Renal Biopsy

  • Anil K. Mandal


The development of a percutaneous technique to procure a small piece of tissue from one of the two kidneys has become a cornerstone in the study of renal parenchymal disease. Studies of renal biopsy using light, electron, and immunofluorescence microscopy have produced an evolutionary change in the practice of renal medicine. The knowledge gained from the study of live renal tissues has enabled clinicians to deliver better medical care to patients with renal diseases. To attain an understanding of renal pathology—particularly expertise with the delicate electron microscope—and of the various technical and medical skills used to prolong uremic patients’ lives by dialysis and transplantation requires considerable ability and time; consequently the practice of nephrology (renal medicine) has emerged as a separate subspecialty.


Renal Biopsy Percutaneous Biopsy Elastic Tissue Idiopathic Nephrotic Syndrome Membranous Glomerulonephritis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.



  1. Berlyne, G. M.: Ultransonics in renal biopsy: An aid to determination of biopsy of kidney position. Lancet 2: 750 (30 Sept.), 1961.Google Scholar
  2. Baum, S., Rabinowitz, P., and Malloy, W. A.: The renal scan as an aid in percutaneous renal biopsy. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 195: 913, 1966.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bell, R. D., Nordquist, J. A., Mandai, A. K., and Rodgers, C. L.: Ultrastructure of renal arterial vessels with special reference to elastic tissue content. Micron 7: 257, 1976.Google Scholar
  4. Brun, C., and Raaschou, F.: Kidney biopsies. Am. J. Med. 24 (5): 676, 1958.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Carvajal, H. F., Luther, B. T., Srivastava, R. N., De Beukelaer, M. M., Dodge, Dupree, and Elton: Percutaneous renal biosy in children: An analysis of complications in 890 consecutive biopsies. Tex. Rep. Biol. Med. 29: 253, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Colodny, A. H., and Reckler, J. M.: A safe, simple and reliable method for percutaneous (closed) renal biopsies in children: Results in 100 consecutive patients. J. Urol. 113: 222, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Fajers, C. M., Holm, J., and Lindquist, B.: Percutaneous renal biopsy in the diagnosis of renal disease in uremia. Scand. J. Urol. Nephrol. 4: 153, 1970.Google Scholar
  8. Forland, M., and Spargo, B. H.: Renal localization for percutaneous biopsy by scanning with technetium-99m-iron complex. Pediatrics 39: 872, 1967.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Ginsburg, I. W., Durant, J. R., and Mendez, L.: Percutaneous renal biopsy under direct radiologie direction. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 181: 211, 1962.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Haddad, J. K., and Mani, R. L.: Percutaneous renal biopsy. An improved method using television monitoring and high-dose infusion pyelography. Arch. Intern. Med. 119: 157, 1967.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Hayat, M. A.: Principles and Techniques of Electron Microscopy, Biological Applcations, Vol. 1. Van Nostrand Reinhold, Princeton, New Jersey, 1970.Google Scholar
  12. Jones, D. B.: Inflammation and repair of the glomerulus. Am. J. Pathol. 27: 991, 1951.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Junghagen, P., Lindquist, B., Michaelson, G., and Nystrom, K.: Percutaneous renal biopsy on uraemic patients aided by selective arterial angiography and roentgen television. Acta Med. Scand. 184: 141, 1968.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kaplan, B. S., Thompson, P. D., and Brown, R. S.: Percutaneous renal biopsy in children: The use of a disposable needle. S. Afr. Med. J. 44: 1153, 1970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Kark, R. M.: Renal biopsy. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 205: 220, 1968.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kark, R. M., and Buenger, R. E., Television-monitored fluoroscopy in percutaneous renal biopsy. Lancet 1: 904, 23 April 1966.Google Scholar
  17. Kark, R. M., and Muehrcke, R. C.: Biopsy of kidney in prone position. Lancet 1: 1047 (May 22), 1954.Google Scholar
  18. Kark, R. M., Muehrcke, R. C., Pollak, V. E., Pirani, C. L., and Kiefer, J. M.: An analysis of five hundred percutaneous renal biopsies. Arch. Int. Med. 101 (2): 439, 1958.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kay, D. (ed.): Techniques for Electron Microscopy, 2nd ed. Blackwell, Oxford, 1965.Google Scholar
  20. Lange, K., and Tresser, G.: Commentary on the ethics of renal biopsy. Ann. Intern Med. 80: 117, 1974.Google Scholar
  21. Lindeman, R.: Percutaneous renal biopsy. The Kidney 7 (2): 1, 1974.Google Scholar
  22. Lindholm, R., Hagstam, K. E., Kjellstrand, C. M.: Some instrumental and methodological modifications of the technique for percutaneous renal biopsy. Acta Med. Scand. 181: 245, 1967.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Lusted, L. B., Mortimore, G. E., and Hopper, J.: Needle renal biopsy under image amplifier control. Am. J. Roentgenol. 75: 953, 1956.Google Scholar
  24. Mandai, A. K., Frohlich, E. D., Bell, R. D., Nordquist, J. A., and Lindeman, R. D.: An electron microscopic technique for the study of elastic tissue in small arteries and arterioles of the kidney. Ann. Clin. Lab. Sci. 7 (1): 42, 1977.Google Scholar
  25. Mostofi, F. K.: Comments on the techniques for the study of renal biopsies. In The Kidney. International Academy of Pathology Monograph ( F. K. Mostofi and D. E. Smith, eds.). Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, 1966, p. 541.Google Scholar
  26. Muehrcke, R. C., Kark, R. M., and Pirani, C. L.: Techniques of percutaneous biopsy in the prone position. J. Urol. 74: 267, 1955.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Resse L. and Joshi, D.: Localization of kidney for renal biopsy using chlormerodrin-203 Hg. Can. Med. Assoc. J. 99: 245, 1968.Google Scholar
  28. Schmidt, A., and Baker, R.: Renal biopsy in children: Analysis of 61 cases of open wedge biopsy and comparison with percutaneous biopsy (commentary). J. Urol. 116: 79, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Silverberg, D. S., Dosseter, J. B., Eid, T. C., Mant, M. J., and Miller, J. D. R.: Arteriovenous fistula and prolonged hematuria after renal biopsy: Treatment with epsilon aminocaproic acid. Can. Med. Assoc. J. 110: 671, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Telfer, N., Ackroyd, A. E., and Stock, S. L.: Radioisotope localization for renal biopsy. Lancet 1: 132 (18 Jan.), 1964.Google Scholar
  31. Tully, R. J., Stark, V. J., Hoffer, P. B., and Gottschalk, A.: Renal scan prior to renal biopsy—A method of renal localization. J. Nucl. Med. 13: 544, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Zimacek, J., Mydlik, M., Pokorna, I., Melnicak, P., and Mrinak, J.: Lokalisationsszintigraphie fur die perkutome Nierenbiopsie. Nucl. Med. (Stung.) 9: 317, 1970.Google Scholar

For Serial Biopsies

  1. Baldwin, D. S.: Poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis. A progressive disease? Am. J. Med. 62: 1, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Gluck, M. C., Gallo, G., Lowenstein, J., and Baldwin, D. S.: Membranous glomerulonephritis: Evolution of clinical and pathological features. Ann. Intern Med. 78: 1, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Konar, N. R., and Mandai, A. K.: Observations on nephritis (with reference to histopathology of renal biopsies). J. Assoc. Physicians India 13: 685, 1965.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Lange, K., and Treser, G.: Acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis: Mechanism and sequelaeAttempts at a unifying concept. Clin. Nephrol. 1: 55, 1973.Google Scholar
  5. Lindeman, R. D., Pederson, J. A., Matter, B. J., Laughlin, L. O., and Mandal, A. K.: Long-term azathioprine-corticosteroid therapy in lupus nephritis and idiopathic nephrotic syndrome. J. Chronic Dis. 29: 189, 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Pollak, V. E., Rosen, S., Pirani, C. L., Muehrcke, R. C., and Kark, R. M.: Natural history of lipoid nephrosis and of membranous glomerulonephritis. Ann. Intern. Med. 69: 1171, 1968.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1979

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anil K. Mandal
    • 1
  1. 1.Renal Electron Microscopy Laboratory and Staff Physician, Medical Service Veterans Administration HospitalUniversity of Oklahoma College of MedicineOklahoma CityUSA

Personalised recommendations