Functional Aspects of the Pulmonary Collateral Circulation

  • Alain Lockhart
Part of the Ettore Majorana International Science Series book series (EMISS, volume 3)


The normal lung contains the pulmonary circulation which subserves the gas exchanging as well as the endocrine and metabolic functions of the lung and a systemic circulation, the pulmonary collateral circulation or bronchial circulation. Marked deviations from the normal anatomy of the pulmonary collateral circulation exist in certain acquired lung and liver diseases as well as in some congenital heart diseases. The aim of this presentation is twofold — to discuss the role of the normal pulmonary collateral circulation, and to review the functional modifications which take place in conditions which are accompanied by an abnormal development of the pulmonary collateral circulation.


Pulmonary Artery Congenital Heart Disease Pulmonary Vein Pulmonary Blood Flow Bronchial Artery 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    I. de Burgh Daly and C. Hebb. Bronchial vascular system. in: “Pulmonary and Bronchial Vascular Systems”, Edward Arnold Ltd., London (1966).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    A. A. Liebow, Patterns of origin and distribution of the major bronchial arteries in man. Am. J. Anat., 117, 19, (1965).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    J. Delarue, Ch. Sors, J. Mignot et J. Paillas. Lesions bronchopulmonaires et modifications circulatoires. Presse med., 63, 173, (1955).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    L. E. Fahri and H. Rahn, A theoretical analysis of the alveolar-arterial oxygen difference with special reference to the distribution effect. J. appl. Physiol., 7, 699, (1955).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    J. B. West., Ventilation-perfusion ratio inequality and overall gas exchange. In: “Ventilation/blood flow and gas exchange”. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford (1977).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    H. W Fritts Jr., P. Harris, C. A. Chidsey, R. H. Clauss and A. Cournand. Estimation of flow through bronchial-pulmonary vascular anastomoses with use of T-1824 dye. Circulation, 23, 390, (1961).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    L. Cudkowicz, W. H. Abelman, G. E. Levinson, G. E. Katznelson and R. M Jreissaty. Bronchial arterial blood flow in man. Clin. Sci., 19, 1, (1960).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    P. Aramendia, J. Martinez, L. de Letona and D. M. Aviado. Exchange of blood between pulmonary and systemic circulations via bronchopulmonary anastomoses. Circulation Res., 11, 870, (1962).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    F. H. Ellis Jr., J. H. Grindly, and J. E. Edwards. The bronchial artery. I. Experimental occlusion. Surgery, 30, 810, (1951).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    J. Remy, A. Arnaud, H. Fardou, R. Giraud, and C. Voisin. Treatment of hemoptysis by embolization of bronchial arteries. Radiology, 122, 33, (1977).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    N. L. Hills, A. D. Boyd and C. Gheranpong. The significance of bronchial circulation in lung transplantation. J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg., 60, 866, (1970).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    F. J. Veith, M. Torres, I. Colon, K. Pinsker, S. K. Koerner, R. Crane and D. Paulson. Transplantation of the left lung into the right hemithorax to facilitate immediate reconstitution of bronchial artery flow. J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg., 75, 141, (1978).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    F. G. Pearson, H. Goldberg, R. H. Stone and R. F. Colapinto. Bronchial arterial circulation restored after reimplantation of canine lung. Can. J. Surg., 13, 243, (1970).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    S. S. Siegelman, J. W. C. Hagstrom, S. K. Koerner and F. J. Veith. Restoration of bronchial artery circulation after canine lung allotransplantation. J. thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg., 73, 792, (1977).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    J. Y. Neveux, J. Bignon, T. Oancea, C. Rioux et J. Mathey. Devenir de la circulation arterielle bronchique apres auto-transplantation pulmonaire. Ann. Chir. thorac. cardiovasc., 7, 559, (1968).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    A. A. Liebow. Recent observations on pulmonary collateral circulation. Med. thorac, 19, 609, (1962).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    D. J. Armstrong and J. C. Luck. Accessibility of pulmonary stretch receptors from the pulmonary and bronchial circulations. J. appl. Physiol., 36, 706, (1974).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    G. G. Pietra, J. P. Szidon, M. M. Leventhal and A. P. Fishman. Histamine and interstitial pulmonary oedema in the dog. Circulation Res., 24, 323, (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    E. C. Deal Jr., E. R. McFadden Jr., R. H. Ingram Jr. and J. J. Jaeger. Esophageal temperature during exercise in asthmatics and non asthmatic subjects. J. appl. Physiol. Respir. Environ. Exercise Physiol. 46, 484, (1979).Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    J. G. Roosenburg and M. Deenstra. Bronchial-pulmonary vascular shunts in chronic pulmonary affections. Dis. Chest., 26, 664, (1954).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    P. Harris and D. Heathy The form of bronchopulmonary anaestomoses. In: “The human pulmonary circulation”. Churchill, Livingstone, Edinburgh, London and New York (1977).Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    J. R. Williams and F. J. Bonte. Bronchial arteriography. Radiology, 78, 234, (1962).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    T. H. Newton and L. Preger. Selective bronchial arteriography. Radiology, 84, 1043, (1965).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    E. Boijsen and M. Zsigmond. Selective angiography of bronchial and intercostal arteries. Acta Radiologica, 3, 513, (1965).Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Ch. Gernez-Rieux, J. Remy, C. Voisin, J. M. Rousselle and C: Wallaert. L’arteriographic bronchique selective. J. franc. Med. Chir. thorac, 21, 463, (1967).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    J. Remy, P. Beguery, T. Froment and J. L. Denies. La vascularization systemique du poumon: technique d’exploration et anatomie radiologique appliquees au diagnostic topographique des hemoptysies. Ann. Radiol., 18, 85, (1975).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    S. F. Boushy, A. H. Helgason and L. B. North. Occlusion of the bronchial arteries. Am. Rev. resp. Dis., 103, 249, (1971).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    J. Remy, A. Arnaud, H. Fardou, R. Giraud and C. Voisin. Treatment of hemoptysis by embolization of bronchial Radiology, 122, 33, (1977).Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    T. Ishihara, M. Inoue, K. Kobayashi, M. Murakami, T. Ikeda, K. Kikuchi, and H. Yoshimatsu. Selective bronchial arteriography and hemoptysis in non malignant lung disease. Chest, 66, 633, (1974).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    M. Daussy et R. Abelanet. Modifications circulaoires de certains poumons pathologiques: Donnees hemodynamiques. J. franc. Med. Chir. thorac, 10, 305, (1956).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    L. Cudkowicz and D. G. Wraith. A method of study of the pulmonary circulation in finger clubbing. Thorax, 12, 13, (1957).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    A. A. Liebow, M. R. Hales and G. E. Lindskog, Enlargement of the bronchial arteries and their anastomoses with the pulmonary arteries in bronchiectasis. Am. J. Pathol., 25, 211, (1949).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    G. G. Rowe, C. A. Castillo, G. Maxwell, R. J. Botham and C. W. Crumpton. Pulmonary wedge position as a site for injection of indicator-dilution substances. Circulation, 20, 760, (1959). Abstract.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    E. H. Wood. Diagnostic applications of indicator-dilution techniques in congenital heart disease. Circulation Res., 10, 531, (1962).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    A. Fonseca Costa, G. Noronha Andrade, Z.P. Coutinho, and H. E. Jouval. Method for evaluation of systemic to pulmonary artery pre-capillary shunts. Bull. Physiopath. resp., 6, 265, (1970).Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    W. Valladares, B. Ranson-Bitker, J. Mensch-Dechene et A. Lockhart. La circulation collaterale pulmonaire dans le cancer du poumon. Une cause d’errlur dans la mesure du debit carchaque par les indicateurs. Bull, europ. Physiopath. resp., 12, 715, (1976).Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    H. W. Fritts Jr and A. Cournand. The application of the Fick principle to the measurement of pulmonary blood flow. Proc. nat. Acad. Sci., 44, 1079, (1958).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    A. P. Fishman. The clinical significance of the pulmonary collateral circulation. Circulation, 24, 677, (1961).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    A. P. Fishman, G. M. Turino, M. Brandfonbener and A. Himmel stein. The ‘effective’ pulmonary collateral blood flow in man. J. clin. Invest., 37, 1071, (1958).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    F. Herles. The pulmonary artery wedge pressure. Its origin and value in assessing pulmonary haemodynamics in emphysema. Cor Vasa, 8, 161, (1966).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    A. Walton and M. E. Kendall. Comparison of pulmonary wedge and left atrial pressure in man. Am. Heart. J., 86, 159, (1973).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    R. P Sapru, S. H Taylor and K. W Donald. Comparison of the pulmonary wedge pressure with the left ventricular end-diastolic pressure in man. Clin. Sci., 34, 125, (1968).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    A. Lockhart. Fonction du ventricule gauche dans la bronchite chronique. Bull. Physiopath. resp., 8, 1448, (1972).Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    P. Calabresi and W. H. Ablemann. Porto-caval and porto-pulmonary anaestomoses in Laennec’s cirrhosis and in heart failure, J, clin. Invest., 36, 1257, (1957).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    H. W. Fritts Jr., A. Hardewig, D. F. Rochester, J. Durand and A. Cournand. Estimation of pulmonary arteriovenous shunt-flow using intravenous injections of T-1824 dye and Kr85. J. clin. Invest., 39, 1841, (1960).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    S. Shaldon, J. Caesar, L. Chiandussi, H. S. Williams, E. Sheville and S. Sherlock. Demonstration of porto-pulmonary anaestomoses in portal cirrhosis with the use of radioactive krypton (Kr85). New England J. Med., 265, 410, (1961).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    J. H. Williams and W. H. Abelmann. Portopulmonary shunts in patients with portal hypertension. J. Lab. clin. Med., 62, 715, (1963).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    K. Mellemgaard, K. Winkler, N. Tygstrup and J. Georg. Sources of venoarterial admixture in portal hypertension. J. clin. Invest., 42, 1399, (1963).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    T. Nakamura, S. Nakamura, T. Tazawa, S. Abe, T. Aikawa and K. Tokita. Measurement of blood flow through portopulmonary anastomosis in portal hypertension. J. Lab. clin. Med., 65, 114, (1965).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    A. Chiesa, G. Ciappi, L. Balbi and L. Chiandussi. Role of various causes of arterial desaturation in liver cirrhosis. Clin. Sci., 37, 803, (1969).PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1980

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alain Lockhart
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratoire d’explorations fonctionellesHôpital Antoine BéclèreClamartFrance

Personalised recommendations