Charged Particles in Medical Diagnosis

  • George T. Y. Chen
  • William R. Holley
Part of the Ettore Majorana International Science Series book series (EMISS, volume 2)


Conventional x-ray radiography is based on the detection of normal and diseased states by recording the attenuation of photons. The attenuation of photons is dependent upon both the electron density and atomic number integrated through the x-ray path. Although the use of contrast agents is of considerable help, one of the important limitations of x-ray radiography has been to detect the size, shape, and position of soft tissue tumors accurately. This is due in part to the similar atomic composition of soft tissue tumors and normal surrounding tissue. Prior to CT x-ray imaging, the presence of large abdominal masses was frequently determined by the extent of distortion and displacement of adjacent anatomical structures filled with contrast media rather than by direct imaging of the mass.


Proton Beam Medical Diagnosis Soft Tissue Tumor Pulse Height Analysis Monobasic Potassium Phosphate 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Benton, E. V., Henke, R. P. and Tobias, C. A., 1973, Heavy particle radiography, Science, 182, 474.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Benton, E. V., Henke, R. P., Tobias, C. A., and Cruty, C. R., 1975, Radiography with heavy particles at Donner Laboratory. Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Report LBL-2887.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Charpak, G., Majewski, S., Perrin, Y., Saudinos, J., Sauli, F., Townsend, D., and Vinciarelli, J., 1976, Further results in nuclear scattering radiography, Phys. Med. Biol., 21, 941.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Crowe, K. M., Budinger, T. F., Cahoon, J. L., Elischer, V. P., Huesman, R. H., and Kanstein, L. L., 1975, Axial scanning with 900 MeV alpha particles, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci., NS-22, 1752.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Hanson, K. M., 1978a, Proton computed tomography. Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory Report LA-UR 78–1827.Google Scholar
  6. Hanson, K. M., 1978b, Development of a proton radiographic system for diagnosis and localization of soft tissue abnormalities. Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory Report LA-7107-MS.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Holley, W. R., Henke, R. P., Gauger, G. E., Jones, B., Benton, E. V., Fabrikant, J. I., and Tobias, C. A., 1979, Heavy particle computed tomography, Proceedings, Sixth Computer Radiology.Google Scholar
  8. Koehler, A. M., 1968, Proton radiography, Science, 160, 303.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Kramer, S. L., Moffett, D., Martin, R. L., Colton, E. P., and Steward, V. W., 1979, Proton radiography application to medical imaging, submitted to Radiology.Google Scholar
  10. Saudinos, J., Charpak, G., Sauli, F., Townsend, D., and Vinciarelli, J., 1975, Nuclear scattering applied to radiography in medical diagnosis, Phys. Med. Biol., 20, 890.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Sommer, F. G., Capp, M. P., Tobias, C. A., Benton, E. V., Woodruff, K. H., Hinke, R. P., Holley, W., and Genant, H. K., 1978, Heavy-ion radiography: density resolution and specimen radiography, Invest. Radiol., 13, 163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Steward, V. W., 1976, Proton (and other heavy charged particle) radiography in medical diagnosis, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci., NS-23, 5770.Google Scholar
  13. Steward, V. W., and Koehler, A. M., 1973a, Proton beam radiography in tumor detection, Science, 179, 913.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Steward, V. W., and Koehler, A. M., 1975b, Proton radiographic detection of stroke, Nature (London), 245, 38.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Steward, V. W., and Koehler, A. M., 1974, Proton radiography in the diagnosis of breast cancinoma, Radiology, 110, 217.Google Scholar
  16. Tobias, C. A., Benton, E. V., Capp, M. P., Chatterjee, A., Cruty, M. R., and Henke, R. P., 1977, Particle radiography and autoactivation, Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys., 3, 34.Google Scholar
  17. Tobias, C. A, Benton, E. V., and Capp, M. P., 1978, Heavy ion radiography, in “Recent Advances in Nuclear Medicine,” vol. 5, J. H. Lawrence and T. F. Budinger, eds., Grune and Stratton, New York.Google Scholar
  18. Williams, S. H., and Leith, D. W. G. S., 1979, Use of elementary particle interactions for radiological imaging, SLAC-PUB-2417.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1980

Authors and Affiliations

  • George T. Y. Chen
    • 1
  • William R. Holley
    • 1
  1. 1.Biology and Medicine DivisionLawrence Berkeley LaboratoryBerkeleyUSA

Personalised recommendations