Urol Belg 1967; 35: 254–9.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Timmermans L, Merchie G. Une nouvelle methode d’exploration des reflux vesico-uretero-renaux. Acta Urol Belg 1969; 37: 105–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Timmermans L, Collard M, Merchie G. Le diagnostic des reflux vesicoureteraux par la cystometrie associee au radio-cinema et aux radioisotopes. Acta Clin Belg 1964; 19: 23–37.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Whitaker J, Johnston GS. Urinary flow rate with two techniques of bladder pressure measurement. Invest Urol 1966; 4: 235–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Willi UV, Lebowitz RL. The so-called megaureter-megacystis syndrome. AJR 1979; 133: 409–16.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Winter CC. A new test for vesicoureteral reflux: an external technique using radioisotopes. J Urol 1959; 81: 105–111.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Winter CC. Pediatric urological tests using radioisotopes. J Urol 1966; 95: 584–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • U. V. Willi
  • S. T. Treves

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations