• Edward A. Birge
Part of the Springer Series in Microbiology book series (SSMIC)


The phenotype of a cell can be considered as the sum total of all the physiologic processes which are currently active in that cell. The genotype of a cell is the total physiologic potential of the cell, regardless of which processes are actually in use at a given moment. The difference between the phenotype and the genotype of a cell is a function of the regulatory mechanisms available to the cell, and it is these mechanisms which are the subject of this chapter.


Leader Peptide Transcription Termination Promoter Site Polar Mutation cAMP Receptor Protein 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.



  1. Adhya, S., Gottesman, M. 1978. Control of transcription termination. Annual Review of Biochemistry 47:967–996.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Copeland, J.C., Marzluf, G.A. (eds.) 1977. Regulatory Biology. Columbus: Ohio State University Press.Google Scholar
  3. Crawford, I.P., Stauffer, G.V. 1980. Regulation of tryptophan biosynthesis. Annual Review of Biochemistry 49:163–195.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Franklin, N.C. 1978. Genetic fusions for operon analysis. Annual Review of Genetics 12:193–221.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Miller, J.H., Reznikoff, W.S. (eds.) 1978. The Operon. Cold Spring Harbor, N.Y.: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory.Google Scholar
  6. Nierlich, D.P. 1978. Regulation of bacterial growth, RNA, and protein synthesis. Annual Review of Microbiology 32:393–432.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Piggot, P.J., Coote, J.G. 1976. Genetic aspects of bacterial endospore formation. Bacteriological Reviews 40:908–962.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Rosenberg, M., Court, D. 1979. Regulatory sequences involved in the promotion and termination of RNA transcription. Annual Review of Genetics 13:319–353.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar


  1. Berman, M. L., Beckwith, J. 1979. Use of gene fusions to isolate promoter mutants in the transfer RNA gene tyrT of E. coli. Journal of Molecular Biology 130:303–315.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. DiLauro, R., Taniguchi, T., Musso, R., de Crombrugghe, B. 1979. Unusual location and function of the operator in the E. coli galactose operon. Nature 279:494–500.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Gorini, L. 1969. The contrasting role of strA and ram gene products in ribosomal functioning. Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology 34:101–111.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Hu, S.-L., Szybalski, W. 1979. Control of rightward transcription in coliphage lambda by the regulatory functions of phage genes N and cro. Virology 98:424–432.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Johnson, A. D., Meyer, B. J., Ptashne, M. 1979. Interactions between DNA-bound repressors govern regulation by the X phage repressor. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 76:5061–5065.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Johnston, H. M., Barnes, W. M., Chumley, F. G., Bossi, L., Roth, J. R. 1980. Model for regulation of the histidine operon of Salmonella. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 77:508–512.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Keller, E.B., Calve, J.M. 1979. Alternative secondary structures of leader RNAs and the regulation of the trp, phe, his, thr, and leu operons. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 76:6186–6190.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Kutsukake, K., Iino, T. 1980. A trans-acting factor mediates inversion of a specific DNA segment in flagellar phase variation of Salmonella. Nature 284:479–481.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Mosteller, R.D., Goldstein, R.V., Nishimoto, K.R. 1980. Metabolism of individual proteins in exponentially growing E. coli. Journal of Biological Chemistry 255:2524–2532.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Oxender, D.L., Zurawski, G., Yanofsky, C. 1979. Attenuation in the E. coli tryptophan operon: role of RNA secondary structure involving the tryptophan codon region. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 76:5524–5528.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Schechtman, M.G., Alegre, J.N., Roberts, J.W. 1980. Assay and characterization of late gene regulators of bacteriophage ∅82 and λ. Journal of Molecular Biology 142:269–288.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Silhavy, T.J., Brickman, E., Bassford, P.J., Jr., Casadaban, M.J., Shuman, H.A., Schwartz, V., Guarente, L., Schwartz, M., Beckwith, J.R. 1979. Structure of the malB region in E. coli K12. II. Genetic map of the malE, F, G operon. Molecular and General Genetics 174:249–259.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Ward, D.F., Murray, N.E. 1979. Convergent transcription in bacteriophage X: interference with gene expression. Journal of Molecular Biology 133:249–266.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Winkler, M.E., Zawodny, R.V., Hartman, P.E. 1979. Mutation spoT of E. coli increases expression of the histidine operon deleted for the attenuator. Journal of Bacteriology 139: 993–1000.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1981

Authors and Affiliations

  • Edward A. Birge
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Botany and MicrobiologyArizona State UniversityTempeUSA

Personalised recommendations