• Karl V. Teeter


From as early as the fifteenth century, the explorers of the Atlantic coast of North America mostly received their first impressions of New World natives from speakers of different languages of the same family, Algonquian. At the time of the first foreign settlements, Algonquian languages were spoken from Labrador to as far south as the Carolinas along the Atlantic coast, and extended inland in present Canada and the northern United States as far west as the Great Plains. This gives the family one of the widest distributions of any group of indigenous languages, a geographical spread emphasized by the confirmation of Edward Sapir’s bold hypothesis, published in 1913, that Wiyot and Yurok, languages found on the Pacific coast in northern California, bear a genetic relationship to Algonquian.1


National Museum Indigenous Language Indian Language Consonant Cluster Modern Language 
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Selected Annotated Bibliography

General and Comparative

  1. Bloomfield, Leonard. 1946. Algonquian. Linguistic structures of native America, ed. by Harry Hoijer et al., pp. 85–129 (= VFPA 6). The fundamental work in the field of Algonquian, with an extensive bibliography.Google Scholar
  2. Hockett, Charles F. 1957. Central Algonquian vocabulary: Stems in /k-/. IJAL 23. 247–68.Google Scholar
  3. Hockett, Charles F. 1966. What Algonquian is really like. IJAL 32. 59–73.Google Scholar
  4. Michelson, Truman. 1912. Preliminary report on the linguistic classification of Algonquian tribes. BAE-R 28.221–90b. Contains much information not found elsewhere, though the analysis has generally been superseded.Google Scholar
  5. Michelson, Truman. 1935. Phonetic shifts in Algonquian languages. IJAL 8. 131–71.Google Scholar
  6. Murdock, George P. 1960. Ethnographic bibliography of North America. 3rd ed. New Haven, Conn.Google Scholar
  7. National Museum of Canada. 1967. Contributions to anthropology: Linguistics I (Algonquian) (= Bulletin 214). Ottawa, 1967. Useful papers reflecting the state of the art as of 1964.Google Scholar
  8. Pilling, James C. 1891. Bibliography of the Algonquian languages. B[A]E-B 13. Except for the most significant items, material in the above collections is not repeated below.Google Scholar

Abnaki (Eastern)

  1. Rasles, Sebastian (Sébastien Râle). 1833. A dictionary of the Abnaki language in North America, ed. by John Pickering. AAcadAS-M, new series, 1. 375–565. Cambridge, Mass.Google Scholar
  2. Speck, Frank G. 1920. Penobscot transformer tales. IJAL 1. 187–244.Google Scholar
  3. Speck, Frank G. 1928. Wawenock myth texts from Maine. BAE-R 43. 165–97. A better col- lection linguistically than the preceding. A great deal of material on modern Penobscot has been collected by FRANK T.Google Scholar

Abnaki (Western)

  1. Day, Gordon. 1964. A St. Francis Abnaki vocabulary. IJAL 30. 371–93.Google Scholar
  2. Laurent, Joseph. 1884. New familiar Abenakis and English dialogues. Quebec.Google Scholar
  3. Masta, Henry Lorne. 1932. Abenaki Indian legends, grammar and place names.Google Scholar
  4. Victoriaville, P.Q. Laurent and Masta were native speakers of Abnaki.Google Scholar


  1. Kroeber, A. L. 1916. Arapaho dialects. UCPAAE 12. 71–138.Google Scholar
  2. Salzmann, Zdenék. 1956a. Arapaho I: Phonology. IJAL 22. 49–56.Google Scholar
  3. Salzmann, Zdenék. 1956b. Arapaho II: Texts. IJAL 22. 151–58.Google Scholar
  4. Salzmann, Zdenék. 1956c. Arapaho III: Additional texts. IJAL 27. 266–72.Google Scholar
  5. Salzmann, Zdenék. 1961. Arapaho IV: Interphonemic specification. IJAL 27. 151–55.Google Scholar
  6. Salzmann, Zdenék. 1965a. Arapaho V: Noun. IJAL 31. 39–49.Google Scholar
  7. Salzmann, Zdenék. 1965b. Arapaho VI: Noun. IJAL 31. 136–51.Google Scholar
  8. Salzmann, Zdenék. 1967. Arapaho VII: Verb. IJAL 33. 209–23.Google Scholar


  1. Frantz, Donald G. 1966. Person indexing in Blackfoot. IJAL 32. 50–8.Google Scholar
  2. Uhlenbeck, C.C. 1938. A concise Blackfoot grammar. Verhandelingen der Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen, Afdeeling Letterkunde, n.s., 41.1–120. Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  3. Uhlenbeck, C.C., and R. H. Van Gulick. 1930. An English-Blackfoot dictionary (= Verhandelingen der Koninklijke Akademie…, n.s., 29, no. 4, pp.1–261). Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  4. Uhlenbeck, C.C., and R. H. Van Gulick. 1934. A Blackfoot-English dictionary. Verhandelingen der Koninklijke Akademie…, n.s., 33, no. 2, pp. 1–380. Amsterdam. There have been recent dissertations by Donald G. Frantz (University of Alberta, 1970) and Allan R. Taylor (University of California at Berkeley, 1969 ).Google Scholar

Carolina Algonquian

  1. Geary, James A. 1900. The language of the Carolina Algonquian tribes. Appendix II in The Roanoke Voyages 1584–1590, ed. by David B. Quinn, pp. 873–900. 2 vols. Works issued by the Hakluyt Society, second series, 104, 105.Google Scholar
  2. Lawson, John. 1709. A New Voyage to Carolina. London, 1709, and subsequent editions. Pampticough vocabulary on pp. 225–30.Google Scholar


  1. Davis, Irvine. 1962. Phonogical function in Cheyenne. IJAL 28.36–42. Reflects the large amount of unpublished work on Cheyenne by members of the Summer Institute of Linguistics.Google Scholar
  2. Meeussen, A. E. 1962. The independent order in Cheyenne. Orbis 11.260–88. Useful organization of some of Petter’s data.Google Scholar
  3. Petter, Rodolphe. 1907. Sketch of the Cheyenne grammar. AAA-M I /6. 443–78.Google Scholar
  4. Petter, Rodolphe. 1915. English-Cheyenne dictionary. Kettle Falls, Washington.Google Scholar
  5. Petter, Rodolphe. 1952. Cheyenne grammar. Newton, Kansas.Google Scholar


  1. Harrington, Mark R. 1924. An ancient village site of the Shinnecock Indians• Anthropological Papers of the American Museum of Natural History 22.5.227–83. The few known words of this dialect are on p. 282; compare JAF 16. 39 (1903).Google Scholar
  2. Jefferson, Thomas. 1836. [Vocabulary of Unquachog recorded in 1791], in Albert Gallatin, “A synopsis of the Indian tribes”, Transactions and Collections of the American Antiquarian Society (= Archaeologia Americana) 2.305–367 (1836). Not an accurate and complete publication of the manuscript, which is in the library of the American Philosophical Society.Google Scholar
  3. Peirson, Abraham (Abraham Pierson). 1658. Some helps for the Indians. Cambridge, 1658, and later editions. A poor composition using jargonized grammar.Google Scholar


  1. Bloomfield, Leonard. 1930. Sacred stories of the Sweet Grass Cree. NMC-B 60.Google Scholar
  2. Bloomfield, Leonard. 1934. Plains Cree texts. PAES 16. These two volumes of superb texts are both from the Plains Cree of the Sweet Grass Reserve.Google Scholar
  3. Edwards, Mary. 1954. Cree: An intensive language course. 2nd ed. 1961. Meadow Lake, Saskatchewan. Plains Cree.Google Scholar
  4. Ellis, C. Douglas. 1961. The so-called interrogative order in Cree. IJAL 27.119–24. Moose Cree. [1962?] Spoken Cree, West Coast of James Bay: Part L Toronto.Google Scholar
  5. Horden, John. 1881. A grammar of the Cree language. London. Moose Cree.Google Scholar
  6. Horden, John. 1934. A grammar of the Cree language, revised edition in Plain[s] Cree. London.Google Scholar
  7. Lacombe, Albert. 1874. Dictionnaire et grammaire de la langue des Cris. Montreal. Plains Cree.Google Scholar
  8. Watkins, E. A. 1938. A dictionary of the Cree language. Revised edition edited by R. Faries. Toronto. There is a recent doctoral dissertation on Plains Cree by H. Cristoph Wolfart (Yale, 1970 ).Google Scholar


  1. Voegelin, C. F. 1945. Delaware texts. IJAL 11. 105–19.Google Scholar
  2. Voegelin, C. F. 1946. Delaware, an Eastern Algonquian language. Linguistic structures of native America, ed. by Harry Hoijer et al., pp.130–57. (= VFPA 6.) A recent doctoral dissertation by Ives Goddard (Harvard, 1969) lists and evaluates some additional sources.Google Scholar


  1. Bloomfield, Leonard. 1925, 1927. Notes on the Fox language. IJAL 3.219–32; 4.181–219. Based on materials published by Jones and Michelson.Google Scholar
  2. Jones, William. 1907. Fox texts. PAES 1. Leyden.Google Scholar
  3. Michelson, Truman. 1925. Accompanying papers. BAE-R 40.21–658. With stem list and grammatical notes; may be taken as representative of the volumes of texts Michelson published as Bulletins of the Bureau of American Ethnology.Google Scholar
  4. Voorhis, Paul H. 1971. New notes on the Mesquakie (Fox) language. IJAL 37.63–75. Intended to supplement Bloomfield’s “Notes”, listed above.Google Scholar


  1. Dunn, Jacob P. [English-Miami Dictionary], incorporated into C. F. Voegelin, “Shawnee stems” (1938–40) (see under Shawnee, below). See further Caroline Dunn, “Jacob Piatt Dunn: His Miami language studies and Indian manuscript collection”, Prehistory Research Series 1. 25–59 ( Indiana Historical Society, Indianapolis, 1937 ).Google Scholar


  1. Jones, William. 1915. Kickapoo tales. PAES 9. Leyden. A grammar of this language is now available in the doctoral dissertation of PAUL VOORHIS (Yale, 1967 ).Google Scholar


  1. Jean-Claude Mathevet’s manuscript “Mots Loups” is now being edited by Gordon Day.Google Scholar


  1. Prince, J. Dyneley. 1905. A tale in the Hudson River Indian language. AmA, n.s. 7.74–84. The moderately extensive materials on this language remain largely unpublished and unanalyzed.Google Scholar


  1. Barratt, Joseph. 1851. The Indian of New England. Middletown, Conn. Chamberlain, Montague.Google Scholar
  2. Barratt, Joseph. 1899. Maliseet vocabulary. Cambridge, Mass.Google Scholar
  3. Prince, J. Dyneley. 1921. Passamaquoddy texts. PAES 10. New York.Google Scholar
  4. Teeter, Karl V. 1971. The main features of Malecite-Passamaquoddy grammar. Studies in American Indian languages dedicated to Mary R. Haas, ed. by Jesse Sawyer, pp.191–249. UCPL 65.Google Scholar


  1. Cotton, Josiah. 1830. Vocabulary of the Massachusetts (or Natick) Indian language. Collections of the Massachusetts Historical Society, series 3, 2.147–257. Cambridge.Google Scholar
  2. Eliot, John. 1666. The Indian grammar begun. Cambridge, 1666, and later editions.Google Scholar
  3. Trumbull, James Hammond. 1903. Natick dictionary. BAE-B 25.Google Scholar


  1. Bloomfield, Leonard. 1928. Menomini texts. PAES 12. New York. Bloomfield also left at his death a manuscript Menomini-English lexicon of 439 typed pages, including over 10,000 entries.Google Scholar
  2. Bloomfield, Leonard. 1962. The Menomini language. New Haven and London. The best grammar of an Algonquian language.Google Scholar


  1. Pacifique, Révérend Père. 1939. Leçons grammaticales théoriques et pratiques de la langue Micmaque. Sainte-Anne de Ristigouche, P.Q.Google Scholar
  2. Rand, Silas T. 1888. Dictionary of the language of the Micmac Indians. Halifax. English-Micmac.Google Scholar
  3. Rand, Silas T. 1902. Rand’s Micmac dictionary. Charlottetown, P.E.I. Micmac-English. A generative phonology of Micmac has been submitted as a doctoral dissertation by JAMES FIDELHOLTZ (MIT, 1968 ).Google Scholar


  1. Gardiner, John Lyon. 1824. A vocabulary of the Indian language spoken by the Montauk Tribe. In Silas Wood, Sketch of Long Island (Brooklyn, 1924), p. 28, footnote. Not satisfactorily published.Google Scholar
  2. Speck, Frank G. 1928. Native tribes and dialects of Connecticut: A MoheganPequot diary. BAE-R 43. 199–287.Google Scholar


  1. Lemoine, Geo. 1901. Dictionnaire Français-Montagnais. Boston.Google Scholar
  2. Michelson, Truman. 1939. Linguistic classification of Cree and Montagnais-Naskapi dialects. BAE-B 123. 67–95 (= Anthropological Papers 8).Google Scholar
  3. Rogers, Jean H. 1960. Notes on Mistassini phonemics and morphology. NMC-B 167. 90–113 (= Contributions to Anthropology, 1958).Google Scholar
  4. Sirois, Luc. 1937. Montagnais sans maître. Bersimis, P.Q. Bersimis dialect.Google Scholar


  1. Speck, Frank G. 1927. The Nanticoke and Conoy Indians, with a review of linguistic material from manuscript and living sources. Papers of the Historical Society of Delaware, new series 1. Wilmington.Google Scholar


  1. Williams, Roger. 1643. A key into the language of America. London, 1643; fifth edition, Providence, 1936. Contains a few errors of grammar, but far ahead of its time in its implicit perception that a language is profitably studied within the framework of the culture of those that speak it.Google Scholar


  1. Baraga, Frederic. 1850. A theoretical and practical grammar of the Otchipwe language. Detroit.Google Scholar
  2. Baraga, Frederic. 1853. A dictionary of the Otchipwe language. Cincinnati. A second edition of these two important works was issued at Montreal, 1878–1880; the revisions consist mostly of omissions in the grammar.Google Scholar
  3. Bloomfield, Leonard. 1957. Eastern Ojibwa. Ann Arbor. Complements but does not replace Baraga.Google Scholar
  4. Cuoq, Jean André. 1886. Lexique de la langue Algonquine. Montréal. Algonquin-French.Google Scholar
  5. Cuoq, Jean André. 1891, 1892. Grammaire de la langue Algonquine. Proceedings and Transactions of the Royal Society of Canada 9 (Section I), 85–114; 10 (Section I), 41–119. The culmination of nearly three centuries of work on Algonquian languages by French and French-Canadian missionaries, this grammar, though rarely cited, laid the foundations for the subsequent development of the field.Google Scholar
  6. Jones, William. 1917, 1919. Ojibwa Texts. PAES 7 (Part 1, Leyden; Part II, New York ).Google Scholar
  7. Lemorne, Geo. 1911. Dictionnarie Français-Algonquin. Québec.Google Scholar
  8. Rogers, Jean H. 1963. Survey of Round Lake Ojibwa phonology and morphology. NMC-B 194. 91–154 (= Contributions to Anthropology, 1961–62, Part II).Google Scholar


  1. Hockett, Charles F. 1939. Potawatomi syntax. Lg 15. 235–248.Google Scholar
  2. Hockett, Charles F. 1948. Potawatomi, I-IV. IJAL 14.1–10, 63–73, 139–49, 213–25.Google Scholar


  1. Smith, John. 1612. A map of Virginia. Oxford. Contains a short vocabulary reprinted in Smith’s Generali Historie of Virginia (London, 1624, and later editions).Google Scholar
  2. Strachey, William. 1612. The historie of travell into Virginia Britannia. (= Works issued by the Hakluyt Society, second series, 103, London, 1954). Vocabularies on pp.174–207; see also BAE-B 157. 189–202 (= Anthropological Papers 26) (1955).Google Scholar


  1. Voegelin, C. F. 1935. Shawnee phonemes. Lg 11. 23–37.Google Scholar
  2. Voegelin, C. F. 1936. Productive paradigms in Shawnee. Essays in anthropology in honor of Alfred Louis Kroeber, pp. 391–403. Berkeley.Google Scholar
  3. Voegelin, C. F. 1938–40. Shawnee stems and the Jacob P. Dunn Miami Dictionary. Prehistory Research Series 1.61–108, 131–67, 287–341, 343–89, 407–78. Indiana Historical Society, Indianapolis. Listed here are the items referred to in the first five sections of this paper. Many of these are fully cited in the selected annotated bibliography which constitutes section six; the letters SAB plus a word or phrase in the entries below are used to refer to the appropriate subdivision in the bibliography under which they are found.Google Scholar
  4. Bloomfield, Leonard. 1925, 1927. SAB Fox-Sauk.Google Scholar
  5. Bloomfield, Leonard. 1946. SAB General and Comparative.Google Scholar
  6. Bloomfield, Leonard. 1962. SAB Menomini.Google Scholar
  7. Chafe, Wallace L. 1962. Estimates regarding present speakers of North American Indian languages. IJAL 28. 162–71.Google Scholar
  8. Goddard, Ives. 1967. The Algonquian independent indicative. NMC-B 214 (SAB General and Comparative), 66–106.Google Scholar
  9. Goddard, Ives. 1969 ms. SAB Delaware.Google Scholar
  10. Haas, Mary R. 1958. Algonkian-Ritwan: The end of a controversy. IJAL 24. 159–73.Google Scholar
  11. Haas, Mary R. 1967. Roger Williams’s sound shift: A study in Algonquian. To honor Roman Jakobson 1. 816–32. The Hague, Mouton.Google Scholar
  12. Hanzeli, Victor E. 1969. Missionary linguistics in New France. JanL, series maior 29.Google Scholar
  13. Meeussen, A.E. 1962. SAB Cheyenne.Google Scholar
  14. Michelson, Truman. 1912. SAB General and Comparative.Google Scholar
  15. Michelson, Truman. 1935. SAB General and Comparative.Google Scholar
  16. National Museum Of Canada. 1967. NMC-B 214. SAB General and Comparative.Google Scholar
  17. Pilling, James C. 1891. SAB General and Comparative.Google Scholar
  18. Sapir, Edward. 1929. Central and North American languages. Encyclopedia Britannica 5.138–41. Reprinted in SWES, pp. 169–78. 1963.Google Scholar
  19. Schoolcraft, Henry Rowe. 1839. Algic researches. New York, Harper and Brothers.Google Scholar
  20. Siebert, Frank T., JR. 1941. Certain Proto-Algonquian consonant cl usters. Lg 17. 298–303.Google Scholar
  21. Siebert, Frank T., JR. 1967a. Discrepant consonant clusters ending in *-k in Proto-Algonquian. NMC-B 214 (SAB General and Comparative), 48–59.Google Scholar
  22. Siebert, Frank T., JR. 1967b. The original home of the Proto-Algonquian people. NMC-B 214. 13–47.Google Scholar
  23. Swadesh, Morris. 1946. South Greenlandic (Eskimo). Linguistic structures of native America, by Harry Hoijer and others, pp. 30–54. VFPA 6.Google Scholar
  24. Teeter, K. V. 1964. Descriptive linguistics in America: Triviality vs. irrelevance. Word 20. 197–206.Google Scholar
  25. Teeter, K. V. 1970a. Review of The Menomini language, by Leonard Bloomfield. Lg 46. 524–33.Google Scholar
  26. Teeter, K. V. 1970b. Review of The Menomini language, by Leonard Bloomfield. IJAL 36. 235–9.Google Scholar
  27. Teeter, K. V. 1971. SAB Malecite-Passamaquoddy.Google Scholar
  28. Trumbull, J. Hammond. 1876. The Algonkin verb. TAPA 146–71.Google Scholar
  29. Trumbull, J. Hammond. 1903. SAB Massachusett.Google Scholar

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© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1976

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  • Karl V. Teeter

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