Old and New Problems in Human Tumor Cell Cultivation

  • Relda M. Cailleau

Abstract

There are really no new problems in the cultivation of human tumor cells, merely a greater awareness of some of the old ones, an increased understanding of what they are. In general, the difficulties lie in obtaining tumor cells from the patient and growing or maintaining them in vitro without adding any “foreign” living substance. It is equally difficult to separate the tumor cells from extraneous normal cells or tissues and to demonstrate that the cells growing in tissue culture are identical to the neoplastic cells found in the host.

Keywords

Organ Culture Pleural Effusion Mesothelial Cell Pleural Fluid Human Breast Carcinoma 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. A Bibliography of the Research in Tissue Culture,1884–1950, 1953, Vols. 1 and 2,(prepared by M. R. Murray and G. Kopach), Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  2. Aronson, M., and Kessel, R. W. I., 1960, New method for manipulation, maintenance, and cloning of single mammalian cells in vitro, Science 131: 1376–1377.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Auersperg, N., 1969, Histogenetic behavior of tumors. II. Roles of cellular and environmental factors in the in vitro growth of carcinoma cells, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 43: 175–190.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Aujard, C., and Chany, E., 1966, Effet de l’hydrocortisone sur la morphologie et l’adhésivité mutuelle ou au verre de cellules en culture (souche KB), Exp. Cell Res. 44: 53–65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Barker, B. E., Fanger, H., and Farnes, P., 1964, Human mammary slices in organ culture, Exp. Cell Res. 35: 437–448.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Barnawell, E. B., 1965, A comparative study of the responses of mammary tissues from several mammalian species to hormones in vitro, J. Exp. Zool. 160: 189–206.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bassin, R. H., Plata, E. J., Gerwin, B. I., Mattern, C. F., Haapala, D. K., and Chu, E. W., 1972, Isolation of a continuous epithelioid cell line, HBT-3, from a human breast carcinoma, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 141: 673–680.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Benyesh-Melnick, M., Fernback, D. J., and Lewis, R. T., 1963, Studies on human leukemia. I. Spontaneous lymphoblastoid transformation of fibroblastic bone marrow cultures derived from leukemic and nonleukemic children, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 31: 1311–1331.Google Scholar
  9. Beutner, E. H., 1961, Immunofluorescent staining: The fluorescent antibody method, Bacteriol. Rev. 25: 49–76.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Boone, C. W., Mantel, N., Caruso, T. D., Jr., Kazam, E., and Stevenson, R. E., 1971, Quality control studies on fetal bovine serum used in tissue culture, In Vitro 7: 174–189.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Brand, K. G., and Syverton, J. T., 1960, Immunology of cultivated mammalian cells. I. Species specificity determined by hemagglutination, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 24: 1007–1019.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Bryant, J. C., 1969, Methylcellulose effect on cell proliferation and glucose utilization in chemically defined medium in large stationary cultures, Biotechnol. Bioeng. 11: 155–179.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cailleau, R., 1960, The establishment of a cell strain (MAC-21) from a mucoid adenocarcinoma of the human lung, Cancer Res. 20: 837–840.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Cailleau, R., and Costa, F., 1961, Long-term in vitro cultivation of some mouse ascites tumors: Ehrlich ascites carcinoma, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 26: 271–281.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Cailleau, R., and Dirksen, E. R., 1968, Chromosomes, virulence and virus in AKR leukemia, in: Cancer Cells in Culture (H. Katsuta, ed.), pp. 195–204, University Park Press, University Park, Pa.Google Scholar
  16. Cailleau, R., and Kirk, P. L., 1954, The influence of various culture media on the growth of Earle’s strain L cells and chick-heart fibroblasts in vitro, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 15: 295–303PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Cailleau, R., and Kirk, P. L., 1957, Some factors affecting the growth-promoting properties of serum in tissue culture, Tex. Rep. Biol. Med. 15: 237–249.Google Scholar
  18. Cailleau, R., Young, R., Olivé, M., and Reeves, W. J. Jr., 1974, Breast tumor cell lines from pleural effusions, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 53: 661–714.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Calafat, J., and Hageman, P. C., 1972, Attempts to detect a mammary tumour virus in human material, in: Fundamental Research on Mammary Tumors (J. Mouriquand, ed.), INSERM, Paris.Google Scholar
  20. Castor, C. W., and Naylor, B., 1969, Characteristics of normal and malignant human mesothelial cells studied in vitro, Lab. Invest. 20: 437–443.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Ceriani, R. L., Contesso, G. P., and Nataf, B. M., 1972, Hormone requirement for growth and differentiation of the human mammary gland in organ culture, Cancer Res. 32: 2190–2196.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Comings, D. E., Avelino, E., Okada, T. A., and Wyandt, H. E., 1973, The mechanism of C- and G-banding of chromosomes, Exp. Cell Res. 77: 469–493.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Cooper, E. H., 1973, The biology of cell death in tumours, Cell Tissue Kinet. 6: 87–95.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Corwin, L. M., and Humphrey, L. P., 1972, Vitamin E: Substrate-dependent growth effect on cells in culture, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 141: 609–612.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Costächel, O., Fadei, L., and Badea, E., 1969, Tumor cell suspension culture on non adhesive substratum, Z. Krebsforsch. 72: 24–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Decennial Review Conference on Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture, 1966, Natl. Cancer Inst. Monogr., Vol. 26 (1967).Google Scholar
  27. DeLuca, C., 1965, The use of trypsin for the determination of cellular viability, Exp. Cell Res. 40: 186–188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Dobrynin, Y. V., 1963, Establishment and characteristics of cell strains from some epithelial tumors of human origin, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 31: 1173–1196.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Drets, M. E., and Shaw, M. W., 1971, Specific banding patterns of human chromosomes, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 68: 2073–2077.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Eagle, H., 1955, The specific amino acid requirements of a mammalian cell (strain L) in tissue culture, J. Biol. Chem. 214: 839–852.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Elias, J J, 1959, Effect of insulin and cortisol on organ cultures of adult mouse mammary gland, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 101: 500–502.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Elias, J J., and Rivera, E., 1959, Comparison of the response of normal, precancerous and neoplastic mouse mammary tissues to hormones in vitro, Cancer Res. 19: 505–511.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Evans, V. J., and Andresen, W. F., 1968, Spontaneous neoplastic transformations in C3H mouse cells in vitro, in: Cancer Cells in Culture ( H. Katsuta, ed.), pp. 263–280, University Park Press, University Park, Pa.Google Scholar
  34. Evans, V. J., and Earle, W. R., 1947, The use of perforated cellophane for the growth of cells in tissue culture, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 8: 103–119.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Evans, V. J., Bryant, J. C., Kerr, H. A., and Schilling, E. L., 1964, Chemically defined media for cultivation of long-term cell strains from four mammalian species, Exp. Cell Res 36: 439–474.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Evans, V. J., Price, F. M., Sanford, K. K., Kerr, H. A., and Handleman, S. L., 1972, Comparative effects of mare, stallion, gelding horse, and fetal bovine sera on neoplastic transformation in vitro, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 49: 505–511.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Farnes, P., 1967, Histochemical approaches to cell characterization in vitro, in: Second Decennial Review Conference on Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture, 1966, Natl. Cancer Inst. Monogr. 26: 199–228.Google Scholar
  38. Federoff, S., Evans, V. J., Hopps, H. E., Sanford, K. K., and Boone, C. W., 1971, Summary of proceedings of a workshop on serum for tissue culture purposes, In Vitro 7: 161–167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Fell, H. B., and Rinaldini, L. M., 1965, The effects of vitamins A and C on cells and tissues in culture, in: Cells and Tissues in Culture: Methods, Biology and Physiology, Vol. 1 ( E. N. Willmer, ed.), pp. 659–699, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  40. Feller, W. F., Old, L., and Beth, E., 1970, Type-C particles in an established cell line of human origin, Proc. Am. Assoc. Cancer Res. 11: 25.Google Scholar
  41. Feller, W. F., Stewart, S. E., and Kantor, J., 1972, Primary tissue culture explants of human breast cancer, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 48: 1117–1120.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Fisher, H: W., Puck, T. T., and Sato, G., 1958, Molecular growth requirements of single mammalian cells: The action of fetuin in promoting cell attachment to glass, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 44: 4–10.Google Scholar
  43. Foley, G. E., and Drolet, B. P., 1964, Loss of neoplastic properties in vitro. I. Observations with S-180 cell lines, Cancer Res. 24: 1461–1467.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Foley, J. F., and Aftonomos, B. T., 1965, Growth of human breast neoplasms in cell culture, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 34: 217–229.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Fortelius, P., 1963, Enzyme activity in cultured cells under various influences, a cytochemical approach, Acta Pathol. Microbiol. Scand. 164: 1–94.Google Scholar
  46. Gartler, S. M., 1967, Genetic markers as tracers in cell culture, in: Decennial Review Conference on Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture, 1966, Natl. Cancer Inst. Monogr. 26: 167–195.Google Scholar
  47. German, J. L., III, Evans, V. J., Cortner, J. A., and Westfall, B. B., 1964, Characterization of three human cell lines by chromosomal complement and by certain biochemical parameters: Reversible alteration of isozyme patterns by different media, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 32: 681–707.Google Scholar
  48. Gewant, W. C., and Goldenberg, I. S., 1970, Techniques of human breast neoplasm cell culture, Eur. Surg. Res. 2: 392–400.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Gillette, R. W., Findley, A., and Conway, H., 1961, Effect of cortisone on skin maintained in organ culture, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 27: 1285–1309.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Ginsberg, H. S., Gold, E., and Jordan, W. S., Jr., 1955, Tryptose phosphate broth as supplementary factor for maintenance of HeLa cell tissue cultures, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 89: 66–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Giraldo, G., Beth, E., Hirshaut, Y., Aoki, T., Old, L. J., Boyse, E. A., and Chopra, H. C., 1971, Human sarcomas in culture: Foci of altered cells and a common antigen; induction of foci and antigen in human fibroblast cultures by filtrates, J. Exp. Med. 133: 454–478.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Grobstein, C., and Cohen, J., 1965, Collagenase: Effect on the morphogenesis of embryonic salivary epithelium, Science 150: 626.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Gwatkin, R. B. L., and Thomson, J. L., 1964, A new method for dispersing the cells of mammalian tissues, Nature (Lond.) 201: 1242–1243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Habeshaw, J. A., 1972, A serum-protein-free medium for the culture of macrophages and related cells, J. Pathol. 108: 95–96.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Ham, R. G., 1962, Clonal growth of diploid Chinese hamster cells in a synthetic medium supplemented with purified protein fractions, Exp. Cell Res. 28: 489–500.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Ham, R. G., 1965, Clonal growth of mammalian cells in a chemically defined, synthetic medium, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 53: 288–293.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Harris, G., Mount, D. T., McLimans, W. F., Tunnah, K., Scheele, S., and Moore, G. E., 1966, Gas monitor and control unit for cell culture systems, Biotechnol. Bioeng. 8: 489–509.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Healy, G. M., and Parker, R. C., 1966, Cultivation of mammalian cells in defined media with protein and nonprotein supplements, J. Cell Biol. 30: 539–553.Google Scholar
  59. Healy, G. M., Teleki, S., von Seefried, A., Walton, M. J., and Macmorine, H. G., 1971, Improved chemically defined basal medium (CMRL-1969) for primary monkey kidney and human diploid cells, Appl. Microbiol. 21: 1–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Herrick, P. R., Baumann, G. W., Merchant, D. J., Shearer, M. C., Shipman, C., Jr., and Brackett, R. G., 1970, Serologic and karyologic evidence of incorrect identity of an animal cell line (guinea pig spleen), In Vitro 6: 143–147.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Himmelfarb, P., Thayer, P. S., and Martin, H. E., 1969, Spin filter culture: The propagation of mammalian cells in suspension, Science 164: 555–557.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Holmes, R., 1967, Preparation from human serum of an alpha-one protein which induces the immediate growth of unadapted cells in vitro, J. Cell Biol. 32: 297–308.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Houba, V., 1967, The use of pronase for dispersing cells, Experientia 23: 572.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Hsu, T. C., 1961, Chromosomal evolution in cell populations, Int. Rev. Cytol. 12: 69–161.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Hsu, T. C., 1972, Mammalian Chromosome Newsletter, Vol. 13, No. 1, January 1972, arranged by the Section of Cell Biology, The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Hospital and Tumor Institute at Houston.Google Scholar
  66. Hsu, T. C., 1974, Longitudinal differentiation of chromosomes, Ann. Rev. Genet., 7: 153–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Ioachim, H. L., 1970, Tissue culture of human tumors, in: Pathology Annual 1970 ( S. C. Sommers, series ed.), pp. 217–256, Appleton-Century-Crofts, New York.Google Scholar
  68. Jensen, E. V., Block, G. E., Smith, S., Kyser, K., and DeSombre, E. R., 1970, Estrogen receptors and breast cancer response to adrenalectomy, in: Prediction of Response in Cancer Therapy, Natl. Cancer Inst. Monogr., Vol. 34.Google Scholar
  69. Jensen, F. C., Gwatkin, R. B. L., and Biggers, J. D., 1964, A simple organ culture method which allows simultaneous isolation of specific types of cells, Exp. Cell Res. 34: 440–447.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Kalus, M., Ghidoni, J. J., and O’Neal, R. M., 1968, The growth of tumors in matrix cultures, Cancer 22: 507–516.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Katsuta, H., 1968, Cancer Cells in Culture (H. Katsuta, ed.), University Park Press, University Park, Pa.Google Scholar
  72. Katsuta, H., and Takaota, T., 1961a, Parabiotic cell culture. II. Interaction between cell lines, Jap. J. Exp. Med. 31: 225–235.Google Scholar
  73. Katsuta, H., and Takaota, T., 1961b, Parabiotic cell culture. III. Further investigation on the interaction between cell lines, Jap. J. Exp. Med. 31: 307–319.Google Scholar
  74. Katsuta, H., and Takaota, T., 1964, Parabiotic cell culture. IV. Interaction between normal and ascites tumor cells of rats, Jap. J. Exp. Med. 32: 963–980.Google Scholar
  75. Katsuta, H., Takaota, T., and Nagai, Y., 1968, Interaction in culture between normal and tumor cells of rats, in: Cancer Cells in Culture ( H. Katsuta, ed.), pp. 157–168, University Park Press, University Park, Pa.Google Scholar
  76. Kohler, P. 0., Frohman, L. A., Bridson, W. E., Vanha-Perttula, T., and Hammond, J. M., 1969, Cortisol induction of growth hormone synthesis in a clonal line of rat pituitary tumor cells in culture, Science 166: 633–634.Google Scholar
  77. Korsten, C. B., and Persijn, J.-P., 1972, A simple assay for specific estrogen binding capacity in human mammary tumours, Z. Klin. Chem. Klin. Biochem. 10: 502–508.Google Scholar
  78. Koyama, H., Sinha, D., and Dao, T. L., 1972, Effects of hormones and 7,12dimethylbenz(a)anthracene on rat mammary tissue grown in organ culture, J. Natl. Cancer Inst 48: 1671–1680.Google Scholar
  79. Kruse, P. F., Jr., Keen, L. N., and Whittle, W. L., 1970, Some distinctive characteristics of high density perfusion cultures of diverse cell types, In Vitro 6: 75–88.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Lasfargues, E. Y., 1957, Cultivation and behavior in vitro of the normal mammary epithelium of the adult mouse. II. Observations on the secretory activity, Exp. Cell Res. 13: 553–562.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Lasfargues, E. Y., 1962, Concerning the role of insulin in the differentiation and functional activity of mouse mammary tissues, Exp. Cell Res. 28: 531–542.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Lasfargues, E. Y., 1972, Collagenase as a cell dispersion agent in tissue cultures, in: Collagenase ( I. Mandl, ed.), pp. 83–89, Gordon and Breach, New York.Google Scholar
  83. Lasfargues, E. Y., and Murray, M. R., 1959, Hormonal influences on the differentiation and growth of embryonic mouse mammary glands in organ culture, Develop. Biol. 1: 413–435.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Lasfargues, E. Y., and Ozzello, L., 1958, Cultivation of human breast carcinomas, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 21: 1131–1147.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Leibovitz, A., 1963, The growth and maintenance of tissue-cell cultures in free gas exchange with the atmosphere, Am. J. Hyg. 78: 173–180.Google Scholar
  86. Leighton, J., 1951, A sponge matrix method for tissue culture: Formation of organized aggregates of cells in vitro, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 12: 545–561.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Leighton, J., Kline, I., and Orr, H. C., 1956, Transformation of normal human fibroblasts into histologically malignant tissue in vitro, Science 123: 502–503.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Lépine, P., Slizewicz, P., Daniel, P., and Paccaud, M., 1956, Cultures cellulaires dans un milieu utilisant l’hydrolysat de caséine comme source d’acides aminés, Ann. Inst. Pasteur 90: 654.Google Scholar
  89. Levan, A., and Biesele, J. J., 1958, Role of chromosomes in cancerogenesis, as studied in serial tissue culture of mammalian cells, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 71: 1022–1053.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Lichtiger, B., Mackay, B., and Tessmer, C. F., 1970, Spindle-cell variant of squamous carcinoma, Cancer 26: 1311–1320.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Ling, C. T., Gey, G. O., and Richters, V., 1968, Chemically characterized concentrated corodies for continuous cell culture (the 7C’s culture media), Exp. Cell Res. 52: 469–489.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. MacDougall, J. D. B., Biswas, S., and Cook, R. P., 1965, The effects of certain C27 steroids on organ cultures of rabbit aorta, Brit. J. Exp. Pathol. 46: 549–553.Google Scholar
  93. Martorelli, B., Jr., Parshley, M. S., and Moore, J. G., 1969, Effects of chemotherapeutic agents on two lines of human breast carcinomas in tissue culture, Surg. Gynecol. Obstet. 1001–1006.Google Scholar
  94. Masurovsky, E. B., and Peterson, E. R., 1973, Photo-reconstituted collagen gel for tissue culture substrates, Exp. Cell Res. 76: 447–448.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. McLimans, W. F., 1969, Physiology of the cultured mammalian cell, in: Anemic Mammalian Cell Reactions ( G. L. Tritsch, ed.), pp. 307–367, Marcel Dekker, New York.Google Scholar
  96. McLimans, W. F., 1972, The gaseous environment of the mammalian cell in culture, in: Growth, Nutrition, and Metabolism of Cells in Culture ( G. H. Rothblat and V. J. Cristofalo, ed.), pp. 137–170, Academic Press, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. McLimans, W. F., Blumenson, L. E., and Tunnah, K. V., 1968e, Kinetics of gas diffusion in mammalian cell culture systems. II. Theory, Biotechnol. Bioeng. 10: 741–763.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. McLimans, W. F., Grouse, E. J., Tunnah, K. V., and Moore, G. E., 1968b, Kinetics of gas diffusion in mammalian cell culture systems. I. Experimental, Biotechnol. Bioeng. 10: 725–740.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Miller, R. G., and Phillips, R. A., 1969, Separation of cells by velocity sedimentation, J. Cell Physiol. 73: 191–202.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Molander, C. W., Kniazeff, A. J., Boone, C. W., Paley, A., and Imagawa, D. T., 1971, Isolation and characterization of viruses from fetal calf serum, In Vitro 7: 168–173.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Moore, G. E., Mount, D., Tara, G., and Schwartz, N., 1963, Growth of human tumor cells in suspension cultures, Cancer Res. 23: 1735–1741.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Morgan, J. F., Campbell, M. E., and Morton, H. J., 1955, The nutrition of animal tissues cultivated in vitro. I. A survey of natural materials as supplements to synthetic medium 199, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 16: 557–567.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Morgan, J. F., Eng, C. P., Heuchert, M. D., and Kirk, H. D., 1970, Loss of transplantability and induction of immunoprotection by mouse ascites tumor cells in tissue culture, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 134: 305–308.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Morgan, J. F., Morton, H. J., and Parker, R. C., 1950, Nutrition of animal cells in tissue culture. I. Initial studies on a synthetic medium, Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol. Med. 73: 1–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Morrison, J. H., 1967, Separation of lymphocytes of rat bone marrow by combined glass-wool filtration and dextran-gradient centrifugation, Brit. J. Haematol. 13: 229–235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Oettgen, H. F., Aoki, T., Old, L. J., Boyse, E. A., DeHarven, E., and Mills, G. M., 1968, Suspension culture of a pigment-producing cell line derived from a human malignant melanoma, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 41: 827–843.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Osgood, E. E., and Krippaehne, M. L., 1955, The gradient tissue method, Exp. Cell Res. 9: 116–127.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Pace, D. M., Landolt, P. A., and Aftonomos, B. T., 1969, Effects of ozone on cells in vitro, Arch. Environ. Health 18: 165–170.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Parshley, M. S., and Simms, H. S., 1950, Cultivation of adult skin epithelial cells (chicken and human) in vitro, Am. J. Anat. 86: 163–189.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Patuleia, M. C., and Friend, C., 1967, Tissue culture studies on murine virus-induced leukemia cells: Isolation of single cells in agar-liquid medium, Cancer Res. 27: 726–730.Google Scholar
  111. Phillips, H. J., 1972, Dissociation of single cells from lung or kidney tissue with elastase, In Vitro 8: 101–105.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Plata, E. J., Aoki, T., Robertson, D. D., Chu, E. W., and Gerwin, B. I., 1973, An established cultured cell line HBT-39 from human breast carcinoma, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 50: 849–862.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Price, F. M., Gantt, R. R., and Evans, V. J., 1971, Effect of fractions of horse and fetal bovine serum on neoplastic conversion of C3H mouse cells in tissue culture, In Vitro 6: 437–440.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Puck, T. T., and Marcus, P. I., 1955, A rapid method for viable cell titration and clone production with HeLa cells in tissue culture: The use of X-irradiated cells to supply the conditioning factors, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 41: 432.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Rabinowitz, Y., 1965, Adherence and separation of leukemic cells on glass bead columns, Blood 26: 100–103.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Radlett, P. J., Telling, R. C., Whitside, J. P., and Maskell, M. A., 1972, The supply of oxygen to submerged cultures of BHK 21 cells, Biotechnol. Bioeng. 14: 437–445.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Rappaport, C., and Bishop, C. B., 1960, Improved method for treating glass to produce surfaces suitable for the growth of certain mammalian cells in synthetic medium, Exp. Cell. Res. 20: 580–584.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Reed, M. V., and Gey, G. O., 1962, Cultivation of normal and malignant human lung tissue. I. The establishment of three adenocarcinoma cell strains, Lab. Invest. 11: 638–653.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Richter, A., Sanford, K. K., and Evans, V. J., 1972, Influence of oxygen and culture media on plating efficiency of some mammalian tissue cells, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 49: 1705–1712.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Rivera, E. M., 1964a, Differential responsiveness to hormones of C3H and A mouse mammary tissues in organ culture, Endocrinology 74: 853–864.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Rivera, E. M., 1964b, Maintenance and development of whole mammary glands of mice in organ culture, J. Endocrinol. 30: 33–39.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Rose, G. G., Kumegawa, M., Nikai, H., Bracho, M., and Cattoni, M., 1970, The dual-rotary circumfusion system for mark II culture chambers, Microvasc. Res. 2: 24–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Ross, J. D., Treadwell, P. E., and Syverton, J. T., 1962, Cultural characterization of animal cells, Ann. Rev. Microbiol. 16: 141–188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Rothblat, G. H., and Cristofalo, V. J., (eds.), 1972, Growth, Nutrition, and Metabolism of Cells in Culture, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  125. Ryan, G. B., Grobéty, J., and Majno, G., 1973, Mesothelial injury and recovery, Am. J. Pathol. 71: 93–112.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Sandstrom, B., 1966, Studies on cultivated liver cells: Some approaches to the study of the liver cell with the aid of tissue culture, in: Abstracts of Uppsala Dissertations in Medicine, Vol. 29, Almqvist and Wiksell, Stockholm.Google Scholar
  127. Sanford, K. K., 1967, “Spontaneous” neoplastic transformation of cells In vitro: Some facts and theories, in: Decennial Review Conference on Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture, 1966, Natl. Cancer Inst. Monogr. 26:387–418.Google Scholar
  128. Sandford, K. K., Dupree, L. T., and Covalesky, A. B., 1963, Biotin, B12 and other vitamin requirements of a strain of mammalian cells grown in chemically defined medium, Exp. Cell Res. 31: 345–375.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Sanford, K. K., Burris, J. F., and Handleman, S. R., 1972a, Chemical analyses of sera influencing neoplastic transformation in vitro, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 49: 1553–1561.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Sanford, K. K., Jackson, J. L., Parshad, R., and Gantt, R. R., 1972b, Evidence for an inhibiting influence of fetal bovine serum on “spontaneous” neoplastic transformation in vitro, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 49: 513–518.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Schindler, R., 1964, Quantitative colonial growth of mammalian cells in fibrin gels, Exp. Cell Res. 34: 595–598.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Schnedl, W., 197la, Analysis of the human karyotype using a reassociation technique, Chromosoma 34: 448–454.Google Scholar
  133. Schnedl, W., 197lb, Banding pattern of human chromosomes, Nature New Biol. 233: 93–94.Google Scholar
  134. Seman, G., Myers, B., Williams, W. C., Gallager, H. S., and Dmochowski, L., 1969, Studies on the relationship of viruses to the origin of human breast cancer. II. Viruslike particles in human breast tumors, Tex. Rep. Biol. Med. 27: 839–866.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Shiraishi, Y., and Yosida, T. H., 1972, Banding pattern analysis of human chromosomes by use of a urea treatment technique, Chromosoma 37: 75–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Simpson, W. F., and Stulberg, C. S., 1963, Specie r, identification of animal cell strains by immunofluorescence, Nature (Lond.) 199: 616–617.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Smith, J. A., and King, R. J. B., 1972, Effects of steroids on growth of an androgen-dependant mouse mammary carcinoma in cell culture, Exp. Cell Res. 73: 351–359.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Stier, H. A., and Halasz, N. A., 1966, Organ culture and tumor culture in hyperbaric oxygen, Am. J. Med. Sci. 252: 391–393.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Stoebner, P., Miech, G., Sengel, A., and Witz, J. P., 1970, Notions d’ultrastructure pleurale. I. L’hyperplasie mésothéliale. II. Les mésothéliomes, Presse Med. 78:1179–1184, 1403–1408.Google Scholar
  140. Sullivan, J. C., and Schafer, I. A., 1966, Survival of pronase-treated cells in tissue culture, Exp. Cell Res. 43: 676.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Sumner, A. T., Evans, H. J., and Buckland, R. A., 1971, New technique for distinguishing between human chromosomes, Nature New Biol. 232: 31–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Sutton, J. S., 1967, Ultrastructural aspects of in vitro development of monocytes into macrophages, epithelioid cells, and multinucleated giant cells, in: Decennial Review Conference on Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture, 1966, Natl. Cancer Inst. Monogr. 26: 71–141.Google Scholar
  143. Sykes, J. A., Grey, C. E., Scanlon, M., Young, L., and Dmochowski, L., 1964, Density gradient centrifugation studies of the Bittner virus, Tex. Rep. Biol. Med. 22: 609–627.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Sykes, J. A., Recher, L., Jernstrom, P. H., and Whitescarver, J., 1968, Morphological investigation of human breast cancer, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 40: 195–223.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Sykes, J. A., Whitescarver, J., Briggs, L., and Anson, J. H., 1970, Separation of tumor cells from fibroblasts with use of discontinuous density gradients, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 44: 855–864.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Taylor, W. G., Dworkin, R. A., Pumper, R. W., and Evans, V. J., 1972, Biological efficacy of several commercially available peptones for mammalian cells in culture, Exp. Cell Res. 74: 275–279.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Trempe, G., and Fogh, J., 1973, Variation in characteristics of human tumor cell lines derived from similar tumors, In Vitro 8: 433.Google Scholar
  148. Tribble, H. R., Jr., and Higuchi, K., 1963, Studies on the nutrition and metabolism of animal cells in serum-free media. II. Cultivation of cells in suspension, J. Infect. Dis. 112: 221–225.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Trowell, O. A., 1954, A modified technique for organ culture in vitro, Exp. Cell Res. 6: 246–248.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Trowell, O. A., 1959, The culture of mature organs in a synthetic medium, Exp. Cell Res. 16: 118–147.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Trowell, O. A., 1966, Tissue culture in radiobiology, in: Cells and Tissues in Culture: Methods, Biology and Physiology, Vol. 3, ( E. N. Willmer, ed.), pp. 64–149, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  152. Tunnah, K. V., McLimans, W. F., and Moore, G. E., 1968, Rocker cell culture incubator, Biotechnol. Bioeng. 10: 698–706.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Turkington, R. W., 1969, Hormonal regulation of cell proliferation in breast cancer cells in vitro, N.Y. State J. Med. 69: 2649–2655.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. Walter, H., Krob, E. J., and Ascher, G. S., 1969, Separation of lymphocytes and polymorphonuclear leukocytes by countercurrent distribution in aqueous two-polymer phase systems, Exp. Cell Res. 55: 279–283.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Waymouth, C., 1959, Rapid proliferation of sublines of NCTC clone 929 (strain 1.) mouse cells in a simple chemically defined medium (MB 752/1), J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 22: 1003–1017.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. Waymouth, C., 1965, Construction and use of synthetic media, in: Cells and Tissues in Culture: Methods, Biology and Physiology, Vol. 1 ( E. N. Willmer, ed.), pp. 99–142, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  157. Waymouth, C., 1967, Somatic cells in vitro: Their relationship to progenitive cells and to artificial milieux, in: Decennial Review Conference on Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture, 1966, Natl. Cancer Inst. Monogr. 26: 1–21.Google Scholar
  158. Waymouth, C., 1970, Osmolality of mammalian blood and of media for culture of mammalian cells, In Vitro 6: 109–127.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Wepsic, H. T., 1970, Separation of viable tumor cells from nonviable tumor cells by flotation on bovine serum albumin: A short communication, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 45: 1031–1034.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. Wessells, N. K., and Cohen, J. H., 1968, Effects of collagenase on developing epithelia in vitro: Lung, ureteric bud, and pancreas, Develop. Biol. 18: 294–309.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Willmer, E. N. (ed.), 1965, 1966, Cells and Tissues in Culture: Methods, Biology and Physiology, Vols. 1, 2, 3, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  162. Wöhler, W., Rüdiger, H. W., and Passarge, E., 1972, Large scale culturing of normal diploid cells on glass beads using a novel type of culture vessel, Exp. Cell Res. 74: 571–573.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Yamane, I., Matsuya, Y., and Jimbo, K., 1968, An autoclavable powdered culture medium for mammalian cells, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 127: 335–336.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Young, R., Cailleau, R., Mackay, B., and Reeves, W. j., Jr., 1974, Establishment of cell line MDA-MB-157 from a pleural effusion from a human breast carcinoma, In Vitro 9: 239–245.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Zucker, R. M., and Cassen, B., 1969, The separation of normal human leukocytes by density and classification by size, Blood 34: 591–600.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1975

Authors and Affiliations

  • Relda M. Cailleau
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Medicine, M. D. Anderson Hospital and Tumor InstituteUniversity of Texas at HoustonHoustonUSA

Personalised recommendations