Microscopy for the Practicing Physician

  • Anil K. Mandal


Microscopy dates from the seventeenth century when Robert Hooke and Marcello Malpighi used simple lenses in the study of various structural features. Between 1673 and 1716, Leeuwenhoek developed compound lenses and published a series of observations upon protozoa, bacteria, muscle, nerve, and many other structures. By the early nineteenth century, the compound microscope had become highly developed. Robert Brown in 1830 discovered the nucleus; Schleiden in 1838 and Schwann in 1839 enunciated the “cell theory.” In 1841, Henle published the first comprehensive account of human histology. Virchow described the human body as a “cell state” and listed specialized categories of cells in 1863.


Osmium Tetroxide Polarize Microscope Ocular Lens Uric Acid Crystal Condenser Lens 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1979

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anil K. Mandal
    • 1
  1. 1.Renal Electron Microscopy Laboratory and Staff Physician, Medical Service Veterans Administration HospitalUniversity of Oklahoma College of MedicineOklahoma CityUSA

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