The Leader pp 301-311 | Cite as

Reflections on Leadership

  • Daniel Offer
  • Charles B. Strozier


This final chapter presents the authors’ reflections on leadership made during the four years of writing and editing this book. Some of the topics to be discussed are the question of psychological evidence, the ethical questions concerning psychohistorical studies of leadership, and the methodology of the behavioral and social sciences as it affects the nature of the evidence. We also consider the psychological qualities which enable a “good” leader to carry out his functions. Finally, we comment on the problems which leaders encounter in the nuclear age.


Crisis Situation Research Alliance Individual Case Study Psychological Evidence Cuban Missile Crisis 
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  1. 1.
    Daniel Offer and Judith B. Offer, From Teenage to Young Manhood (New York: Basic Books, 1975).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Jack Block, Lives Through Time (Berkeley: Bancroft Books, 1971)Google Scholar
  3. G. E. Vaillant, Adaptation to Life (Boston: Little, Brown, 1977).Google Scholar
  4. 3.
    Daniel Offer and Melvin Sabshin, eds., Normality and the Life Cycle: A Critical Integration (New York: Basic Books, 1984). See particularly Part III, written by the editors.Google Scholar
  5. 4.
    Milton Greenblatt, “Tower and Impairment of Great Leaders,” presented as Distinguished Psychiatrist Lecture, American Psychiatric Association Annual Meeting, May 2, 1983, New York City.Google Scholar
  6. 5.
    Task Force Report #11, The Psychiatrist as Psychohistorian, American Psychiatric Association, Washington, D.C., June, 1976.Google Scholar
  7. 6.
    Charles B. Strozier, Lincoln’s Quest for Union: Public and Private Meanings (New York: Basic Books, 1982).Google Scholar
  8. 7.
    Sigmund Freud and William L. Bullitt, Thomas Woodrow Wilson: A Psychological Study (London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1967)Google Scholar
  9. Fawn Brody, Richard Nixon: The Shaping of His Character (New York: Norton, 1981)Google Scholar
  10. Doris Kearns, Lyndon Johnson and the American Dream (New York: Harper & Row, 1976); andGoogle Scholar
  11. Margaret Brenman-Gibson, Clifford Odets, American Playwright: The Years from 1906 to 1940 (New York: Atheneum, 1981).Google Scholar
  12. 8.
    John Klauber, “On the Dual Use of Historical and Scientific Methods in Psychoanalysis,” International Journal of Psychoanalysis, 49 (1968), 80–88.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 9.
    Daniel Offer and Melvin Sabshin, “Research Alliance Versus Therapeutic Alliance: A Comparison,” American Journal of Psychiatry, 123 (1967), 1519–1526.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 10.
    The detailed discussions of the contributions of Freud, Erikson, and Kohut to our understanding of the psychology of leadership are found in Chapters 4, 5, and 7, respectively.Google Scholar
  15. 11.
    Personal interview with Roy R. Grinker Sr., on James G. Miller, January, 1984.Google Scholar
  16. 12.
    Sigmund Freud, The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud (London: Hogarth Press, 1953–1966).Google Scholar
  17. 13.
    One of the best known theories of personality is that by Henry A. Murray, Exploration in Personality (New York: Oxford University Press, 1938). There are literally dozens of theories of personality, each stressing different biological, psychological, developmental, or socio-cultural factors.Google Scholar
  18. 14.
    Daniel Offer, Eric Ostrov, and Kenneth I. Howard, The Adolescent: A Psychological Self-Portrait (New York: Basic Books, 1981). See particularly Chapter 1, “The Self: A Theoretical View,”Google Scholar
  19. 15.
    This view is in marked contrast to the view expressed recently by Abraham Zaleznik, who stated that true leaders have “wider-ranging sexual appetites than most mortals,” in Peter Cowen, “Business Leaders get Poor Grades,” Boston Globe, February 18, 1983, p. 3.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • Daniel Offer
  • Charles B. Strozier

There are no affiliations available

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