Ultrastructural Characteristics of Human Tumor Cells in Vitro

  • Gabriel Seman
  • Leon Dmochowski


In this chapter, only tumor cells of human origin will be considered. Animal tumor cells will not be considered, except when a direct comparison between the results of ultrastructural studies of human cells and those of animal cells will help in furthering the discussion. The history of ultrastructural studies of human tumor cells grown in vitro has been determined by a number of important factors. The first was the development, in the late 1940s, of commercially available electron microscopes, followed by the development, in the early 1950s, of thin-sectioning procedures and fixation and embedding procedures (Palade, 1952; Porter and Kallman, 1953) for biological material that were suitable for electron microscopy. For several years, electron microscopists have been experiencing serious difficulties with fixative solutions and even more with media for embedding. Methacrylate, the plastic commonly used for embedding until 1963–1964, was a poor medium. The understanding of cellular ultrastructure improved considerably when fixation in glutaraldehyde (Sabatini et al.,1963), followed by fixation in osmic acid, and use of high-quality embedding resins such as Epon (Luft, 1961) and Araldite (Glauert et al., 1956) were introduced for preparation of specimens. At the same time, the development of media for tissue culture (Eagle, 19556; McCoy and Neuman, 1956) protected against contamination by a variety of antibiotics made possible the prolonged cultivation of human tumor cells with reasonable chances of success.


HeLa Cell Human Tumor Cell Tissue Culture Cell Acanthosis Nigricans Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Abercrombie, M., 1970, Contact inhibition in tissue culture, In Vitro 6: 128–142.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Abramson, D. H., and Byers, B., 1966, Morphological changes in HeLa cells during late cytokinesis, in: 6th Annual Meeting of the American Society for Cell Biology, Nov. 17–19, Houston, Texas, J. Cell Biol. 31:3A (abst.).Google Scholar
  3. Amalric, F., Simard, R., and Zalta, J.-P., 1969, Effets de la temperature supra-optimale sur les ribonucleoproteines et le RNA nucleolaire. II. Etude biochimique, Exp. Cell Res. 55: 370–377.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Amy, R. L., and Storb, R., 1965, Selective mitochondria] damage by a ruby laser microbeam: An electron microscope study, Science 150: 756–757.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Anderson, D. R., 1970, Ultrastructure of normal and leukemic leukocytes in human peripheral blood, J. Ultrastruct. Res. 30:1–42 (Suppl. 9 ).Google Scholar
  6. Andre, J., and Marinozzi, V., 1965, Presence, dans les mitochondries, de particules ressemblant aux ribosomes, J. Microsc. 4: 615–626.Google Scholar
  7. Ang. B., Jaross, L., and McAllister, R. M., 1962, Studies of fibroblast-like cells from the bone marrow of leukemic and non-leukemic children, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med, 109: 467–471.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Archer, F. L., 1968, Normal and neoplastic human tissue in organ culture, Arch. Pathol. 85: 62–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Armstrong, D., 1966, Serial cultivation of human leukemic cells, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 122: 475–481.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Arstila, A. U., Jauregui, H. O., Chang, J., and Trump, B. F., 1971, Studies on cellular autophagocytosis: Relationship between heterophagy and autophagy in HeLa cells, Lab. Invest. 24: 162–174.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Baringer, J. R., and Swoveland, P., 1972, Tubular aggregates in endoplasmic reticulum: Evidence against their viral nature, J. Ultrastruct. Res. 41: 270–276.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Baron, S., and Rabson, A., 1957, A culture strain (LAC) of human epithelial-like cells from an adenocarcinoma of the lung, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 96: 515–518.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bassin, R. H., Plata, E. J., Gerwin, B. I., Mattern, C. F., Haapala, D. K., and Chu, E. W., 1972, Isolation of a continuous epitheloid cell line, HBT-3, from a human breast carcinoma (36850), Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 141: 673–680.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bauer, H., Daams, J. H., Watson, K. F., Moiling, K. Gelderblom, H., and Schafer, W., 1974, Oncornavirus-like particles in HeLa cells. Il. Immunological characterization of the virus, Int. J. Cancer 13: 254–261.Google Scholar
  15. Bayer, M. E., and Nielsen, G., 1961, Zur Morphologie des Gelbfiebervirus, Arch. Ges. Virusforsch. 11: 303–306.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bedoya, V., 1970, Effect of chloroquine on malignant lymphoreticular and pigmented cells in vitro, Cancer Res. 30: 1262–1275.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Bedoya, V., Grimley, P. M., and Rabson, A. S., 1969, Ultrastructural evidence of in vitro interaction among Burkitt lymphoma cells: Possible relevance to the “phagocytic” activity of starry sky histiocytes in vivo, Cancer Res. 29: 753–762.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Bekerhi, A., and Markani, K., 1970, Etude des cellules HeLa par le cryodecapage, J. Ultrastruct. Res. 32: 23–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bensch, K. G., and Malawista, S. E., 1968, Microtubule crystals: A new biophysical phenomenon induced by Vinca alkaloids, Nature (Lond.) 218: 1176–1177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Benyesh-Melnick, M., 1967, Formal discussion: Continuous lymphoid cell cultures from human bone marrow, Cancer Res. 27: 2504–2506.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Berg. R. B., and Rosenthal, M. S., 1961, Studies of fibroblastic cells from bone marrow of leukemic and non-leukemic patients, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 106: 614–617.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Bergold, J. H., and Weibel, J., 1962, Demonstration of yellow fever virus with the electron microscope, Virology 17: 554–562.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Berman, L., and Stulberg, C. S., 1956, Eight cultures (Detroit) of human epithelial-like cells, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 92: 730–735.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Bernhard, W., 1966, Ultrastructural aspects of the normal and pathological nucleolus in mammalian cells, Natl. Cancer Inst. Monogr. 23: 13–38.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Bernhard, W., and Granboulan, N., 1968, Electron microscopy of the nucleolus of vertebrate cells, in: Ultrastructure in Biological Systems, Vol. 3 ( A. J. Dalton and F. Haguenau, eds.), pp. 81–149, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  26. Bessis, M., 1964, Studies on cell agony and death: An attempt at classification, in: Cellular Injury ( A. V. S. De Reuck and J. Knight, eds.), pp. 287–328, Little, Brown, Boston.Google Scholar
  27. Bessis, M., and Storb, R., 1965, Sensibilite des leucocytes au laser a rubis apres differentes colorations vitales, Nouv. Rev. Fr. Hematol. 5: 459–474.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Birch-Anderson, A., and Paucker, K., 1959, Studies on the structure of influenza virus. II. Ultrathin sections of infectious and noninfectious particles, Virology 8: 21–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Bloch, D. P., Morgan, C. Godman, G. C., Howe, C., and Rose, H. M., 1957, A correlated histochemical and electron microscopic study of the intranuclear crystalline aggregates of adenovirus (RI-APC virus) in HeLa cells, J. Biophys. Biochem. Cytol. 3: 1–8.Google Scholar
  30. Blondel, B., and Tolmach, L. J., 1965, Studies on nuclear fine structure: Three phases of the HeLa cell cycle, Exp. Cell Res. 37: 497–501.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Bonissol, C., Sisman, J., and Lepine, P., 1968, Etude preliminaire au microscope electronique du myxovirus parainfluenza. II, Ann. Inst. Pasteur 114: 551–554.Google Scholar
  32. Bootsma, D., Budke, L., and Vos. 0., 1964, Studies on synchronous division of tissue culture cells initiated by excess thymidine, Exp. Cell. Res. 33: 301–309.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Bouteille, M., Kalifat, S. R., and Delarue, J., 1967, Ultrastructural variations of nuclear bodies in human diseases, J. Ultrastruct. Res. 19: 474–486.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Boyde, A., Weiss, R. A., and Vesely, P., 1972, Scanning electron microscopy of cells in culture, Exp. Cell Res. 71: 313–324.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Boyer, G. S., Leuchtenberger, C., and Ginsberg, H. S., 1957, Cytological and cytochemical studies of HeLa cells infected with adenoviruses, J. Exp. Med. 105: 195–216.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Brinkley, B. R., Murphy, P., and Richardson, L. C., 1967, Procedure for embedding in situ selected cells cultured in vitro, J. Cell Biol. 35: 279–283.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Bruni, C., Gey, M. K., and Svotelis, M., 1961, Changes in the fine structure of HeLa cells in relation to growth, Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp. 109: 160–177.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Buonassissi, V., and Ozzello, L., 1973, Sulfated mucopolysaccharide production by synovial sarcoma cells in vivo and in tissue culture, Cancer Res. 33: 874–881.Google Scholar
  39. Burns, E. R., Soloff, B. L., Hanna, C., and Buxton, D. F., 1971, Nuclear pockets associated with the nucleolus in normal and neoplastic cells, Cancer Res. 31: 159–165.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Busch, H., and Smetana, K., 1970, The Nucleolus, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  41. Byers, B., and Abramson, D. H., 1968, Cytokinesis in HeLa: Post-telophase delay and microtubule-associated motility, Protoplasma 66: 413–435.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Cailleau, R., 1960, The establishment of a cell strain (MAC-21) from a mucoid adenocarcinoma of human lung, Cancer Res. 20: 837–840.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Carr, K. E., 1971, Applications of scanning electron microscopy in biology, Int. Rev. Cytol. 30: 183–255.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Cavaliere, R., Ciocatto, E. C., Giovanella, B. P., Heidelberger, C., Johnson, R. O., Margottini, M., Mondovi, B., Moricca, G., and Rossi-Fanelli, A., 1967, Selective heat sensitivity of cancer cells, Cancer 20: 1351–1381.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Chandra, S., Moore, G. E., and Brandt, P. M., 1968, Similarity between leukocyte cultures from cancerous and noncancerous human subjects: An electron microscope study, Cancer Res. 28: 1982–1989.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Chopra, H. C., and Mason, M. M., 1970, A new virus in a spontaneous mammary tumor of a rhesus monkey, Cancer Res. 30: 2081–2086.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Clarke, J. K., Samuels, J., Dermott, E., and Gay, F. W., 1970, Carrier cultures of simian foamy virus, J. Virol. 5: 624–631.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Clarkson, B., 1967, Formal discussion: On the cellular origins and distinctive features of cultured cell lines derived from patients with leukemias and lymphomas, Cancer Res. 27: 2483–2488.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Clarkson, B., Strife, A., and DeHarven, E., 1967, Continuous culture of seven new cell lines (SKL-1 to 7) from patients with acute leukemia, Cancer 20: 926–947.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Clarkson, B. D., Thorbecke, J., DeHarven, E., and Miles, C., 1969, Immunoglobulin synthesis by human reticulum sarcoma cells in vivo and during long-term culture in vitro, Cancer Res. 29: 823–836.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Cooper, T. W., and Fisher, H. W., 1968a, Electron microscopic survey of the presence of microvilli in cultured mammalian cells, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 41: 789–794.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Cooper, T. W., and Fisher, H. W., 1968b, Electron microscope observations on the attenuated attachment bridges of HeLa cells, Exp. Cell Res. 53: 663–665.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Costero, I., and Pomerat, C. M., 1951, Cultivation of neurons from adult human cerebral and cerebellar cortex, Am. J. Anat. 89: 405–467.Google Scholar
  54. Dalton, A. J., and Haguenau, F., 1968, Ultrastructure in Biological Systems, Vol. III: The Nucleus, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  55. Dalton, A. J., and Stewart, S. E., 1972, Intracisternal A particles and C particles, Science 176:319. Dalton, A. J., and Zeve, V. H., 1967, A review of studies with the electron microscope on human leukemia and Burkitt’s tumor, Cancer Res. 27: 2465–2470.Google Scholar
  56. Dalton, A. J., Heine, U., Kondratick, J. M., Ablashi, D. V., and Blackham, E. A., 1973, Ultrastructural and complement-fixation studies on suspension cultures derived from human solid tumors, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 50: 879–894.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Dawe, C. J., Banfield, W. G., Morgan, W. D., Slatick, M. S., and Curth, H. O., 1965, Growth in continuous culture and in hamsters of cells of a neoplasm associated with acanthosis nigricans, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 33: 441–456.Google Scholar
  58. De Harven, E., 1967, Human leukemic cells in tissue culture: An electron microscope survey, Cancer Res. 27: 2447–2464.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. De Harven, E., Clarkson, B., and Strife, A., 1967, Electron microscopic study of human leukemic cells in tissue culture, Cancer 20: 911–925.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. De The, G., Ambrosioni, J.-C., Ho, H. C., and Kwan, H. C., 1969, Lymphoblastoid transformation and presence of herpes-type viral particles in a Chinese nasopharyngeal tumor cultured in vitro, Nature (Lond.) 221: 770–771.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. De The, G., Ho, H. C., Kwan, H. C., Desgranges, C., and Favre, M. C., 1970, Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). I. Types of cultures derived from tumor biopsies and non-tumorous tissues of Chinese patients with special reference to lymphoblastoid transformation, Int. J. Cancer 6: 189–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Dingle, J. T., and Fell, H. B., 1969, Lysosomes in Biology and Pathology, Wiley, New York. Djordjevic, B., and Tolmach, L. J., 1967, Responses of synchronous populations of HeLa cells to ultraviolet irradiation at selected stages of the generation cycle, Radiat. Res. 32: 327–346.Google Scholar
  63. Dmochowski, L., 1960, Viruses and tumors in the light of electron microscope studies: A review, Cancer Res. 20: 977–1015.Google Scholar
  64. Dmochowski, L., 1970, Comparison of leukemogenic and sarcomagenic viruses at the ultra-structural level, Bibl. Haematol. 36: 68–82.Google Scholar
  65. Dmochowski, L., 1973, Unifying concepts of leukemia and related neoplasms in animals and man leading to the eventual control and prevention, Bibl. Haematol. 39: in press.Google Scholar
  66. Dmochowski, L., Taylor, H. G., Grey, C. E., Dreyer, D. A., Sykes, J. A., Langford, P. L., Rogers, T., Shullenberger, C. C., and Howe, C. D., 1965, Viruses and mycoplasma (PPLO) in human leukemia, Cancer 18: 1345–1368.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Dobrynin, Y. V., 1963, Establishment and characteristics of cell strains from some epithelial tumors of human origin, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 31: 1173–1196.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Douglas, S. D., Borjeson, J., and Chessin, L. N., 1967, Studies on human lymphocytes in vitro. IV. Comparative fine structural features of the established Burkitt lymphoma cell lines AL-1, EB-2, and phytomitogen-transformed lymphocytes, J. Immunol. 340–346.Google Scholar
  69. Dourmashkin, R. R., and Dougherty, R. M., 1961, Phagocytosis of crystalline particles by cells grown in tissue culture, Exp. Cell Res. 25: 480–484.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Eagle, H., 1955a, Propagation in a fluid medium of a human epidermoid carcinoma, strain KB Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 89: 362–364.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Eagle, H., 19556, Nutrition needs of mammalian cells in tissue culture, Science 122:501–504. Easterbrook, K. B., and Davern, C. I., 1963, The effect of 5-bromodeoxyuridine on the multiplication of vaccinia virus, Virology 19: 509–520.Google Scholar
  72. Easty, D. M., 1967, Methods and applications of organ culture, in: The Cancer Cell In Vitro (E. J. Ambrose, D. M. Easty, and J. A. H. Wylie, eds. ), pp. 50–62.Google Scholar
  73. Easty, G. C., and Mercer, E. H., 1960, An electron microscope study of the surface of normal and malignant cells in culture, Cancer Res. 20: 1608–1613.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Edwards, G. A., and Fogh, J., 1960, Fine structure of pleuropneumonia-like organisms in pure culture and in infected tissue culture cells, J. Bacteriol. 79: 267–276.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Epstein, M. A., 1961, Some unusual features of fine structure observed in HeLa cells, J. Biophys. Biochem. Cytol. 10: 153–163.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Epstein, M. A., 1962, Observations on the mode of release of herpes virus from infected HeLa cells, J. Cell Biol. 12: 589–597.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Epstein, M. A., and Achong, B. G., 1965, Fine structural organization of human lymphoblasts of a tissue culture strain (EB-1) from Burkitt’s lymphoma, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 34: 241–253.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Epstein, M. A., and Barr, Y. M., 1964, Cultivation in vitro of human lymphoblasts from Burkitt’s malignant lymphoma, Lancet 1: 252–253.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Epstein, M. A., Achong, B. G., and Barr, Y. M., 1964a, Virus particles in cultured lymphoblasts from Burkitt’s lymphoma, Lancet 2: 702–703.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Epstein, M. A., Hummeler, K., and Berkaloff, A., 19646, The entry and distribution of herpes virus and colloidal gold in HeLa cells after contact in suspension, J. Exp. Med. 119: 291–302.Google Scholar
  81. Epstein, M. A., Barr, Y. M., and Achong, B. G., 1965, The behavior and morphology of a second tissue culture strain (EB-2) of lymphoblasts from Burkitt’s lymphoma, Brit. J. Cancer 19: 108–115.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Erlandson, R. A., and De Harven, E., 1971, The ultrastructure of synchronized HeLa cells, J. Cell Sci. 8: 353–397.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Erlandson, R. A., Babcock, V. I., Southam, C. M., Bailey, R. B., and Shipkey, F. H., 1967, Semliki forest virus in HEp-2 cell cultures, J. Virol. 1: 996–1009.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Farquhar, M. G., and Palade, G. E., 1963, Junctional complexes in various epithelia, J. Cell Biol. 17: 375–412.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Fawcett, D. W., 1966, The Cell: An Atlas of Fine Structure, Saunders, Philadelphia.Google Scholar
  86. Feller, W. F., Stewart, S. E., and Kantor, J., 1972, Primary tissue culture explants of human breast cancer, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 48: 1117–1120.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Ferenczy, A., Fenoglio, J., and Richart, R. M., 1972, Observations on benign mesothelioma of the genital tract (adenomatoid tumor): A comparative ultrastructural study, Cancer 30: 244–260.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Finegold, I., Hirshaut, Y., and Fahey, J. L., 1968, Immunochemical and morphologic comparison of donor tissues with immunoglobulin-producing tissue culture lines from two patients with malignancies, Cancer Res. 28: 1538–1549.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Fisher, H. W., and Cooper, T. W., 1967, Electron microscope studies of the microvilli of HeLa cells, J. Cell Biol. 34: 569–576.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Flaxman, B. A., 1972, Growth in vitro and induction of differentiation in cells of basal cell cancer, Cancer Res. 32: 462–469.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Flaxman, B. A., and Van Scott, E. J., 1968, Keratinization in vitro of cells from a basal cell carcinoma, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 40: 411–422.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Flaxman, B. A., and Van Scott, E. J., 1972, Growth of normal human mammary gland epithelium in vitro, Cancer Res. 32: 2407–2412.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Flaxman, B., Revel, J. P., and Hay, E. D., 1969, Tight junctions between contact-inhibited cells in vitro, Exp. Cell Res. 58: 438–443.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Fogh, J., 1961, Filamentous organization of poliovirus particles, Virology 14: 495–497.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Fogh, J., and Hacker, C., 1960, Elimination of pleuropneumonia-like organisms from cell cultures, Exp. Cell Res. 21: 242–244.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Fogh, J., and Stuart, D. C., Jr., 1960, Intracellular crystals of poliovirus in HeLa cells, Virology 11: 308–311.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Fogh, J., Hahn, E., III, and Fogh, H., 1965, Effects of pleuropneumonia-like organisms on cultured human cells, Exp. Cell Res. 39: 554–566.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Foley, G. E., Lazarus, H., Farber, S., Uzman, B. G., Boone, B. A., and McCarthy, R. E., 1965, Continuous culture of human lymphoblasts from peripheral blood of a child with acute leukemia, Cancer 18: 522–529.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Fuse, Y., Price, Z., and Carpenter, C. M., 1963, A comparison of the fine structure of cultured MAC-21 and HeLa cells, Cancer Res. 23: 1658–1670.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Gazzolo, L., De The, G., Vuillaume, M., and Ho, H. C., 1972, Nasopharyngeal carcinoma. II. Ultrastructure of normal mucosa, tumor biopsies, and subsequent epithelial growth in vitro, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 48: 73–86.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Gelderblom, H., Moiling, K., and Watson, K. F., 1972, Detection of oncornaviruses of presumbably human origin, in: Abstracts of the 7th Meeting of the European Tumour Virus Group, p. 28, Sept. 25–27, Zierickzee, Netherlands.Google Scholar
  102. Gelderblom, H., Bauer, H., Ogura, H., Wigand, R., and Fischer, A. B., 1974, Detection of oncornavirus-like particles in HeLa cells. I. Fine structure and comparative morphological classification, Int. J. Cancer 13: 246–253.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. George, P., Journey, L. J., and Goldstein, M. N., 1965, Effect of vincristine on fine structure of HeLa cells during mitosis, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 35: 355–375.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Gerber, P., and Monroe, J. H., 1968, Studies on leukocytes growing in continuous cultures derived from normal donors, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 40: 855–856.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Gey, G. O., Coffman, W. D., and Kubicek, M. T., 1952, Tissue culture studies of the proliferative capacity of cervical carcinoma and normal epithelium, Cancer Res. 12: 264–265.Google Scholar
  106. Glauert, A. M., Rogers, G. E., and Glauert, R. H., 1956, A new embedding medium for electron microscopy, Nature (Land.) 178: 803.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Goldstein, M. N., 1971, Annulate lamellae in cultured neuroblastoma cells, Cancer Res. 31: 209–213.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Goldstein, M. N., Burdman, J. A., and Journey, L. J., 1964, Tissue culture of neuroblastomas. II. Morphologic evidence for differentiation and maturation, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 32: 165–199.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Gori, G. B., and Lee, D. Y., 1964, A method for eradication of mycoplasma infections in cell cultures, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 117: 918–921.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Gregg, M., and Morgan, C., 1959, Reduplication in nuclear membranes in HeLa cells infected with adenoviruses, J. Biophys. Biochem. Cytol. 6: 539–540.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Grimley, P. M., and Moss, B., 1971, Similar effect of rifampin and other rifamycin derivatives on vaccinia virus morphogenesis, J. Virol. 8: 225–231.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Grimley, P. M., Rosenblum, E. N., Mims, S. J., and Moss, B., 1970, Interruption by rifampicin of an early stage in vaccinia virus morphogenesis: Accumulation of membranes which are precursors of viral envelopes, J. Virol. 6: 519–533.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Gyorkey, F., Min, K. W., Sinkovics, J. G., and Gyorkey, P., 1969, Systemic lupus erythematosus and myxovirus, New Engl. J. Med. 280: 333.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Hagmuller, K., and Leslie, I., 1962, The use of organ culture to study 1311 uptake and metabolism of thyroid tissue, Exp. Cell Res. 27: 396–400.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Hallauer, C., Kronauer, G., and Siegl, G., 1971, Parvoviruses as contaminants of permanent human cell lines. I. Virus isolations from 1960–1970, Arch. Ges. Virusforsch. 35: 80–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Harford, C. G., Hamlin, A., Parker, E., and Van Ravenswaay, T., 1956a, Electron microscopy of HeLa cells infected with adenoviruses, J. Exp. Med. 104: 443–454.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Harford, C. G., Hamlin, A., Parker, E., and Van Ravenswaay, T., 19566, Globoid structures in the cytoplasm of rapidly growing HeLa cells, J. Biophys. Biochem, Cytol. 2: 347–350.Google Scholar
  118. Harford, C. G., Hamlin, A., and Parker, E., 1957, Electron microscopy of HeLa cells afterGoogle Scholar
  119. ingestion of colloidal gold, J. Biophys. Biochem. Cytol. 3:749–756.Google Scholar
  120. Harford, C. G., Hamlin, A., and Rieders, E., 1966, Electron microscopic autoradiography of DNA synthesis in cells infected with vaccinia virus, Exp. Cell Res. 42: 50–57.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Harris, H., Watkins, J. F., Ford, C. E., and Schoeff, G. E., 1966, Artificial heterokaryons of animal cells from different species, J. Cell Sci. 1: 1–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Hayflick, L., 1965, Tissue cultures and mycoplasmas, Texas Rep. Biol. Med. 23: 285–303Google Scholar
  123. Huppl. U., 1969, Electron microscopic studies on HeLa cells exposed to the antibiotic toyocamycin, Cancer Res. 29: 1875–1880.Google Scholar
  124. Hendee, W. R., Zebrun, W., and Bonte, F. J., 1963a, Anomalous structures in the cytoplasm of HeLa cells cultured in the presence of 5-bromodeoxyuridine, J. Cell Biol. 17: 675–680.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Hendee, W. R., Zebrun, W., and Bonte, F. J., 19636, Effects of X-radiation on fine structure of HeLa cells, Texas Rep. Biol. Med. 21: 546–557.Google Scholar
  126. Hinglais-Guillaud, N., 1960, L’ultrastructure de l’exocol normal de la femme, Bull. Assoc. Fr. Cancer 46: 212–252.Google Scholar
  127. Hinuma, Y., and Grace, J. T., Jr., 1967, Cloning of immunoglobulin-producing human leukemic and lymphoma cells in long-term cultures, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 124: 107111.Google Scholar
  128. Hodge, L. D., Robbins, E., and Scharff, M. D., 1969, Persistence of messenger RNA through mitosis in HeLa cells, J. Cell Biol. 40: 497–507.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Hodges, G. M., 1970, A scanning electron microscope study of cell surface and cell contacts of “spontaneously” transformed cells in vitro. Eur. J. Cancer 6: 235–239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Hooks, G., Gibbs, C. J., Chopra, H. C., Lewis, M., and Gajdusek, D. C., 1972, Spontaneous transformation of human brain cells grown in vitro and description of associated virus particles, Science 176: 1420–1422.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Hou-Jensen, K., Priori, E., and Dmochowski, L., 1972, Studies on ultrastructure of Ewing’s sarcoma of bone, Cancer 29: 280–286.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Howatson, A. F., and Almeida, J. D., 1958, A method for the study of cultured cells by thin sectioning and electron microscopy, J. Biophys. Biochem. Cytol. 4: 115–118.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Humble, J. G., Jayne, W. H. W., and Pulvertaft, J. V., 1956, Biological interaction between lymphocytes and other cells, Brit. J. Haematol. 2: 283–294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Iwakata, S., and Grace, J. T., Jr., 1964, Cultivation in vitro of myeloblasts from human leukemia, N.Y. State J. Med. 64: 2279–2282.Google Scholar
  135. Jezequel, A. M., Shreeve, M. M., and Steiner, J. W., 1967, Segregation of nucleolar components in mycoplasma-infected cells, Lab. Invest. 16: 287–304.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Journey, L. J., and Goldstein, M. N., 1961, Electron microscope studies on HeLa cell lines sensitive and resistant to actinomycin D, Cancer Res. 21: 929–932.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Kallmann, F., Adams, J. M., Williams, R. C., and Imagawa, D. T., 1959, Fine structure of cellular inclusions in measle virus infections, J. Biophys. Biochem. Cytol. 6: 379–382.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Kelly, D. E., and Luft, J. H., 1966, Fine structure, development, and classification of desmosomes and related attachment mechanisms, in: Congress of Electron Microscopy, Kyoto, Japan, 1966, Vol. 2, pp. 401–402 Maruzen, Tokyo.Google Scholar
  139. Kessel, R. G., 1968, Fine structure of annulate lamellae, J. Cell Biol, 36: 658–663.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Kim, J. H., and Perez, A. G., 1965, Ribonucleic acid synthesis in synchronously dividing populations of HeLa cells, Nature (Lond.) 207: 974–975.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Kim, J. H., and Stambuk, B. K., 1966, Synchronization of HeLa cells by vinblastine sulphate, Exp. Cell Res. 44: 631–634.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. King, M. E., Godman, G. C., and King, D. W., 1972, Respiratory enzymes and mitochondrial morphology of HeLa and L cells treated with chloramphenicol and ethidium bromide, J. Cell Biol. 53: 127–142.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Klug, H., 1962, On the occurrence of lymphocytes in reticulum cells, Experientia 18:317–318. Kojima, K., and Kozuka, S., 1962, Structural changes in HeLa cells cultivated in serum-free medium, J. Cell Biol. 14: 141–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Krishan, A., and Hsu, D., 1971a, Binding of colchicine-3H to vinblastine and vincristineinduced crystals in mammalian tissue culture cells, J. Cell Biol. 48: 407–410.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Krishan, A., and Hsu, D., 1971b, Vinblastine-induced ribosomal complexes, J. Cell Biol. 49: 927–932.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Kuhn, N. O., and Harford, C. G., 1963, Electron microscopic examination of cytoplasmic inclusion bodies in cells infected with parainfluenza virus, type 2, Virology 21: 527–530.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Kumegawa, M., Cattoni, M., and Rose, G. G., 1967, Electron microscopy of oral cells in vitro. I. Annulate lamellae observed in strain KB cells, J. Cell Biol. 34: 897–901.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Kumegawa, M., Cattoni, M., and Rose, G. G., 1968, Electron microscopy of oral cells in vitro. H. Subsurface and intracytoplasmic confronting cisternae in strain KB cells, J. Cell Biot. 36: 443–452.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Lane, N. J., and Novikoff, A. B., 1965, Effects of arginine deprivation, ultraviolet radiation and X-ray radiation on cultured KB cells: A cytochemical and ultrastructural study, J. Cell Biol. 27: 603–620.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Lapis, K., and Bernhard, W., 1965, The effect of mitomycin Con the nucleolar fine structure of KB cells in cell culture, Cancer Res. 25: 628–645.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Lasfargues, E. Y., 1957, Cultivation and behaviour in vitro of the normal mammary eipithelium of the adult mouse. II. Observation of the secretory activity, Exp. Cell Res. 13: 553–562.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Lasfargues, E. Y., and Ozzello, L. J., 1958, Cultivation of human breast carcinomas, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 21: 1131–1147.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. Lenk, R., and Penman, S., 1971, Morphological studies of cells grown in the absence of mitochondrial-specific protein synthesis, J. Cell Biol. 49: 540–546.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Lentz, T. L., 1971, Cell Fine Structure, Saunders, Philadelphia.Google Scholar
  155. Lettre, R., Siebs, W., and Paweletz, N., 1966, Morphological observations on the nucleolus of cells in tissue culture, with special regard to its composition, Natl. Cancer Inst. Monogr. 23: 107–123.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. Lewin, P. K., and Moscarello, M. A., 1968, Nucleolar changes in HeLa cells grown in the presence of aminonucleoside, Lab. Invest. 19: 265–285.Google Scholar
  157. Loni, M. C., 1971, Etude ultrastructurale de cellules KB infectees massivement par le virus de Newcastle. I. Developpement intracellulaire du virus et alterations cellulaires induites. II. Effet de la microirradiation ultraviolette sur les premiers stades de la multiplication du virus, Arch Ges. Virusforsch. 35: 269–289.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Loni, M. C., Burgers, M., and Hugon, J., 1967, Uptake of ferritin particles by ATP-stimulated HeLa cells, Zellforschung 76: 725–731.Google Scholar
  159. Love, R., Soriano, R. Z., and Walsh, R. J., 1970, Effect of hyperthermia on normal and neoplastic cells in vitro, Cancer Res. 30: 1525–1533.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. Lucas, L. S., Whang, J. J. K., Tjio, J. H., Manaker, R. A., and Zeve, V. H., 1966, Continuous cell culture from a patient with chronic myelogenous leukemia. I. Propagation and presence of Philadelphia chromosome, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 37: 753–759.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. Luibel, F. J., Sanders, E., and Ashworth, C. T., 1960, An electron microscopic study of carcinoma in situ and invasive carcinoma of the cervix uteri, Cancer Res. 20: 357–361.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. Luft, J. H., 1961, Improvements in epoxy resin embedding methods, J. Biophys. Biochem. Cytol. 9: 409–414.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Luft, J. H., 1966, Fine structure of capillary and endocapillary layer as revealed by ruthenium red, Fed. Proc. 25: 1773–1783.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. Macpherson, I., 1966, Mycoplasmas in tissue culture, J. Cell Sci. 1: 145–168.Google Scholar
  165. Macpherson, I. A., and Allner, K., 1960, L-forms of bacteria as contaminants in tissue culture, Nature (Lond.) 186: 992.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Martinez-Palomo, A., LeBuis, J., and Bernhard, W., 1967, Electron microscopy of adenovirus 12 replication. I. Fine structural changes in the nucleus of infected KB cells, J. Virol. 1: 817–829.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. Martinez-Palomo, A., Brailovsky, C., and Bernhard, W., 1969, Ultrastructural modification of the cell surface and intercellular contacts of some transformed cell strains, Cancer Res. 29: 925–937.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. Martorelli, B., Jr., Parshley, M. S., and Moore, J. G., 1969, Effects of chemotherapeutic agents on two lines of human breast carcinomas in tissue culture, Surg. Gynecol. Obstet. 128: 1001–1006.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. Mattem, C. F. T., and Daniel, W. A., 1965, Replication of poliovirus in HeLa cells: Electron microscopic study, Virology 26: 626–643.Google Scholar
  170. Maul, G. G., and Brinkley, B. R., 1970, The Golgi apparatus during mitosis in human melanoma cells in vitro, Cancer Res. 30: 2326–2335.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. Maul, G. G., and Romsdahl, M. M., 1970, Ultrastructural comparison of two human malignant melanoma cell lines, Cancer Res. 30: 2782–2790.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. Mayor, H. D., Powell, B., and Trentin, J. J., 1964, Structure of the viral capsid of adenoviruses type 12 and 18, Virology 23: 614–616.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. McCoy, T. A., and Neuman, R. E., 1956, The cultivation of Walker carcinosarcoma 256 in vitro from cell suspensions, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 16: 1221–1229.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. McDuffie, N. G., 1967, Nuclear blebs in human leukaemic cells, Nature (Lond.) 214:1341–1342. McGill, M., and Brinkley, B. R., 1972, Mitosis in human leukemic leukocytes during colcemid inhibition and recovery, Cancer Res. 32: 746–755.Google Scholar
  175. McIntosh, J. R., and Landis, S. C., 1971, Distribution of spindle microtubules during mitosis in cultured human cells, J. Cell Biol. 49: 468–497.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Millong, G., 1961, Advantage of a phosphate buffer for OsO4 solution in fixation, in: Proceedings of the 18th Annual Meeting of the Electron Microscopy Society of America, pp. 15–16 (abst.).Google Scholar
  177. Miyamoto, K., 1971, Mechanism of intranuclear crystal formation of herpes simplex virus as revealed by the negative staining of thin sections, J. Virol. 8: 534–550.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. Mollenhauer, H. H., 1964, Plastic embedding mixtures for use in electron microscopy, Stain Technol. 39: 111–114.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. Mollo, F., and Stramignoni, A., 1967, Nuclear projections in blood and lymph node cells of human leukemias and Hodgkin’s disease and in lymphocytes cultured with phytohaemagglutinin, Brit. J. Cancer 21: 519–503.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Monneron, A., and Bernhard, W., 1969, Fine structural organization of the interphase nucleus in some mammalian cells, J. Ultrastruct. Res. 27: 266–288.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. Moore, G. E., Mount, D., Tara, G., and Schwartz, N., 1963, Growth of human tumor cells in suspension cultures, Cancer Res. 23: 1735–1741.Google Scholar
  182. Moore, G. E., Kitamura, H., and Toshima, S., 1968, Morphology of cultured hematopoietic cells, Cancer 22: 245–267.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Moreno, G., 1971, Effects of ultraviolet micro-irradiation on different parts of the cell. II. Cytological observations and hnscheduled DNA synthesis after partial nuclear irradiation, Exp. Cell Res. 65: 129–139.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Moreno, G., and Vinzens, F., 1969, Effets de la micro-irradiation ultra-violette sur differentes parties de la cellule. I. Etude en microscopie electronique sur coupes en serie transversales et sagittales, Exp. Cell. Res. 56: 75–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Moreno, G., Lutz, M., and Bessis, M., 1969, Partial cell irradiation by ultraviolet and visible light: Conventional and laser sources, Int. Rev. Exp. Pathol. 7: 99–137.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. Morgan, C., Howe, C., and Rose, H. M., 1959a, Intracellular crystals of Coxsackie virus viewed in the electron microscope, Virology 9: 145–149.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Morgan, C., Rose, H. M., Holden, M., and Jones, E. P., 19596, Electron microscopic observations on the development of herpes simplex virus, J. Exp. Med. 110: 643–656.Google Scholar
  188. Morgan, C., Godman, G. C., Breitenfeld, P. M., and Rose, H. M., 1960, A correlative study by electron and light microscopy of the development of type 5 adenovirus, J. Exp. Med. 112: 373–382.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. Morgan, C., Rifkind, R. A., Hsu, K. C., Holden, M., Seegal, B. C., and Rose, H. M., 1961, Electron microscopic localization of intracellular viral antigens by the use of ferritinconjugated antibody, Virology 14: 292–296.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. Morgan, C., Rose, H. M., and Mednis, B., 1968, Electron microscopy of herpes simplex virus. I. Entry, J. Virol. 2: 507–516.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. Morgan, H. R., 1968, Ultrastructure of the surfaces of cells infected with avian leukosis-sarcoma viruses, j. Virol. 2: 1133–1146.Google Scholar
  192. Morowitz, H. J., Tourtellotte, M. E., and Pollock, M. E., 1963, Use of porous cellulose ester membranes in the primary isolation and size determination of pleuropneumonia-like organisms, J. Bacteriol. 85: 134–136.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. Morton, D. L., Hall, W. T., and Malmgren, R. A., 1969, Human liposarcomas: Tissue culture containing foci of transformed cells with viral particles, Science 165: 813–816.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. Mouriquand, C., Mouriquand, J., and Arnaud, C., 1968, Etude cytologique de 42 cultures de tissus hematopoietiques humains et murins: Considerations sur quelques comportements cellulaires, Pathol. Biol. 16: 383–395.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. Movat, H. Z., and Fernando, N. V. P., 1962, The fine structure of connective tissue. I. The fibroblast, Exp. Mol. Pathol. 1: 509–534.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. Mussgay, M., and Weibel, Jr., 1962, Electron microscopical and biological studies on the growth of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus in KB cells, Virology 16: 52–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. Mustakallio, E., and Gronroos, J., 1957, Complement-fixation tests for antisera prepared against strain HeLa cell and 5 cell strains derived from human breast carcinoma, Ann. Med. Exp. Fenn. 35: Suppl. 12.Google Scholar
  198. Nadkarni, J. S., Nadkarni, J. J., Clifford, P., Manolov, G., Fenyo, E. M., and Klein, E., 1969, Characteristics of new cell lines derived from Burkitt lymphoma, Cancer 23: 6479.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. Nagayama, A., and Dales, S., 1970, Rapid purification and the immunological specifiçity of mammalian microtubular paracrystals possessing ATPase activity, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 66: 464–471.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. Nardone, R. M., Todd, J., Gonzalez, P., and Gaffney, E. V., 1965, Nucleoside incorporation into strain L cells: Inhibition by pleuropneumonia-like organisms, Science 149: 1100–1102.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. Nass, M. K., and Nass, S., 1963, Intramitochondrial fibers with DNA characteristics, J. Cell Biol. 19: 593–611.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. Nielsen, G., and Peters, D., 1962, Elektronmikroskopische Untersuchungen über die initial- stadien der vaccine-virusinfektion von HeLa-Zellen, Arch. Ges. Virusforsch. 12: 493–513.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. Nii, S., Morgan, C., Rose, H. M., and Hsu, K. C., 1968, Electron microscopy of herpes simplex virus. IV. Studies with ferritin-conjugated antibodies, J. Virol. 2: 1172–1184.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  204. Novikoff, A., Albala, A., and Biempica, L., 1968, Ultrastructural and cytochemical observations on B-16 and Harding-Passey mouse melanomas: The origin of premelanosomes and compound melanosomes, J. Histochem. Cytochem. 16: 299–319.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. Oettgen, G, A., Aoki, T., Old, L. J., Boyse, E. A., DeHarven, E., and Mills, G. M., 1968, Suspension culture of a pigment-producing cell line from a human malignant melanoma, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 41: 827–843.Google Scholar
  206. Overton, J., 1968, The fate of desmosomes in trypsinized tissue, J. Exp. Zool. 168:203–206. Ozzello, L., 1972, Ultrastructure of human mammary carcinoma cells in vivo and in vitro, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 48: 1043–1050.Google Scholar
  207. Paintrand, M., and Rosenfeld, C., 1972, Etude ultrastructurale de la glycocalix des leucocytes humains normaux et leucemiques en culture permanente: Comparaison entre deux lignees d’origine normale et deux lignees d’origine leucemique, comm. Rend. Acad. Sci. Paris 274: 415–417.Google Scholar
  208. Palade, G. E., 1952, A study of fixation for electron microscopy, J. Exp. Med. 95: 285–298.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. Paweletz, N., 1969, Desmosomen in der Gewebekultur von Tumorzellen, Naturwissenschaften 56: 517–518.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. Pfeiffer, S. E., and Tolmach, L. J., 1967a, Selecting synchronous populations of mammalian cells, Nature (Lond.) 213: 139–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. Pfeiffer, S. E., and Tolmach, L. J., 1967b, Inhibition of DNA synthesis in HeLa cells by hydroxyurea, Cancer Res. 27: 124–129.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  212. Phillips, D. M., and Phillips, S. G., 1971, Distinctive characteristics of two established cell lines, J. Cell Biol. 49: 803–815.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. Pinkerton, H., Ghagat, B., Rana, M. W., and Holtwick, S., 1971, Histology and ultrastructure of cultured human tumor cells exposed to antisera to the nerve growth factor, Cancer Res. 31: 1483–1487.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  214. Plata, E. J., Aoki, T., Robertson, D. D., Chu, E. W., and Gerwin, B. I., 1973, An established cultured cell line (HBT-39) from human breast carcinoma, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 50: 849–862.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  215. Porter, K. R., and Kallman, F., 1953, The properties and effects of osmium tetroxide as a tissue fixative with special reference to its use for electron microscopy, Exp. Cell Res. 4: 127–141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. Price, Z. H., 1967, The micromorphology of zeiotic blebs in cultured human epithelial (HEp) cells, Exp. Cell Res. 48: 82–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. Priori, E., Dmochowski, L., Myers, B., and Wilbur, J. R., 1971, Constant production of type C virus particles in a continuous tissue culture derived from pleural effusion cells of a lymphoma patient, Nature New Biol. 232: 61–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  218. Privat, A., Mandon, P., and Drian, M. J., 1972, Contribution de la microscopie electronique aGoogle Scholar
  219. balayage pour l’etude du tissu nerveux en culture organisee, Exp. Cell Res. 71: 232–238.Google Scholar
  220. Puck, T. T., Marcus, P. I., and Ciecura, S. J., 1956, Clonal growth of mammalian cells in vitro, J. Exp. Med. 103: 273–284.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. Pulvertaft, R. J. V., 1964, Cytology of Burkitt’s tumour, Lancet 1: 238–240.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. Pulvertaft, R. J. V., 1965, A study of malignant tumors in Nigeria by short-term tissue culture, J. Clin. Pathol. 18: 261–273.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  223. Pulvertaft, R. J. V., and Humble, J. G., 1962, Intracellular phase of existence of lymphocytes during remission of acute lymphatic leukemia, Nature (Lond.) 194: 194–195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. Rabin, E. R., Benyesh-Melnick, M., and Brunschwig, J. P., 1967, Studies on acute leukemia and infectious mononucleosis of childhood. II. Ultrastructure of cultured lymphoblastoid cells, Exp. Mol. Pathol. 7: 196–207.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  225. Rabson, A. S., O’Conor, G. T., Baron, S., Whang, J. J., and Legallais, F. Y., 1966, Morphologic, cytogenetic and virologie studies in vitro of a malignant lymphoma in an African child, Int. J. Cancer 1: 89–106.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  226. Rasmussen, R. E., and Painter, R. B., 1966, Radiation-stimulated DNA synthesis in cultured mammalian cells, J. Cell Biol. 29: 11–19.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  227. Recher, L., Parry, N. T., Briggs, L. G., and Whitescarver, J., 197 lb, Difference in effects of proflavine and actinomycin D, Cancer Res. 31: 1915–1922.Google Scholar
  228. Recher, L., Briggs, L. G., and Parry, N. T., 1971a, A re-evaluation of nuclear and nucleolar changes induced in vitro by actinomycin D, Cancer Res. 31: 140–151.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  229. Recher, L., Sinkovics, J. G., Sykes, J. A., and Whitescarver, J., 1969, Electron microscopic studies of suspension cultures derived from human leukemic and nonleukemic sources, Cancer Res. 29: 271–285.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  230. Recher, L., Chan, H., Briggs, L., and Parry, N., 1972, Ultrastructural changes inducible with the plant alkaloid camptothecin, Cancer Res. 32: 2495–2501.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  231. Reed, M. V., and Gey, G. 0., 1962, Cultivation of normal and malignant human lung tissue. I. The establishment of the adenocarcinoma cell strains, Lab. Invest. 11: 638–652.Google Scholar
  232. Reith, A., and Oftebro, R., 1971, Structure of HeLa cells after treatment with glycerol as revealed by freeze-etching and electron microscopic methods, Exp. Cell Res. 66: 385–395.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  233. Reynolds, E. W., 1963, The use of lead citrate at high pH as an electron-opaque stain in electron microscopy. J. Cell Biol. 17: 208–212.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  234. Reynolds, R. C., Montgomery, P. O’B., and Karney, D. H., 1963, Nucleolar “caps,” a morphologic entity produced by the carcinogen 4-nitro-quinoline-N-Oxide, Cancer Res. 23: 535–538.Google Scholar
  235. Reynolds, R. C., Montomery, P. O’B., and Hughes, B., 1964, Nucleolar “caps” produced by actinomycin D, Cancer Res. 24: 1269–1278.Google Scholar
  236. Robbins, E., and Gonatas, N. K., 1964a, Histochemical and ultrastructural studies on HeLa cell cultures exposed to spindle inhibitors with special reference to the interphase cell, J. Histochem. Cytochem. 12: 704–711.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  237. Robbins, E., and Gonatas, N. K., 1964b, Ultrastructure of a mammalian cell during the mitotic cycle, J. Cell Biol. 21: 429–463.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  238. Robbins, E., and Jentzsch, G., 1969, Ultrastructural changes in the mitotic apparatus at the metaphase-to-anaphase transition, J. Cell Biol. 40: 678–691.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  239. Robbins, E., and Marcus, P. I., 1964, Mitotically synchromized mammalian cells: A simple method for obtaining large populations, Science 144: 1152–1153.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  240. Robbins, E., and Scharff, M., 1966, Some macromolecular characteristics of synchronized HeLa cells, in: Cell Synchrony—Studies in Biosynthetic Regulation ( I. L. Cameron and G. M. Padilla, eds.), pp. 353–374, Academic Press, New York and London.Google Scholar
  241. Robbins, E., Marcus, P. I., and Gonatas, N. K., 1964, Dye induced ultrastructural changes in multivesicular bodies: Acridine orange particles, J. Cell Biol. 21: 49–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  242. Robbins, E., Jentzsch, G., and Micali, A., 1968, The centriole cycle in synchronized HeLa cells, J. Cell Biol. 36: 329–339.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  243. Robbins, E., Pederson, T., and Klein, P., 1970, Comparison of mitotic phenomena and effects induced by hypertonic solutions in HeLa cells, J. Cell Biol. 44: 400–416.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  244. Romsdahl, M. M., and Hsu, T. C., 1967, Establishment and biologic properties of human malignant melanoma cell lines grown in vitro, Surg. Forum 18: 78–79.Google Scholar
  245. Rose, G. G., 1966, Cytopathophysiology of tissue cultures growing under cellophane membranes, Int. Rev. Exp. Pathol. 5: 111–178.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  246. Rose, G. G., 1970, Atlas of Vertebrate Cells in Tissue Culture, Academic Press, New York and London.Google Scholar
  247. Rose, G. G., Cattoni, M., and Pomerat, C. M., 1963, Observations on oral tumors in vitro. I. Zeiosis versus the nucleus and endoplasmic reticulum in strain KB, J. Dent. Res. 42: 3853.Google Scholar
  248. Rose, G. G., Cattoni, M., and Pomerat, C. M., 1964, Observations on oral tumors in vitro. II. Karyobiosis in strain KB cells, J. Dent. Res. 43: 580–605.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  249. Rothblat, G. H., 1960, PPLO contamination in tissue cultures, Ann N.Y. Acad. Sci. 79: 430–432.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  250. Rovin, S., 1962, The influence of carbon dioxide on the cultivation of human neoplastic explants in vitro, Cancer Res. 22: 384–387.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  251. Sabatini, D. D., Bensch, K., and Barnett, R. J., 1963, Cytochemistry and electron microscopy: The preservation of cellular ultrastructure and enzymatic activity by aldehyde fixation, J. Cell Biol. 17: 19–58.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  252. Salazar, H., Kanbour, A., and Burgess, F., 1972, Ultrastructure and observations on the histogenesis of mesotheliomas: “Adenomatoid tumors” of the female genital tract, Cancer 29: 141–152.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  253. Sandborn, E. B., 1970, Cells and Tissues by Light and Electron Microscopy, 2 vols., Academic Press, New York and London.Google Scholar
  254. Sanford, K., 1965, Malignant transformation of cells in vitro, Int. Rev. Cytol. 18: 249–303.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  255. Saturno, A., 1963, The morphology of Mayaro virus, Virology 21: 131–133.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  256. Scharff, M. S., and Robbins, E., 1966, Polyribosome disaggregation during metaphase, Science 151: 992–995.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  257. Schneeberger, E. E., and Harris H., 1966, An ultrastructural study of interspecific cell fusion induced by inactivated Sendai virus, J. Cell Sci. 1: 401–406.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  258. Schwartz, J., and Roizman, B., 1969, Similarities and differences in the development of laboratory strain and freshly isolated strains of herpes simplex virus in HEp-2 cells: Electron microscopy, J. Virol. 4: 879–889.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  259. Seman, G., Gallager, H. S., Lukeman, J. M., and Dmochowski, L., 1971, Studies on the presence of particles resembling RNA virus particles in human breast tumors, pleural effusions, their tissue cultures and milk, Cancer 28: 1431–1442.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  260. Shelton, E., and Dalton, A. J., 1959, Electron microscopy of emperipolesis, J. Biophys, Biochem. Cytol. 6: 513–514.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  261. Shigematsu, T., and Dmochowski, L., 1973, Studies on the acid mucopolysaccharide coat of viruses and transformed cells, Cancer 31: 165–174.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  262. Siegl, G., Hallauer, C., Novak, A., and Kronauer, G., 1971, Parvoviruses as contaminants of permanent human cell lines. II. Physicochemical properties of the isolated viruses, Arch. Ges. Virusforsch. 35: 91–103.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  263. Siegl, G., Hallauer, C., and Novak, A., 1972, Parvoviruses as contaminants of permanent human cell lines, Arch. Ges. Virusforsch. 36: 351–362.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  264. Silverstein, S. C., and Marcus, P. I., 1964, Early stages of Newcastle disease virus-HeLa cell interaction: An electron microscope study, Virology 23: 370–380.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  265. Simard, R., 1970, The nucleus: Action of chemical and physical agents, Int. Rev. Cytol. 28: 169–211.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  266. Simard, R., and Bernhard, W., 1966, Le phenomene de la segregation nucleolaire: Specificite d’action de certains antimetabolites, Int. J. Cancer 1: 463–479.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  267. Simard, R., and Bernhard, W., 1967, A heat-sensitive cellular function located in the nucleolus, J. Cell Biol. 34: 61–76.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  268. Simard, R., Amalyric, F., and Zalta, J. P., 1969, Effet de la temperature supraoptimale sur les ribonucleoproteines et le RNA nucleolaire. I. Etude ultrastructurale, Exp. Cell Res. 55: 359–369.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  269. Sirtori, C., and Bosisio-Bestetti, M., 1967, Nucleolar changes in KB tumor cells infected with herpes simplex virus, Cancer Res. 27: 367–376.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  270. Smith, G. F., and O’Hara, P. T., 1968, Structure of nuclear pockets in human leukocytes, J. Ultrastruct. Res. 21: 415–423.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  271. Smith, U., Smith, D. S., and Yunis, A. A., 1970, Chloramphenicol-related changes in mitochondrial ultrastructure, J. Cell Sci. 7: 501–521.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  272. Steel, C. M., 1972, Human lymphoblastoid cell lines. III. Co-cultivation technique for establishment of new lines. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 48: 623–628.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  273. Steel, C. M., and Edmond, M., 1971, Human lymphoblastoid cell lines. I. Culture methods and examination for Epstein-Barr virus, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 47: 1193–1201.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  274. Stewart, S. E., Lovelace, E., Whang, J. J., and Ngu, V. A., 1965, Burkitt tumor tissue culture, cytogenetic and virus studies, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 34: 319–327.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  275. Stewart, S. E., Kasnic, G., Jr., Draycott, C., and Ben, T., 1972, Activation of viruses in human tumors by 5-iododeoxyuridine and dimethylsulfoxide, Science 175: 198–199.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  276. Stoebner, P., Miech, G., Sengel, A., and Witz, J. P., 1970, Notions d’ultrastructure pleurale. I. L’hyperplasie mesotheliale, Presse Med. 78: 1179–1184.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  277. Stoker, M. G. P., Smith, K. M., and Ross, R. W., 1958, Electron microscopic studies of HeLa cells infected with herpes virus, J. Gen. Microbiol. 19: 244–249.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  278. Storb, R., Amy, R. L., Wertz, R. K., Fauconnier, B., and Bessis, M., 1966, An electron microscope study of vitally stained single cells irradiated with a ruby laser microbeam, J. Cell Biol. 31: 11–29.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  279. Strauli, P., Lindenman, R., and Haemmerli, G., 1971, Mikrokinematographische and elektronenmikroskopische Beobachtungen an Zelloberflachen und Zellkontakten der menschlichen Carcinom-Zellkulturlinie HEp 2, Virchows Arch. Abt. B Zellpathol. 8: 143–161.Google Scholar
  280. Sykes, J. A., Recher, L., Jernstrom, P. H., and Whitescarver, J., 1968, Morphological investigation of human breast cancer, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 40: 195–223.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  281. Tawara, J. T., Goodman, J. R., Imagawa, D. T., and Adams, J. M., 1961, Fine structure of cellular inclusions in experimental measles, Virology 14: 410–416.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  282. Tawara, S., 1966, A morphological study on the nucleus of HeLa cells infected with adenovirus type 12, in: Electron Microscopy 1966, Vol. 2 (Uyeda, ed.), pp. 187–188, Maruzen, Tokyo.Google Scholar
  283. Tolmach, L. J., and Marcus, P. I., 1960, Development of X-ray induced giant HeLa cells, Exp. Cell Res. 20: 350–360.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  284. Toner, P. G., and Carr, K. E., 1971, Cell Structure: An Introduction to Biological Electron Microscopy, Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore.Google Scholar
  285. Toolan, H. W., 1954, Transplantable human neoplasms maintained in cortisone treated laboratory animals: H.S. No. 1; H. Ep No. 1; H. Ep No. 2; H. Ep No. 3; and H. Emb. No. 1, Cancer Res. 14: 660–666.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  286. Toshima, S., Takagi, N., Minowada, J., Moore, G. E., and Sandberg, A. A., 1967, Electron microscopic and cytogenetic studies of cells derived from Burkitt’s lymphoma, Cancer Res. 27: 753–759.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  287. Toshima, S., Moore, G. E., and Sandberg, A. A., 1968, Ultrastructure of human melanoma in cell culture, Cancer 21: 202–216.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  288. Tousimis, A. J., and Hilleman, M. R., 1957, Electron microscopy of type 4 adenovirus strain RI-67, Virology 4: 499–508.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  289. Trujillo, J. M., Butler, J., Ahearn, M. J., Schullenberger, L. C., List-Young, B., Gott, C., Anstall, H. B., and Shively, S. A., 1967, Long-term culture of a lymph node tissue from a patient with lymphocytic lymphoma, Cancer 20: 215–224.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  290. Tumilowicz, J. J., Nichols, W. W., Cholon, J. J., and Greene, A. E., 1970, Definition of a continuous human cell line derived from neuroblastoma, Cancer Res. 30: 2110–2118.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  291. Uzman, B. G., Foley, G. E., Farber, S., and Lazarus, M., 1966, Morphologic variations in human leukemic lymphoblasts (CCRF-CEM cells) after long-term culture and exposure to chemotherapic agents, Cancer 19: 1725–1742.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  292. Uzman, B. G., Saito, H., and Kasac, M., 1971, Tubular arrays in the endoplasmic reticulum in human tumor cells, Lab. Invest. 24: 492–498.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  293. Venable, J. H., and Cogeshall, R., 1965, A simplified lead citrate stain for use in electron microscopy, J. Cell Biol. 25: 407.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  294. Warocquier, R., and Scherrer, K., 1969, RNA metabolism in mammalian cells at elevated temperature, Eur. J. Biochem. 10: 362–370.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  295. Watson, M. L., 1958, Staining of tissue sections for electron microscopy with heavy metals, J. Biophys. Biochem. Cytol. 4: 475–478.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  296. Wheeler, C. P., Bowdon, E. J., Adamson, B. J., and Vail, M. H., 1971, Effects of certain nitrogen mustards upon the progression of cultured H.Ep. No. 2 cells through the cell cycle, Cancer Res. 30: 100–111.Google Scholar
  297. Whitmore, G. D., 1971, Natural and induced synchronous cultures, In Vitro 6:276–285. Whitmore, G. F., and Gulyas, S., 1966, Synchronization of mammalian cells with tritiated thymidine, Science 151: 691–694.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  298. Willoch, M., 1967, Changes in HeLa cell ultrastructure under conditions of reduced glucose supply, Acta Pathol. Microbiol. Scand. 71: 35–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  299. Wischnitzer, S., 1970, The annulate lamellae, Int. Rev. Cytol. 27: 65–97.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  300. Wolff, E., and Wolff, E., 1966, Culture organotypique de longue duree de deux tumeurs humaines du tube digestif, Eur. J. Cancer 2: 93–103PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  301. Xeros, N., 1962, Deoxyriboside control and synchronization of mitosis, Nature (Lond.) 194: 682–683.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  302. Yasuzumi, Y., and Sugihara, R., 1965, The fine structure of nuclei as revealed by electron microscopy, Exp. Cell Res. 40: 45–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  303. Zajac, B., and Hummeler, K., 1970, Morphogenesis of thè nucleoprotein of vesicular stomatitis virus, J. Virol. 6: 243–252.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  304. Zeve, V. H., Lucas, L. S., and Manaker, R. A., 1966, Continuous cell culture from a patient with chronic myelogenous leukemia. II. Detection of a herpes-like virus by electron microscopy, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 37: 761–773.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  305. Zhdanov, V. M., Soloviev, V. D., Bektemirov, T. A., Ilyin, K. V., Bykovsky, A. F., Mazurenko, N. P., Irlin, I. S., and Yershov, F.I., 1973, Isolation of oncornaviruses from continuous human cell cultures, Intervirology 1: 19–26.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1975

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gabriel Seman
    • 1
  • Leon Dmochowski
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of VirologyThe University of Texas, M. D. Anderson Hospital and Tumor Institute at Houston, Texas Medical CenterHoustonUSA

Personalised recommendations