Endocrine Surgery

  • Jack Pickleman


Which of the following is not currently considered to be an acceptable treatment for Cushing’s disease?
  1. A.

    Subtotal adrenalectomy.

  2. B.

    Transphenoidal hypophysectomy.

  3. C.

    Total adrenalectomy.

  4. D.

    Pituitary irradiation.

  5. E.

    Adrenocorticolytic drugs (o,p-DDD).



Thyroid Carcinoma Thyroid Nodule Total Thyroidectomy Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma Grave Disease 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Scott, H.W., Liddle, G.W., Mulherin, J.L., McKenna, T.J., Stroup, S.L., Rhamy, R.K.: Surgical experience with Cushing’s disease. Ann. Surg. 185: 524, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Wilson, C.B., Tyrrell, J.B., Fitzgerald, P.: Cushing’s disease revisited. Am. J. Surg. 138: 77, 1979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Tyrrell, J.B., Brooks, R.M., Fitzgerald, P.A., Cofoid, P.B., Forsham, P.H., Wilson, C.B.: Cushing’s disease: Selective transphenoidal resection of pituitary microadenomas. N. Engl. J. Med. 298: 753, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Jennings, A.S., Liddle, G.W., Orth, D.N.: Results of treating childhood Cushing’s disease with pituitary irradiation. N. Engl. J. Med. 297: 957, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Luton, J.P., Mahoudeau, J.A., Bouchard, T., Thieblot, T., Hautecouverture, M., Simon, D., Laudat, M.H., Touitou, Y., Bricaire, H.: Treatment of Cushing’s disease by o,p-DDD: Survey of 62 cases. N. Engl. J. Med. 300: 459, 1979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Scott, H.W., Foster, J.H., Rhamy, R.K., Klatte, E., Liddle, G.W.: Surgical management of adrenocortical tumors with Cushing’s syndrome. Ann. Surg. 173: 892, 1971.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Delarue, N.C., Laidlaw, J.C., Kovacs, K., Colapinto, R., Murray, F.T.: Hypertension due to primary aldosteronism: Surgical considerations. Surgery 80: 289, 1976.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Herwig, K.R.: Primary aldosteronism: Experience with 38 patients. Surgery 86: 470, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hunt, T.K., Schambelan, M., Biglieri, E.G.: Selection of patients and operative approach in primary aldosteronism. Ann. Surg. 182: 353, 1975.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Auda, S.P., Brennan, M.F., Gill, J.R.: Evolution of the surgical management of primary aldosteronism. Ann. Surg. 191: 1, 1980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Remine, W.H., Chong, G.C., VanHeerden, J.A., Sheps, S.G., Harrison, E.G.: Current management of pheochromocytoma. Ann. Surg. 179: 740, 1974.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Scott, H.W., Oates, J.A., Nies, A.S., Berko, H., Page, D.L., Rhamy, R.K.: Pheochromocytoma: Present diagnosis and management. Ann. Surg. 183: 587, 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Harrison, T.S., Dagher, F.J., Beck, L., Bartlett, J.D.: Rationale and indications for preoperative adrenergic receptor blockade in pheochromocytoma. Med. Clin. North Am. 53: 1349, 1969.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Himathongkam, T., Newmark, S.R., Greenfield, M., Dluhy, R.G.: Pheochromocytoma. J.A.M.A. 230: 1692, 1974.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Fernandez-Herlighy, L.: The management of the surgical patient who has had corticosteroid therapy. Surg. Clin. North Am. 42: 589, 1962.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Roberts, J.C.: Operative collapse after corticosteroid therapy: A survey. Surg. Clin. North Am. 50: 363, 1970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Sibbald, W.J., Short, A., Cohen, M.P., Wilson, R.F.: Variations in adrenocortical responsiveness during severe bacterial infections. Ann. Surg. 186: 29, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Hubay, C.A., Weckesser, E.C., Levy, R.P. Occult adrenal insufficiency in surgical patients. Ann. Surg. 181: 325, 1975.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Majewski, J.T., Wilson, S.D.: The MEN-I syndrome: An all or none phenomenon? Surgery 86: 475, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Isenberg, J.I., Walsh, J.H., Grossman, M.I.: Zollinger—Ellison syndrome. Gastroenterology 65: 140, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Deveney, C.W., Deveney, K.S., Jaffe, B.M., Jones, R.S., Way, L.W.: Use of calcium and secretin in the diagnosis of gastrinoma (Zollinger—Ellison syndrome). Ann. Intern. Med. 87: 680, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Ganguli, P.C., Polak, J.M., Pearse, A.G.E., Elder, J.B., Hegarty, M.: Antral-gastrincell hyperplasia in peptic-ulcer disease. Lancet 1: 583, 1974.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Davis, C.E., Vansant, J.H.: Zollinger—Ellison syndrome: Spontaneous regression of advanced intra-abdominal metastases with 20 year survival. Ann. Surg. 189: 620, 1979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Passaro, E., Gordon, H.E.: Malignant gastrinoma following total gastrectomy. Arch. Surg. 108: 444, 1974.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Stadil, F., Stage, G., Rehfeld, J.F., Efsen, F., Fischerman, K.: Treatment of Zollinger—Ellison syndrome with streptozotocin. N. Engl. J. Med. 294: 1440, 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    McCarthy, D.M.: Report on the United States experience with cimetidine in Zollinger—Ellison syndrome and other hypersecretory states. Gastroenterology 74: 453, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Kaplan, E.L., Peskin, G.W., Deveney, C., Way, L., Jaffe, B.: Ulcer disease, metabolic alkalosis, and hyperparathyroidism: A mechanism of interrelationship? Ann. Surg. 180: 549, 1974.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Welbourn, R.B.: Current status of the apudomas. Ann. Surg. 185: 1, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Case 20–1975, Case records of the Massachusetts General Hospital: Weekly clinico-pathologic exercises. N. Engl. J. Med. 292: 1117, 1975.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Higgins, G.A., Recant, L., Fischman, A.B.: The glucagonoma syndrome: Surgically curable diabetes. Am. J. Surg. 137: 142, 1979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Ingemansson, S., Holst, J., Larsson, L.I., Lunderquist, A.: Location of glucagonomas by catheterization of the pancreatic veins and with glucagon assay. Surg. Gynecol. Obstet. 145: 509, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Danforth, D.N., Triche, T., Doppman, J.L., Beazley, R.M., Perrino, P.V., Recant, L.: Elevated plasma pro glucagon like component with a glucagon secreting tumor: Effect of streptozotocin. N. Engl. J. Med. 295: 242, 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Bloom, S.R.: Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, the major mediator of the WDHA pancreatic cholera syndrome. Digestive Diseases 23: 373, 1978.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Ebeid, A.M., Murray, P.D., Fischer, J.E.: Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide and the watery diarrhea syndrome. Ann. Surg. 187: 411, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Jaffe, B.M., Kopen, D.F., Deschryver-Kecskemeti, K., Gingerich, R.L., Greider, M.: Indomethacin responsive pancreatic cholera. N. Engl. J. Med. 297: 817, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Jaffe, B.M.; Condon, S.: Prostaglandins E and F in endocrine diarrheagenic symdromes. Ann. Surg. 184: 516, 1976.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Elias, E., Bloom, S.R., Welbourn, R.B., Kuzio, M., Polak, J.M., Pearse, A.G.E., Booth, C.C., Brown, J.C.: Pancreatic cholera due to production of gastric inhibitory polypeptide. Lancet 2: 791, 1972.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Friesen, S.R., Kimmel, J.R., Tornita, T.: Pancreatic polypeptide as screening marker for pancreatic polypeptide apudomas in multiple endocrinopathies. Am. J. Surg. 139: 61, 1980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Kahn, C.R., Levy, A.G., Gardner, J.D., Miller, J.V., Gordon, P., Schein, P.S.: Pancreatic cholera: Beneficial effects of treatment with streptozotocin. N. Engl. J. Med. 292: 941, 1975.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    VanHeerden, J.A., Edis, A.J., Service, F.J.: The surgical aspects of insulinomas. Ann. Surg. 189: 677, 1979.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Kaplan, E.L., Rubinstein, A.H., Evans, R., Lee, C.H., Klementschitsch, P.: Calcium infusion: A new provocative test for insulinomas. Ann. Surg. 190: 501, 1979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Harrison, T.S., Child, C.G., Fry, W.J., Floyd, J.C., Fajans, S.S.: Current surgical management of functioning islet cell tumors of the pancreas. Ann. Surg. 178: 485, 1973.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Ingemansson, S.G., Lunderquist, A., Lundqvist, I., Loudahl, R., Tibblin, S.: Portal and pancreatic vein catheterization with radioimmunologic determination of insulin. Surg. Gynecol. Obstet. 141: 705, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Schwartz, S.S., Horwitz, D.L., Zehfus, B., Langer, B.G., Kaplan, E.: Continuous monitoring and control of plasma glucose during operation for removal of insulinomas. Surgery 85: 702, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Thomas, C.G., Underwood, L.E., Carney, C.M., Dolcourt, J.L., Whitt, J.J.: Neonatal and infantile hypoglycemia due to insulin excess: New aspects of diagnosis and surgical management. Ann. Surg. 185: 505, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Shermeta, D.W., Mendelsohn, G., Haller, J.A.: Hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia of the neonate associated with persistent fetal histology and function of the pancreas. Ann. Surg. 191: 182, 1980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Carney, C.N.: Congenital insulinoma (nesidioblastoma). Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. 100: 352, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Edis, A.J., Beahrs, O.H., VanHeerden, J.A., Akwari, O.E.: “Conservative” versus “liberal” approach to parathyroid neck exploration. Surgery 82: 466, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Paloyan, E., Lawrence, A.M., Baker, W.H., Straus, F.H.: Near total parathyroidectomy. Surg. Clin. North Am. 49: 43, 1969.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Clark, O.H., Way, L.W., Hunt, T.K.: Recurrent hyperparathyroidism. Ann. Surg. 184: 391, 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Block, M.A., Frame, B., Jackson, C.E., Horn, R.C.: The extent of operation for primary hyperparathyroidism. Arch. Surg. 109: 798, 1974.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Block, M.A., Frame, B., Kleerekoper, M., Rao, D.S.: Surgical management of persistence or recurrence after subtotal parathyroidectomy for primary hyperparathyroidism. Am. J. Surg. 138: 561, 1979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Perzik, S.L.: Total thyroidectomy in the management of Graves’ disease: A review of 282 cases. Am. J. Surg. 131: 284, 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Safa, A.M., Schumacher, O.P., Rodriguez-Antunez, A.: Long-term follow-up results in children and adolescents treated with radioactive iodine (131I) for hyperthyroidism. N. Engl. J. Med. 292: 167, 1975.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    DeGroot, L., Paloyan, E.: Thyroid carcinoma and radiation. A Chicago epidemic. J.A.M.A. 225: 487, 1973.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Favus, M.J., Schneider, A.B., Stachura, M.E., Arnold, J.E., Ryo, U.Y., Pinsky, S.M., Colman, M., Arnold, M.J., Frohman, L.A.: Thyroid cancer occurring as a late consequence of head and neck irradiation. N. Engl. J. Med. 294: 1019, 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Paloyan, E., Lawrence, A.M., Brooks, M.H., Pickleman, J.R.: Total thyroidectomy and parathyroid autotransplantation for radiation-associated thyroid cancer. Surgery 80: 70, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Heimann, P.: Should hyperthyroidism be treated by surgery? World J. Surg. 2: 281, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Greer, M.A., Kammer, H., Bouma, D.J.: Short-term antithyroid drug therapy for the thyroid toxicosis of Graves’ disease. N. Engl. J. Med. 297: 173, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Lee, T.C., Coffey, R.J., Mackin, J., Cobb, M., Routon, J., Canary, J.J.: The use of propranalol in the surgical treatment of thyrotoxic patients. Ann. Surg. 177: 643, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Bewsher, P.D., Pegg, C.A.S., Stewart, D.J., Lister, D.A., Michie, W.: Propranalol in the surgical management of thryotoxicosis. Ann. Surg. 180: 787, 1974.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Starling, J.R., Thomas, C.G.: Experience with the use of propranalol in the surgical management of thyrotoxicosis. World J. Surg. 1: 251, 1977.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    ReMine, W.H., McConahey, W.M.: Management of thyroid nodules. Surg. Clin. North Am. 57: 523, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Hoffman, G.L., Thompson, N.W., Heffron, C.: The solitary thyroid nodule. Arch. Surg. 105: 379, 1972.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Refetoff, S., Harrison, J., Karanfilski, B.T., Kaplan, E.L., DeGroot, L.J., Bekerman, C.: Continuing Ooccurrence of thyroid carcinoma after irradiation to the neck in infancy and childhood. N. Engl. J. Med. 292: 171, 1975.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Spitalnik, P.F., Straus, F.H.: Patterns of human thyroid parenchymal reaction following low dose childhood irradiation. Cancer 41: 1098, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Thompson, N.W., Harness, J.K.: Complications of total thyroidectomy for carcinoma. Surg. Gynecol. Obstet. 131: 861, 1970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Russell, W.O., Ibanez, M.L., Clark, R.L., White, E.C.: Thyroid carcinoma. Cancer 16: 1425, 1963.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Block, M.A., Miller, J.M., Horn, R.C.: Thyroid carcinoma with cervical lymph node metastasis: Effectiveness of total thyroidectomy and node dissection. Am. J. Surg. 122: 458, 1971.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Harness, J.K., Thompson, N.W., Sisson, J.C., Beierwaltes, W.H.: Differentiated thyroid carcinomas: Treatment of distant metastases. Arch. Surg. 108: 410, 1974.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Mazzaferri, E.L., Young, R.L., Oertel, J.E., Kemmerer, W.T., Page, C.P.: Papillary thyroid carcinoma: The impact of therapy in 576 patients. Medicine 56: 171, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Katz, A.D., Bronson, D.: Total thyroidectomy: The indications and results of 630 cases. Am. J. Surg. 136: 450, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Aldinger, K.A., Samaan, N.A., Ibanez, M., Hill, C.S.: Anaplastic carcinoma of the thyroid. Cancer 41: 2267, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Kyriakides, G., Sosin, H.: Anaplastic carcinoma of the thyroid. Ann. Surg. 179: 295, 1974.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Maloof, F.: Case 37–1979, Case records of the Massachusetts General Hospital. N. Engl. J. Med. 301: 600, 1979.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Braverman, L.E.: Case 29–1975, Case records of the Massachusetts General HOspital. N. Engl. J. Med. 293: 186, 1975.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Thomas, C.G., Buckwalter, J.A.: Poorly differentiated neoplasms of the thyroid gland. Ann. Surg. 177: 632, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Rossi, R., Cady, B., Meissner, W.A., Sedgwick, C.E., Werber, J.: Prognosis of undifferentiated carcinoma and lymphoma of the thyroid. Am. J. Surg. 135: 589, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Norton, J.A., Froome, L.C., Farrell, R.E., Wells, S.A.: Multiple endocrine neoplasia type IIB: The most aggressive form of medullary thyroid carcinoma. Surg. Clin. North Am. 59: 109, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Sizemore, G.W., Carney, J.A., Heath, H.: Epidemiology of medullary carcinoma of the thyroid gland: A five year experience. Surg. Clin. North Am. 57: 633, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Graze, K., Spiler, I.J., Tashjian, A.H.: Natural history of familial medullary thyroid carcinoma. N. Engl. J. Med. 299: 980, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Wells, S.A., Baylin, S.B., Linehan, W.M., Farrell, R.E., Cox, E.B., Cooper, C.W.: Provocative agents in the diagnosis of medullary carcinoma of the thyroid gland. Ann. Surg. 188: 139, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Freier, D.T., Thompson, N.W., Sisson, J.C., Nishiyama, R.H., Freitas, J.E.: Dilemmas in the early diagnosis and treatment of multiple endocrine adenomatosis, type II. Surgery 82: 407, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Carney, J.A., Sizemore, G.W., Tyce, G.M.: Bilateral adrenal medullary hyperplasia in multiple endocrine neoplasia, type II: The precursor of bilateral pheochromocytoma. Mayo Clin. Proc. 50: 3, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Patient Management Problem #3, SESAP III. American College of Surgeons Surgical Education and Self Assessment Program. Chicago, Illinois, 1979.Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Block, M.A., Jackson, C.E., Tashjian, A.H.: Management of parathyroid glands in surgery for medullary thyroid carcinoma. Arch. Surg. 110: 617, 1975.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Jackson, C.E., Tashjian, A.H., Block, M.A.: Detection of medullary thyroid cancer by calcitonin assay in families. Ann. Intern. Med. 78: 845, 1973.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Block, M.A., Jackson, C.E., Tashjian, A.H.: Management of occult medullary thyroid carcinoma. Arch. Surg. 113: 368, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Skeggs, L.T., Dorer, F.E., Kahn, J.R., Lentz, K.E., Levine, M.: The biochemistry of the renin angiotensin system and its role in hypertension. Am. J. Med. 60: 737, 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Fraley, E.E., Feldman, B.H.: Renal hypertension. N. Engl. J. Med. 287: 550, 1972.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Stanley, J.C., Fry, W.J.: Renovascular hypertension secondary to arterial fibrodysplasia in adults. Arch. Surg. 110:922, 1975.Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Perry, M.O.: Fibromuscular dysplasia. Surg. Gynecol. Obstet. 139: 97, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Foster, J.H., Dean, R.H., Pinkerton, J.A., Rhamy, R.K.: Ten years experience with the surgical management of renovascular hypertension. Ann. Surg. 177: 755, 1973.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Stanley, J.C., Fry, W.J.: Surgical treatment of renovascular hypertension. Arch. Surg. 112: 1291, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Millan, V.G., Mast, W.E., Madias, N.E.: Nonsurgical treatment of severe hypertension due to renal artery intimal fibroplasia by percutaneous transluminal angioplasty. N. Engl. J. Med. 300: 1371, 1979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jack Pickleman
    • 1
  1. 1.Loyola University Stritch School of MedicineMaywoodUSA

Personalised recommendations