Cardiology pp 643-648 | Cite as

The Present Status of Cardiovascular Medicine in Africa

  • Oladipo O. Akinkugbe


The three dominant groups of cardiovascular conditions in Africa today are: Hypertension, Rheumatic Heart Disease and the Cardiomyopathies (including Endomyocardial Fibrosis). Less common are congenital heart disease, cor pulmonale, pericarditis, the arrhythmias, anaemia or beriberi heart disease, ventricular aneurysms and idiopathic aortitis. It is worthy of note that Ischaemic Heart Disease remains distinctly uncommon among indigenous African communities, although sporadic cases are now beginning to emerge in the higher socio-economic strata of certain urban populations1–3.


Infective Endocarditis Rheumatic Heart Disease Hypertensive Heart Disease Ventricular Aneurysm Hypertensive Retinopathy 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    H. C. Seftel. The rarity of coronary heart disease in South African blacks. S. Afr. Med. J., 54:99, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    A. O. Falase, T. O. Cole and B. O. Osuntokun. Myocardial infarction in Nigerians. Trop. Geogr. Med., 25:147, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    G. V. Mann, A. Spoerry, M. Gray and D. Jarashow. Atherosclerosis in the Masai. Amer. J. Epidemiol., 95:26, 1972.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    O. O. Akinkugbe and O. A. Ojo. Arterial pressures in rural and urban populations in Nigeria. Brit. Med. J., 2:222, 1969.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    G. W. Cornstock. An epidemiologic study of blood pressure levels in a biracial community in the Southern United States. Amer. J. Hygiene, 65:271, 1957.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    W. E. Miall, E. H. Kass, J. Ling and K. L. Stuart. Factors influencing arterial pressure in the general population in Jamaica. Brit. Med. J., ii:497, 1962.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    A. C. Ikeme, F. J. Bennett and K. Somers. The cardiovascular status of middle-aged and elderly Ugandan Africans. E. Afr. Med. J., 51:409, 1974.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    S. Hatano, Hypertension in Japan: in: “Epidemiology of Hypertension” ed. O. Paul, Florida Symposium Specialists, 1975.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    I. Prior. Cardiovascular epidemiology in New Zealand and the Pacific. New Zealand Med. J., 80:245, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    F. H. Epstein and R. D. Eckhoff. The epidemiology of high blood pressure — geographic distributions and etiological factors. In: Epidemiology of Hypertension: Proceedings of an International Symposium eds. J. Stamler, R. Stamler and T. N. Pullman. New York: Grune and Stratton, 1967.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    A. S. Truswell, B. M. Kennelly, J. D. L. Hansen and R. B. Lee. Blood pressures of Kung bushmen in Northern Botswana. Amer. Heart J., 84:5, 1972.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    I. Maddocks. Blood pressure in Melanesians. Med. J. Australia, 1:1123, 1967.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    S. Padmavati and S. Gupta. Blood pressure studies in rural and urban groups in Delhi. Circulation 19:395, 1959.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    A. G. Shaper, D. H. Wright and J. Kyobe. Blood pressure and body build in three nomadic tribes of Northern Kenya. E. Afr. Med. J., 46:273, 1969.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    A. G. Shaper. Cardiovascular disease in the tropics III. Brit. Med. J., iii:805, 1972.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    J. R. Billinghurst. Analysis of neurological admissions to Mulago Hospital, Kampala 1965–66. E. Afr. Med. J., 43:566, 1966.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    B. O. Osuntokun, E. L. Odeku and A. Adeloye. Cerebrovascular accidents in Nigerians: A study of 348 patients. W. Afr. Med. J., 18:160, 1969.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    R. R. Frerichs, S. R. Srinivasan, L. S. Webber and G. S. Berenson. Serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels in 3446 children from a biracial community. The Bogalusa Heart Study.Circulation 54:302, 1976.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    S. R. Srinivasan, R. R. Frerichs, L.S. Webber and G. S. Berenson. Serum lipoprotein profile in children from a biracial community. The Bogalusa Heart Study. Circulation 54:309, 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Y. K. Seedat and J. Reddy. The clinical pattern of hypertension in the South African black population: a study of 1000 patients. Afr. J. Ed. Sci., 5:1, 1976.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    O. O. Akinkugbe. The rarity of severe hypertensive retinopathy in the African. Amer. J. Med., 45:401, 1968.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    P. S. Sever, D. Gordon, W. S. Peart and P. Beighton. Blood pressure and its correlates in urban and tribal Africa. Lancet, ii:60, 1980.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    W. S. Peart. Concepts in Hypertension: The Croonian Lecture. J. Royal Coll. Phys. London. 14:141, 1979.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    A. W. Voors, G. S. Berenson, E. R. Datferes, L. S. Webber and W. E. Shuler. Racial differences in blood pressure control. Science, 204:1091, 1979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    L. K. Dahl. Possible role of chronic excess salt consumption in the pathogenesis of essential hypertension. Amer. J. Cardiol. 8:571, 1961.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    L. B. Page. Epidemiologic evidence on the aetiology of human hypertension and its possible prevention. Amer. Heart J. 91:527, 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    F. C. Luft, C. E. Grim, J. T. Higgins Jr. and M. H. Weinberger. Differences in response to sodium administration in normotensive white and black subjects. J. Lab. Clin. Med. 90:555, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    A. F. Aderounmu and L. A. Salako. Abnormal cation composition and transport in erythrocytes from hypertensive patients. Eur. J. Clin. Invest., 9:369, 1979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    G. R. Meenly and H. D. Battarbee. High sodium, low potassium environment and hypertension. Amer. J. Cardiol., 28:768, 1979.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    P. G. D’Arbela. Rheumatic heart disease and infective endocarditis: the problem in cardiological practice in Africa in: Cardiovascular Disease in Africa, O. O. Akinkugbe ed. Ciba-Geigy, Basle, 1976.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    B. L. Agrawal. Rheumatic heart disease unabated in developing countries. Lancet, 2:910, 1981.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    O. Ogunbi, H. O. Fadahunsi, I. Ahmed, A. Animasahun, S. O. Daniel, D. U. Onuoha and L. Q. O. Ogunbi. An epidemiological study of rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease in Lagos, Nigeria. in: Cardiovascular Disease in Africa, O. O. Akinkugbe ed. Ciba-Geigy, Basle, 1976.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Brit. Heart Journal. Report of the WHO/ISFC task force on the definition and classification of cardiomyopathies. 44:672, 1980.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    H. C. Seftel. Cardiomyopathies in the Johannesburg Bantu: Part II Aetiology of idiopathic cardiomegaly. S. Afr. Med. J., 46:1823, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    U. Basile, B. O. Osuntokun, A. O. Falase and M. A. Aladetoyinbo. Thiamine deficiency and idiopathic cardiomegaly in Nigerian adults. Afr. J. Med. Sci., 4:465, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Z. Fejfar. Cardiomyopathies: An international problem. Cardiologia, 52:9, 1968.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    N. McD. Davidson and E. H. O. Parry. Peripartum cardiac failure p.199. In: Cardiovascular disease in the Tropics eds. A. G. Shaper, M. S. R. Hutt and Z. Fejfar. Levenham Press, Suffolk.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    A. O. Falase, A. Fabiyi and E. O. Ogunba. Idiopathic cardiomegaly in Ibadan revisited. In: Cardiovascular Disease in Africa ed. O. O. Akinkugbe. Ciba-Geigy, Basle. p.37, 1976.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    G. Cambridge, C. G. C. MacArthur, A. P. Waterson, J. R. Goodwin and C. M. Oakley. Antibodies to Coxsackie B viruses in congestive cardiomyopathy. Brit. Heart J., 41:692, 1979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    I. F. Brockington. Debate: That congestive cardiomyopathy is really hypertensive heart disease in disguise. Postgrad. Med. J., 48:778, 1972.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    E. H. O. Parry and D. G. Abrahams. The natural history of endomyocardial fibrosis. Quart. J. Med., (NS) 34:383, 1965.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    I. F. Brockington and E. G. J. Olsen. Loeffler’s endocarditis and Davies’ endomyocarditis. Amer. Heart J., 85:308, 1973.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • Oladipo O. Akinkugbe
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of MedicineUniversity of IbadanIbadanNigeria

Personalised recommendations