Helper Activity for the Defective Friend Leukemia Virus in Human Malignant Cell Cultures

  • Audrey Fjelde


The search for a possible viral etiology for human malignancy is at the forefront of current cancer research. Faced with the difficulties present in human investigation, scientists have found it necessary to use indirect approaches. This area of cancer research is further complicated by the fact that the necessary information for malignancy may be present in a cell without demonstrable virus particles. The genetic constitution of the host is an important factor controlling the expression of malignancy, and it has been shown that an agent causing only a mild infection in human beings can cause a malignant lesion in other species (Trentin et al., 1962). A genetic basis for leukemogenesis has been described (Lilly et al., 1964; Odaka and Yamamoto, 1962).


Leukemia Virus Helper Virus Helper Activity Friend Virus Reticulum Cell Sarcoma 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Aronson, S. A., Todaro, G., and Skolnick, E. D., 1971, Induction of murine C-type viruses from clones of virus-free Balb/3T3 cells, Science 174: 157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Astaldi, G., Burgio, G. R., Kre, J., Genova, R., and Astaldi, A. A., Jr., 1969, L-Asparaginase and blastogenesis, Lancet 1: 423.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Axelrad, A. A., and Steeves, R. A., 1964, Assay for Friend leukemia virus: Rapid quantitative method based on enumeration of macroscopic spleen foci in mice, Virology 24: 513.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Baltimore, D., 1970, RNA-dependent DNA polymerase virions of RNA tumor viruses, Nature (Lond.) 226: 120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bennett, M., and Eckner, R. J., 1973, Immunobiology of Friend virus leukemia, in: Virus Tumorigenesis and Immunogenesis (W. S. Ceglowski and H. Friedman, eds.), pp. 387–414, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  6. Dawson, P. J., and Fieldsteel, A. H., 1969, Inhibition of Friend virus-induced splenomegaly by an associated lymphatic leukemia virus, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 132: 898.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Dawson, P. J., and Fieldsteel, A. H., 1973, Genetic factors in chronic remittent Friend disease, Cancer Res. 33: 2456.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Eckner, R. J., 1973, Helper-dependent properties of Friend spleen focus-forming virus: Effect of the Fv-1 gene on the late stages in virus synthesis, J. Virol. 12: 523.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Eckner, R. J., Fjelde, A., and Mirand, E. A., 1974a, Antigenic alterations of defective Friend virus grown with human leukemic tissue extracts (in press).Google Scholar
  10. Eckner, R. J., Han, T., and Zeigel, R., 1974b, Enhancement of friend virus-induced focus-formation by mycoplasmas: Distinction from viral-associated helper activity, in preparation.Google Scholar
  11. Fjelde, A., 1955, Human tumor cells in tissue culture, Cancer 8: 845.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Fjelde, A., 1969, The establishment of mammalian cells in culture, in: Axenic Neomammalian Cell Reactions ( G. Tritsch, ed.), pp. 1–24, Marcel Dekker, New York.Google Scholar
  13. Fjelde, A., 1972, The establishment in culture of permanent lines of hematopoietic cells, and recent virus studies done with haematopoietic cells, in: Proceedings of the 1971 Meeting of the European Tissue Culture Association, Symp. Biol. Hung. 14: 37.Google Scholar
  14. Fjelde, A., 1973, Prolonged leukemogenicity in long term cultures of leukemic mouse spleens, session in depth on carcinogenesis in vitro, in: Annual Meeting of the Tissue Culture Association, In Vitro 8: 432.Google Scholar
  15. Fjelde, A., and Bloch, A., 1973, Inhibition by 3-deazauridine of helper activity provided by human malignant tissue extracts for the induction of leukemia in mice, in: Abstracts of the Annual Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology (May), p. 223 (in press).Google Scholar
  16. Fjelde, A., and Freeman, A., 1973, Characteristics of human neuroblastoma, Proc. Am. Assoc. Cancer Res. 14:108 (in press).Google Scholar
  17. Fjelde, A., Steeves, R. A., and Mirand, E. A., 1971. Effect of culture conditions on recovery of helper activity from human leukemic cells, In Vitro 6: 376.Google Scholar
  18. Fjelde, A., and Bourke, R., 1974a, The presence in the BeWo human trophoblast line of helper or enhancing activity for the Friend spleen focus-forming virus (SFFV), Proc. Am. Assoc. Cancer Res. 34:103 (in press).Google Scholar
  19. Fjelde, A., Eckner, R. J., and Mirand, E. A., 1974b, Characterization of helper extracts from human malignant tissue as different from agents able to enhance the expression of Friend spleen focus-forming virus (SFFV), in preparation.Google Scholar
  20. Fjelde, A., Eckner, R. J., and Mirand, E. A., 1974c, Partial characterization of helper extracts from leukemic humans (HuLH): Distinction from agents able to enhance the expression of Friend spleen focus-forming virus (SFFV), In Vitro 9: 366.Google Scholar
  21. Friend, C., 1957, Cell free transmission in adult Swiss mice of a disease having the characteristics of a leukemia, J. Exp. Med. 105: 307.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Friend, C., Scher, W., Holland, J. G., and Sato, T., 1971, Hemoglobin, synthesis in murine virus-induced leukemic cells in vitro: Stimulation of erythroid differentiation by dimethylsulfoxide, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 68: 378.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Gilden, R. V., and Oroszlan, S., 1971, Structural and immunologic relationships among mammalian C-type viruses, J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 158: 1099.Google Scholar
  24. Hersh, E., 1971, Immunosuppression by L-Asparaginase and related enzymes, a review, Transplantation 12: 368.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Koo, G. C., Ceglowski, W. S., Higgins, M., and Friedman, H., 1971, Immunosuppression by leukemia viruses. V. Ultra-structural studies of antibody forming spleens of mice infected with Friend leukemia virus, J. Immunol. 106: 799.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Kufe, D., Hehlman, R., and Spiegelman, S., 1972, Human sarcomas contain RNA related to the RNA of a mouse leukemia virus, Science 175: 182.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Kufe, D., Hehlman, R., Peters, W., Fjelde, A., and Spiegelman, S., 1974, Particles encapsulating RNA-instructed DNA polymerase and high molecular weight virus related RNA in human lymphomas, in preparation.Google Scholar
  28. Lilly, F., 1970, Identification and location of a second gene governing the spleen focus response to Friend leukemia in mice, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 45: 163.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Lilly, F., Boyse, E. A., and Old, L. J., 1964, Genetic basis of susceptibility to viral leukemogenesis, Lancet 2: 1207.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Lowy, D. R., Rowe, W. P., Teich, N., and Hartley, J. W., 1971, Murine leukemia virus: High-frequency activation in vitro by 5-iododeoxyuridine and 5-bromodeoxyuridine, Science 174: 155.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Milgrom, F., Kano, K., and Fjelde, A., 1973. Studies on heterophile antigen in lymphoma and leukemia spleens by means of absorption of infectious mononucleosis sera, Int. Arch. Allergy Appt. Immunol. 45: 631.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Mirand, E. A., and Grace, J. T., Jr., 1962, Induction of leukemia in rats with Friend virus, Virology 17: 364.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Moore, G. E., Gerner, R. E., Kitamura, H., Minowada, J., and Fjelde, A., 1969, Lymphocytic cell lines derived from normal individuals, in: Proceedings of the Third Annual Leucocyte Conference (W. O. Rieke, ed.), pp. 177–198, Appleton-Century-Crofts, New York.Google Scholar
  34. Muller-Berat, C. N., 1969, Immunosuppressive action of L-asparaginase studied by means of the localized haemolysis in gel assay (L.H.G.A.), Acta Pathol. Microbiol Scand. 77: 750.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Odaka, T., and Yamamoto, T., 1962, Inheritance of susceptibility to Friend mouse leukemia virus, Japan J. Exp. Med. 32: 405.Google Scholar
  36. Patillo, R. A., and Gey, G. 0., 1968, The establishment of a cell line of human hormone-synthesizing trophoblastic cells in vitro, Cancer Res. 28: 1231.Google Scholar
  37. Peters, W. P., Kufe, D., Schlom, J., Frankel, J. W., Prickett, C. O., Groupé, V., and Spiegelman, S., 1973, Biological and biochemical evidence for an interaction between Marek’s disease, herpesvirus and avian leukosis virus in vivo, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 70: 3175.Google Scholar
  38. Pincus, T., Hartley, J. W., and Rowe, W. P., 1971, A major genetic locus affecting resistance to infection with murine leukemia viruses. I. Tissue culture studies of naturally-occurring viruses, J. Exp. Med. 133: 1219.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Priori, E. S., Dmochowski, L., Myers, B., and Wilbur, J. B., 1971, Constant production of type C—virus particles in a continuous tissue culture derived from pleural effusion cells of a lymphoma patient, Nature New Biol. 232: 61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Rowe, W. P., Humphrey, J. B., and Lilly, F., 1973, A major genetic locus affecting resistance to infection with murine leukemia viruses. III. Assignment of the Fv-1 locus to linkage group VIII of the mouse, J. Exp. Med. 137: 850.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Schlom, J., and Spiegelman, S., 1971, Simultaneous detection of reverse transcriptase and high molecular weight RNA unique to oncogenic RNA viruses, Science 174: 840.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Shannon, W. M., and Westbrook, L., 1973, Inhibition of Gross leukemia virus replication by 3-deazauridine, Proc. Am. Assoc. Cancer Res. 14: 28.Google Scholar
  43. Shannon, W. M., Arnett, G., and Schabel, F. M., 1972, 3-Deazauridine: Inhibition of ribonucleic acid virus-induced cytopathogenic effects in vitro, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 2: 159.Google Scholar
  44. Simberkoff, M. S., Thorbecke, G. J., and Thomas, L., 1969, Studies of PPLO infection. V. Inhibition of lymphocyte mitosis and antibody formation by mycoplasma extracts, J. Exp. Med. 129: 1163.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Sorkin. E., 1969, The Immune Response and Its Suppression, S. Karger, Basel.Google Scholar
  46. Spiegelman, S., Burny, A., Das, M. R., Keydar, J., Schlom, J., Travnicek, M., and Watson, K., 1970, DNA-directed DNA polymerase activity in oncogenic RNA viruses, Nature (Lond.) 227: 1029.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Spiegelman, S., Kufe, D., Hehlmann, R., and Peters, W. P., 1973, Evidence for RNA tumor viruses in human lymphomas including Burkitt’s disease, Cancer Res. 33: 1515.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Steeves, R. A., and Minowada, J., 1973, Mycoplasmas provide helper activity for Friend spleen focus-forming virus in mice, Proc. Am. Assoc. Cancer Res. 14: 71.Google Scholar
  49. Steeves, R. A., Fjelde, A., and Mirand, E. A., 197la, Specificity of helper activity for Friend spleen focus-forming virus, Proc. Am. Assoc. Cancer Res. 12: 57.Google Scholar
  50. Steeves, R. A., Fjelde, A., and Mirand E. A., 1971b, Demonstration of helper activity with human leukemic tissue extracts, in: Comparative Research Leukemia Symposium, Padua, Italy, September.Google Scholar
  51. Steeves, R. A., Fjelde, A., and Mirand, E. A., 1971c, Helper activity of human leukemic tissue extracts for leukemia virus expression in mice, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 68: 2391.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Stewart, S. E., Kasnia, G., Draycott, C., and Ben, T., 1972, Activation of viruses in human tumors by 5-iododeoxyuridine and dimethylsulfide, Science 175: 198.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Temin, H. M., 1964, Nature of the provirus of Rous sarcoma, Natl. Cancer Inst. Monogr. 7: 557.Google Scholar
  54. Temin, H. M., and Mizutani, S., 1970, RNA-dependent DNA polymerase in virions of Rous sarcoma virus, Nature (Lond.) 226: 1211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Thomson, S., 1969, An assay method for target cells of Friend spleen focus-forming virus, Proc. Am. Assoc. Cancer Res. 10: 93.Google Scholar
  56. Trentin, J. J., Yabe, Y., and Taylor, G., 1962, The quest for human cancer viruses, Science 137: 835.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Wang, M. C., and Bloch, A., 1972, Studies on the mode of action of 3-deazapyrimidines. I. Metabolism of 3-deazauridine and 3-deazacytidine in microbial and tumor cells, Biochem. Pharmacol. 21: 1063.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1975

Authors and Affiliations

  • Audrey Fjelde
    • 1
  1. 1.Roswell Park Memorial InstituteBuffaloUSA

Personalised recommendations