Cardiology pp 561-567 | Cite as

Maintenance of Ca2+ Homeostasis in the Myocardium

  • Winifred G. Nayler

Summary

Maintenance of intracellular homeostasis with respect to Ca++ during prolonged episodes of ischaemia and upon reperfusion is critical to the survival of the myocardium. Loss of Ca++ homeostasis results in massive ultrastructural damage, associated with excessive phospholipase and proteinase activation. Aggravating factors include hyperthermia, excessive cardiac work and hyperthyroidism. Conversely hypothermia, a reduction in sympathetic drive and a diminution in work load are all protective. Since the release of intracellular constituents, including enzymes and myoglobin, into the extracellular phase during post ischaemic reperfusion occurs as a secondary response to the Ca2+-induced tissue damage the quantitation of protective procedures that are based simply on the measurement of serum enzymes may not provide an accurate assessment of the degree of protection that has been achieved. In some instances it is possible to dissociate the gain in tissue Ca2+ from the release of intracellular constituents into the extracellular phase.

Keywords

Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Mechanical Function Potassium Alteration Membrane Defect Protective Procedure 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Ashraf, M., White, F. and Bloor, C. M., 1978. Ultrastructural influences of reperfusing dog myocardium with calcium-free blood after coronary artery occlusion. Am. J. Path. 90: 423–434.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Carafoli, E., Tiozzo, R., Luggli, G. , Crovetti, F. and Kratzing, C., 1974. The release of calcium from heart mitochondria by sodium. J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol. 6: 361–372.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Chien, K. E., Reeves, J. P., Buja, L. M., Bonte, F., Parkey, R. W. and Willeson, J. T., 1981. Phospholipid alterations in canine ischemic myocardium. Circ. Res. 48: 711–719.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Dunnett, J. S. and Nayler, W. G., 1978. Effect of pH on the uptake and efflux of calcium from cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum vesicles. J. Physiol. 281: 16–17P.Google Scholar
  5. Fabiato, A. and Fabiato, F., 1977. Calcium release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. Circ. Res. 40: 119–129.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Fleckenstein, A., 1970/1971. Specific inhibitors and promoters of calcium action in the excitation-contraction coupling of heart muscle and their role in the prevention or production of myocardial lesions, Calcium and the Heart. Edited by P. Harris, L. Opie. London, New York, Academic Press, pp 135–188.Google Scholar
  7. Gevers, W., 1977. Generation of protons by metabolic processes in heart cells. J. Mo. Cell. Cardiol. 9: 867–874.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Jennings, R. B. and Reimer, K. A., 1981. Lethal myocardial ischemic injury. Am. J. Path. 102: 241–255.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Nayler, W. G., 1982. “The role of calcium in myocardial ischemia and cell death”, in “Calcium Channel Blocking Agents in the Treatment of Cardiovascular Disorders”, ed. P. Stone and E. Antman. Futura Publishing Co., N. Y. In press.Google Scholar
  10. Nayler, W. G., Ferrari, R. and Williams, A., 1980. The protective effect of pretreatment with verapamil, nifedipine and propranolol on mitochondrial function in the ischemic and reperfused myocardium. Am. J. Cardiol. 46: 242–248.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Nayler, W. G., Poole-Wilson and Williams, A., 1979. Hypoxia and calcium. J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol. 11: 683–706.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Regan, T. J., Broisman, L., Haider, B., Eaddy, C. and Olderwurtel, H. A., 1980. Dissociation of myocardial sodium and potassium alterations in mild versus severe ischemia. Am. J. Physiol. 238: H575–H580.Google Scholar
  13. Reuter, H., 1974. Exchange of calcium ions in mammalian cardiology. Circ. Res. 34: 599–605.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Shen, A. C. and Jennings, R. B., 1972. Myocardial calcium and mag-nesium in acute ischemic injury. Am. J. Path. 67: 417–440.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Sperelakis, N. and Schneider, J. A., 1976. A metabolic control mechanism for calcium ion influx that may protect the ventricular myocardial cell. Am. J. Cardiol. 37: 1079–1084.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Zimmerman, A. N. E., Hulsmann, W. C., 1966. Paradoxical influence of calcium ions on the permeability of the cell membranes of the isolated rat heart. Nature. 211: 646–647.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • Winifred G. Nayler
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of MedicineUniversity of Melbourne Austin HospitalHeidelbergAustralia

Personalised recommendations