An Integrated Approach to Penicillium Systematics

  • Paul D. Bridge
  • David L. Hawksworth
  • Zofia Kozakiewicz
  • Agnes H. S. Onions
  • Russel R. M. Paterson
  • Michael J. Sackin
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (NSSA, volume 102)


A multidisciplinary approach to critical groups of species in Penicillium has been initiated which considers a larger number of characters than has previously been employed in an integrated study. Some 300 selected isolates of fasciculate Penicillia are being examined and scored for 195 characters including ones derived from morphological, ultra-structural and biochemical attributes; many of these have not previously been employed in the taxonomy of the filamentous fungi. This contribution describes the techniques and standard procedures being adopted and outlines the numerical techniques utilised in the assessment of the results. Procedures for testing the validity of the groupings that will be produced are also described. The work is still in the data collection phase, but some preliminary results based on full data sets for 52 isolates are presented. These show that this integrated approach can be expected to make a major contribution to the clarification of species concepts in Penicillium.


High Pressure Liquid Chromatography Conidiogenous Cell Kojic Acid Sole Nitrogen Source Numerical Taxonomy 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. ABE, S. 1956. Studies on the classification of the Penicillia. J. gen.appl. Microbiol. 2: 1–344.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. ANNE, J. and PEBERDY, J.F. 1981. Characterisation of inter-species hybrids of Penicillium chrysogenum & P. roque-forti by isoenzyme analysis. Trans. Br.mycol. Soc. 77: 401–408.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. AZAD, H.R. and KADO, C.I. 1980. Numerical and DNA: DNA reassociation analyses of Erwinia rubrivaciens and other members of the Enterobacteriaceae? J. gen. Microbiol. 120: 117–129.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. BERRY, D.R. 1975. The environmental control of the physiology of filamentous fungi. In: “The Filamentous Fungi”. Vol.l. Industrial Mycology, J.E. Smith and D.R. Berry, eds. London: Edward Arnold., pp 16–32.Google Scholar
  5. BRIDGE, P.D. 1985. An evaluation of some physiological and biochemical methods as an aid to the characterisation of species of Penicillium subsection Fasciculata? - J. gen. Microbiol.: in press.Google Scholar
  6. BRIDGE, P.D. and HAWKSWORTH, D.L. 1984. The API ZYM enzyme testing system as an aid to the rapid identification of Penicillium isolates.–Microbiol. Sci. 1: 232–234.Google Scholar
  7. BRIDGE, P.D. and HAWKSWORTH, D.L. 1985. Biochemical tests as an aid to the identification of Monascus species. - Letters Appl. Microbiol. 1: in press.Google Scholar
  8. BRIDGE, P.D. and MAY, J.W. 1984. A numerical classification of fission yeasts of the genus Schizosaccharomvices Lindner. J. gen. Microbiol. 130: 1921–1932.Google Scholar
  9. BRIDGE, P.D. and SNEATH, P.H.A. 1983. Numerical taxonomy of Streptocossus? J. Gen. micobiol. 129: 565–597.Google Scholar
  10. CAMPBELL, I. 1973. Numerical analysis of Hansenula, Pichia and related yeast genera. J. gen. Microbiol. 77: 427–441.Google Scholar
  11. CANNON, P.F. and HAWKSWORTH, D.L. 1982. A re-evaluation of Melanospora Corda and similar pyrenomycetes, with a revi sion of the British species. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 84: 115–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. CANNON, P.F. and HAWKSWORTH, D.L. 1984. A revision of the genus Neocosmospora (Hypocreales). Trans. Br. mycol. Soc. 82: 673–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. CIEGLER, A., FENNELL, D.I., SANSING, G.A., DETROY, R.W. and BENNETT, G.A. 1973. Mycotoxin producing strains of Penicillium viridicatum: classification into subgroups. Appl. Microbio1. 26: 271–278.Google Scholar
  14. CIEGLER, A., LEE, L.S. and DUNN, J.J. 1981. Production of napthoquinone mycotoxins and taxonomy of Penicillium viridicatum. Appl. Envir. Microbiol. 42: 466–449.Google Scholar
  15. COUTTS, A.D. and SMITH, R.E. 1976. Factors influencing the production of cellulases by Sporotrichum thermophile. Appl. Envir. Microbiol. 31: 819–825.Google Scholar
  16. COWAN, S.T., 1974 - Cowan and Steel’s Manual for the Identification of Medical Bacteria. Second edition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  17. CULBERSON, C.F. and KRISTINSSON, H. 1970. A standardized method for the identification of lichen products. J. Chromatography 46: 85–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. DOMSCH, K.H., GAMS, W. and ANDERSON; T.H. 1980. Compendium of Soil Fungi Vol.l. London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  19. FASSATIOVA, O. 1977. A taxonomic study of Penicillium series Expansa Thom emend. Fassatiova. Acta univ. Carol., Biol. 12: 283–335.Google Scholar
  20. FILTENBORG, O., FRISVAD; J.C. and SVENDSEN; J.A. 1983. Simple screening method for moulds producing intracellular mycotoxins in pure culture. Appl. Envir. Microbiol. 45: 581–585.Google Scholar
  21. FOX, G.E., MAGRUM, L.J., BALCH, W.E., WOLFE, R.S. and WOESE, C.R. 1977. Classification of methanogenic bacteria by 165 ribosomal RNA characterisation. Proc.natn. Acad. Sci. 74: 4537–4541.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. FRISVAD, J.C. 1981. Physiological criteria and mycotoxin production as aids in identification of common asymmetric penicillia. Appl. Envir.Micriobio1. 41: 568–579.Google Scholar
  23. FRISVAD, J.C. and FILTENBORG, O. 1983. Classification of terverticillate penicillia based on profiles of mycotoxins and other secondary metabolites. Appl. Envir. Microbiol. 46: 1301–1310.Google Scholar
  24. GALIMOVA, A.L., SIZOVA, T.P. and ZLOCHEVSKAYA, I.V. 1982. Use of biochemical criterion in the taxonomy of the genus Penicillium. Vest.mosk. gos. Univ., Biol., 16: 47–52.Google Scholar
  25. GOCHENAUR, S.E. 1984. Fungi of a Long Island oak - birch forest.II. Population dynamics and hydrolase patterns for the soil Penicillia. Mycologia 76: 218–231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. GOODFELLOW, M. and PIROUZ, T. 1982. Numerical classification of sporoactinomycetes containing meso-diaminopimelic acid in the cell wall. J.gen.Microbiol. 128: 503–527.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. HARBORNE, J.B. 1984. Chemical data in practical taxonomy. In: “Current concepts in plant taxonomy” (V.H. Heywood and D.M.Moore eds.): 237–262.- London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  28. HAWKSWORTH, D.L. 1974. Mycologist’s Handbook. Kew: Commonwealth Mycological Institute.Google Scholar
  29. HAWKSWORTH, D.L. 1976. Lichen chemotaxonomy. In:“ Lichenology: progress & problems (D.H. Brown, D.L. Hawksworth & R.H. Bailey, eds.):139–184.Google Scholar
  30. HAWKSWORTH, D.L. 1979. Ascospore sculpturing and generic concepts in the Testudinaceae (syn. Zopfiaceae). Can. J. Bot. 57: 91–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. HILL, L.R. 1968. The determination of deoxyribonucleic acid base compositions and its application to bacterial taxonomy. In: “Identification methods for microbiologists, part B ( B.M. Gibbs and D.A. Shapton, eds.): 177–186. London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  32. HUBALEK, Z. 1982. A review: Numerical comparitive serology - the methods. J. appl. Bact. 52: 307–318.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. JONES, D. and SACKIN, M.J. 1980. Numerical methods in the classification and identification of bacteria with especial reference to the Enterobacteriaceae. In: “Micriobiological classification and identification (M. Goodfellow and R.G.Board, eds.): 73–106 - London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  34. JONES, M.G. and NOBLE, W.C. 1982. An electrophoretic study of enzymes as a tool in the taxonomy of the dermatophytes. J. gen. Microbiol. 128: 1101–1107.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. KORNERUP, A. and WANSCHER, J.H. 1978. “Methuen Handbook of Colour”. 3rd edn. London: Eyre Methuen.Google Scholar
  36. KOZAKIEWICZ, Z. 1978. Phialide and conidium development in the Aspergilli. Trans. Br. myol. Soc. 70: 175–186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. KOZAKIEWICZ, Z. 1986. Identification of Aspergillus species of stored food products, using the scanning electron microscope, in pressGoogle Scholar
  38. KOZLOWSKI, M., BARTNIK, E. and STEPHEN, P.P. 1982. Restriction enzyme analysis of mitochondrial DNA of members of the genus Aspergillus as an aid in taxonomy. J.gen. Microbiol. 128: 471–476.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. KREGER-VAN RIJ, N.J.W., ed. 1984. “The yeasts. A taxonomic study. 3rd edn.” Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  40. KUBITZKI, K. 1984. Phytochemistry in plant systematics and evolution. In: “Current Concepts On Plant Taxonomy” (V.H. Heywood and D.M. Moore, eds.):263–280. London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  41. LENNETTE, E.H., BALOW, A. and HAUSLER, W.J. 1980. Manual of Clinical Microbiology. 3rd edn. American,Society for Micriobiology, Washington.Google Scholar
  42. MENDONCA-HAGLER, L.C. and PHAFF, H.J. 1975. Deoxyribonucleic acid base composition and deoxyribonucleic acid/ deoxyribonucleic acid hybrid formation in psychrophobic and related yeasts. Internat. J. Syst.Bact. 25: 222–229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. ODDS, F.C., HALL, C.A. and ABBOTT, A.B. 1978. Peptones and mycological reproducibility. Sabouraudia 16: 237–246.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. ONIONS, A.H.S., BRIDGE, P.D. and PATERSON, R.R. 1984. Problems and prospects for the taxonomy of Penicillium. Microbiol. Sci. 1: 185–189.Google Scholar
  45. PATERSON, R.R.M. and HAWKSWORTH, D.L. 1985. The detection of secondary metabolites in dried cultures of Penicillium preserved in herbaria. Trans.Br.mycol. Soc.84: in press.Google Scholar
  46. PAYNE, R.W., YARROW, D and BARNETT, J.A. 1982. The construc- tion by computer of a diagnostic key to the generaGoogle Scholar
  47. of yeasts and other such groups of taxa. J. gen. Microbiol. 128: 1265–1277.Google Scholar
  48. PITT, J.I. 1979. The Genus Penicillium and its teleomorphic states Eupenicillium and Talaromyces. London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  49. RAMIREZ, C. 1982. Manual and Atlas of the Penicillia. Amsterdam: Elsevier Biomedical Press.Google Scholar
  50. RAPER, K.B. and THOM, C. 1949. A manual of the Penicillia. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins.Google Scholar
  51. RAYNER, R.W. 1970. A Mycological Colour Chart. Kew: Commonwealth Mycological Institute.Google Scholar
  52. RIDGWAY, R. 1912. Color standards and color nomenclature. Washington: RidgwayGoogle Scholar
  53. SACKIN, M.J. 1981. Vigour and pattern as applied to multistate quantitative characters in taxonomy. J. gen. Microbiol. 122: 247–254.Google Scholar
  54. SAMSON, R.A. and GAMS, W. 1984. The taxonomic situation in the hyphomycete genera Penicillium, Aspergillus and Fusarium.Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, 50: 815–824.Google Scholar
  55. SAMSON, R.A., STOLK, A.C. and HADLOK, R. 1976. Revision of the subsection Fasciculata of Penicillium and some allied species. Stud.Mycol., Baarn 11: 1–47.Google Scholar
  56. SCOTT, P. 1981. Liquid chromatography in analysis of mycotoxins. In: “Trace Analysis” ( J.F. Lawrence, ed.) 1: 194–266. London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  57. SCOTT, P.M., LAWRENCE, J.W. and VAN WALBECK, W. 1979. Detection of mycotoxins by thin layer chromatography: applications to screening of fungal extracts. Appl.Microbiol. 20: 839–842.Google Scholar
  58. SHIPTON, W.A. and LUNN, J.A. 1980. Sporangiole morphology and species separation in Cunninghamella. Trans. Br. mycol. Soc. 74: 483–491.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. SMITH, G. 1949. The effect of adding trace elements to Czapek-Dox medium. Trans.Br.mycol. Soc. 32: 280–283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. SNEATH, P.H.A. 1977. A method for testing the distinctness of clusters: a test of the disjunction of two clusters in Euclidean space as measured by their overlap. J. Internat. Ass.Math.Geol. 9: 123–143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. SNEATH, P.H.A. 1978. Classification of micro-organisms. In: “Essays in Microbiology” (J.R. Norris and M.H. Richmond, eds.): 9/1–9/31. Chichester: John Wiley.Google Scholar
  62. SNEATH, P.H.A. 1979. BASIC program for identification of an unknown with presence-absence data against an identification matrix of percent positive characters. Computers & Geosciences 5: 195–213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. SNEATH, P.H.A. and SOKAL, R.R. 1973. Numerical Taxonomy. 2nd edn. San Francisco: W.H. Freeman.Google Scholar
  64. STOUT, D.L. and SHAW, C.R. 1973. Comparative enzyme patterns in Thamnidium elegans and T. anomalum. Mycologia 65: 803–808.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. THOM, C. 1910. Cultural studies of species of Penicillium. Bull.Anim.Ind., U.S.D.A. 118: 1–109.Google Scholar
  66. VAN VUUREN, H.J.J., KERSTERS, K., DELEY, J. and TOERIEN, D.F. 1981. The identification of Enterobacteriaceae from breweries: combined use of and comparison of API ZOE system, gel electrophoresis of proteins and gas chromatography of volatile metabolites. J.appl. Bact. 51: 51–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. WALKER, F.J. and JAMES, P.W. 1980. A revised guide to microchemical techniques for the identification of lichen products. Bull.Br. Lichen Soc. 46: 13–29.Google Scholar
  68. WILLIAMS, S.T., GOODFELLOW, M., ALDERSON, G., WELLINGTON, E.M.H., SNEATH, P.H.A., and SACKIN, M.J. 1983a. Numerical classification of Streptomyces and related genera. J.gen.Microbiol. 129: 1743–1813.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. WILLIAMS, S.T., GOODFELLOW, M., WELLINGTON, E.M.H., VICKERS, J.C., ALDERSON, G., SNEATH, P.H.A., SACKIN, M.J. and MORTIMER, A.M. 1983 b. A probability matrix for identification of some Streptomycetes. J. gen.Micriobiol. 129: 1815–1830.Google Scholar
  70. WONG, A.L. and WILLETTS, H.J. 1973. Electropheretic studies of soluble proteins and enzymes of Sclerotinia species. Trans. Br. mycol. Soc. 61: 167–178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • Paul D. Bridge
    • 1
  • David L. Hawksworth
    • 1
  • Zofia Kozakiewicz
    • 1
  • Agnes H. S. Onions
    • 1
  • Russel R. M. Paterson
    • 1
  • Michael J. Sackin
    • 2
  1. 1.Commonwealth Mycological InstituteKew SurreyUK
  2. 2.Department of MicrobiologyLeicester UniversityLeicesterUK

Personalised recommendations