Areal Linguistics and Middle America

  • Terrence Kaufman


Middle America (also called Mesoamerica, henceforth MA), as a product of the culture area concept, is only one of the approximately 35 areas into which most anthropologists (and others) interested in the concept would divide the pre-Columbian New World. MA is of special interest in that (a) ‘civilization’ — by whatever definition — first appeared in the New World in MA, and (b) in political terms MA is divided between just two2 contemporary nations — Mexico and Guatemala — both of them officiall using Spanish as the national language.


Time Depth Pitch Accent Vowel Length Glottal Stop Vowel Nasality 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Arana Osnaya, Evangelina. 1953. Reconstruccion del proto-Totonaco in Huastecos, Totonacos y sus vecinos, 123–30.Google Scholar
  2. Bartholemew, Doris. 1959. Proto-Otomi-Pame. Master’s thesis.Google Scholar
  3. Bartholemew, Doris. 1960. ‘Some revisions of Proto-Otomi consonants. IJAL 26. 317–29.Google Scholar
  4. Bartholemew, Doris. 1965. The reconstruction of Otopamean (Mexico), Ph.D. dissertation, Univer-sity of Chicago.Google Scholar
  5. Bauernschmidt, Amy. 1965. Amuzgo syllable dynamics. Lg. 41. 471–83.Google Scholar
  6. Coe, Michael D. 1968. America’s first civilization: Discovering the Olmec. Washington, D.C. Smithsonian Library Series.Google Scholar
  7. Collard, Howard and Elizabeth. 1962. Vocabulario Mayo. Serie de vocabularios indígenas Mariano Silva y Aceves 16. Mexico.Google Scholar
  8. Driver, Harold E. 1961. Indians of North America. Chicago, University Press.Google Scholar
  9. Driver, Harold E., and William C. Massey. 1957. Comparative studies of North American Indians. TAPS 47. 165–460.Google Scholar
  10. Emeneau, M. B. 1956. India as a linguistic area. Lg. 32. 3–16.Google Scholar
  11. Escalante Hern; Indez, Roberto. 1962. El Cuitlateco. AnINA 9.Google Scholar
  12. Ferandez De Miranda, M. T. and R. J. Weitlaner. 1961. Sobre algunas relaciones de la familia Mangue. AnL 3/7.1–99.Google Scholar
  13. Foster, Mary Lecron. 1969. The Tarascan language. UCPL 56.Google Scholar
  14. Friedrich, Paul. 1969. On the meaning of the Tarascan suffixes of space. IUPAL Memoir 23.Google Scholar
  15. Grimes, Joseph E. 1964. Huichol syntax. JanL, series practica 11.Google Scholar
  16. Gudschinsky, Sara C. 1959. Proto-Popotecan: A comparative Study of Popotocan and Mixtecan. IUPAL Memoir 15.Google Scholar
  17. Hale, K. 1958–9. Internal diversity in UtoAztecan. I. IJAL 24.101–07. II. IJAL 25. 114–21.Google Scholar
  18. Hendrichs Perez, Pedro R. 1946. Por tierras ignotas. Vol. 2, 139–246.Google Scholar
  19. John, Jean Bassett. 1962. El idioma Yaqui. AnINA 10.Google Scholar
  20. Kaufman, Terrence. 1968. Review of Dyk and Stoudt: Vocabulario Mixteco de San Miguel el Grande. IJAL 33. 257–8.Google Scholar
  21. Kaufman, Terrence. 1969. Ms: notes on Cuatlamayân Aztec.Google Scholar
  22. Kirchoff, Paul. 1943. Mesoamerica: Its geographic limits, ethnic composition and cultural characteristics. Ancient Meso-america: Selected readings, ed. by John A. Graham, pp. 1–14. Palo Alto, Peek.Google Scholar
  23. Kroeber, A. L. 1939. Cultural and natural areas of Native North America.UCPAAE 38. 1–242.Google Scholar
  24. Lehmann, Walter. 1920. Zentral-Amerika, Teil I, 668–722.Google Scholar
  25. LÉvi-strauss, Claude. 1969. The raw and the cooked (Introduction to a science of mythology: I ). New York, Harper and Row.Google Scholar
  26. Longacre, Robert E. 1966. On linguistic affinities of Amuzgo. IJAL 32. 46–49.Google Scholar
  27. Longacre, Robert E. 1967. Systemic comparison and reconstruction. HMAI 5. 117–60.Google Scholar
  28. Mcquown, Norman A. 1941. La fonémica del Cuitlateco. El México Antiguo 5. 239–54.Google Scholar
  29. Mcquown, Norman A. 1949. Xinca fieldnotes.Google Scholar
  30. Merrifield, William R. 1968. Palantla Chinantec grammar. Serie Científica 9, Museo Nacional de Antropologia. Mexico, Instituto Nacional de Antropologia e Historia.Google Scholar
  31. Newan, S., and Weitlaner, R.J. 1950. Central Otomian I. Proto-Otomi reconstructions. II. Primitive Central Otomian reconstructions. IJAL 16.1–19, 73–81.Google Scholar
  32. Pike, Eunice V. 1967. Huautla de Jimenez Mazatec. HMAI 5. 311–330.Google Scholar
  33. Pride, Kitty. l%5. Chatino syntax. Publications in Linguistics and Related Fields 12. Norman, Okla. Summer Institute of Linguistics of the University of Oklahoma.Google Scholar
  34. Radin, Paul. 1933. Notes on the Tlappanecan language of Guerrero. IJAL 8. 45–72.Google Scholar
  35. Sherzer, Joel. 1968. An areal-typological Study of North American Indian languages north of Mexico. Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania dissertation.Google Scholar
  36. Schultze-Jena, Leonhard. 1938. Indiana, I II. Jena, Gustav Fischer.Google Scholar
  37. Schumann Galvez, Otto. 1967. Xinca de Guazacapân. Mexico, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de México (thesis).Google Scholar
  38. Swadesh, Morris. 1947. The phonemic structure of Proto-Zapotec. IJAL 13. 22030.Google Scholar
  39. Swadesh, Morris. 1959. Indian linguistic groups of Mexico. Mexico, Escuela Nacional de Antropologia e Historia.Google Scholar
  40. Swadesh, Morris. 1961. Interrelaciones de las lenguas mayenses. AnINA 13. 231–67.Google Scholar
  41. Swadesh, Morris. 1962a. Afinidades de las lenguas amerindias. AIAK 34. 729–38.Google Scholar
  42. Swadesh, Morris. 1962b. Nuevo ensayo de glotocronología Yutonahua. AnINA 15. 263–302.Google Scholar
  43. Swadesh, Morris. 1967. Lexicostatistic classification. HMAI 5. 79–116.Google Scholar
  44. Swanton, John R. 1940. Linguistic material from the tribes of Southern Texas and Northeastern Mexico. BAE-B 127.Google Scholar
  45. Turner, Paul R. 1969. Proto-Chontal phonemes. IJAL 35. 34–37.Google Scholar
  46. Upson, B.W. and Robert E. Longacre. Proto-Chatino phonology. IJAL 31. 3123 22.Google Scholar
  47. Warkentin, Milton and Clara. 1947. Diccionario Huave. Mexico.Google Scholar
  48. Warkentin, Milton and Clara. 1952. Vocabulario Huave. Mexico.Google Scholar
  49. Whore, B. L. 1943. Loan words in ancient Mexico. Tulane University, Middle American Research Institute, Pub. 11, no. 1. Also 1947. SIL 5 /3. 49–64.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1977

Authors and Affiliations

  • Terrence Kaufman

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations