Calcitonin: Molecular Biology, Physiology, Pathophysiology and Its Therapeutic Uses

  • Sunil J. Wimalawansa
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (NSSA, volume 184)


Calcitonin (CT) is a 32 amino acid peptide hormone, and its existence was postulated in 1962 by Copp and colleagues (Copp et al, 1962) (for review see Queener & Bell, 1975; Maclntyre et al, 1988; Wimalawansa & Maclntyre, 1989b). Initial studies on sheep suggested the parathyroid gland as the source of CT (Copp & Henze, 1964). Later, the source of this calcium lowering factor was identified as the thyroid gland (Foster et al, 1964a). CT is synthesised by the parafollicular cells (C-cells) of the thyroid in mammals (Foster et al, 1964b; Pearse, 1966; Bussolati and Pearse, 1967); and by C-cells associated with the ultimobranchial gland in lower vertebrates (Copp et al, 1967; Tauber, 1967). The C-cells derive from the neural crest (Le Dourain and Le Leivre, 1970) and migrate forward to become the ultimobranchial body in lower vertebrates and the parafollicular cells in man (Pearse & Polak, 1971) and related species (Pearse and Carvalheira, 1967).


Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma Salmon Calcitonin Calcitonin Receptor Human Calcitonin Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma Patient 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Aer, J., 1968, Effect of thyrocalcitonin on urinary hydroxy- proline and calcium in rats, Endocrinology, 83: 379.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alevizaki, M., Shiraishi, A., Rassool, F.V., Ferrier, G.J.M., Maclntyre, I., and Legon, S., 1986, The calcitonin-like sequence of the ß-CGRP gene. FEBS Lett., 206: 47–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aliapoulios, M.A., Goldhaber, P., and Munson, P.L., 1966, Thyrocalcitonin inhibition of bone resorption induced by parathyroid hormone in tissue culture, Science, 151: 330–332.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Allan, E., 1983, Calcitonin in the treatment of intractable pain from advanced malignancy, Pharmatherapeutica, 3: 482–486.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Allison, J., Hall, L., Maclntyre, I., and Craig, R., 1981, The construction and partial characterization of plasmids containing complementary DNA sequences to human calcitonin precursor polyprotein. Biochem J., 199: 725–731.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Amara, S.G., David, D.N., Rosenfeld, M.G., Roos, B.A., and Evans, R.M., 1980a, Characterisationof rat calcitonin mRNA, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA., 77: 4444–4448.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Amara, S.G., Arriza, J.L., Leff, S.W., Swanson, L.W., Evans, R.M., and Rosenfeld, M.G., 1985, Expression in brain of a messenger RNA encoding a novel neuropeptide homologous to calcitonin gene-related peptide. Science, 229: 1094–1097.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Amara, S.G., Rosenfeld, M.G., Birnbaum, R.S., and Roos, B.A., 1980a, Identification of the putative cell-free translation product of rat calcitonin mRNA. J. Biol Chem, 255: 2645–2648.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Baghdiantz, A., Foster, G.V., Edwards, A., Kumar, M.A., Slack, E., Soliman, H.A., and Maclntyre, I., 1964, Extraction and purification of calcitonin, Nature, 203: 1027–1028.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Baylin, S.B., Wieman, K.C., O’Neil, J.A., amd Roos, B.A., 1981, Multiple forms of human tumor calcitonin demonstrated by denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and lectin affinity chromatography, J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., 53: 489–497.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Becker, H.D., Reeder, D.D., Scurry, M.T., and Thompson, J.C., 1974, Inhibition of gastrin release and gastric secretion by calcitonin in patients with peptic ulcer, Am. J. Surg., 127: 71–75.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Becker, K.L., Snider, R.H., Silva, 0.L., and Moore, C.F., 1978, Calcitonin heterogeneity in lung cancer and medullary thyroid cancer, Acta Endocrinol., 89: 89–99.Google Scholar
  13. Becker, K.L., Monaghan, K.G., and Silva, O.L., 1980, Immunocytochemical localisation of calcitonin in Kulchitsky cells of human lung, Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med., 104: 196–198.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Becker, K.L., Silva, O.G., Post, R.M., Ballenger, J.C., Carmen, J.S., Snider, R.H., and Moore, C.F., 1980, Immunoreactive calcitonin in cerebrospinal fluid of man, Brain Res., 194: 598–602.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bell, N.H., 1974, Evidence for a separate adenylate cyclase system responsive to beta-adrenergic stimulation in the renal cortex of the rat, Acta Endocrinol., 77: 604–611.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Bell, N.H., and Kimble, J.B., 1970, Effects of glucagon, dibutyryl cyclic 3’,5’-adenosine monophosphate, and theophylline on calcitonin secretion in vitro, J. Clin. Invest., 49: 1368–1373.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Bertagna, X.Y., Nicholson, W.E., Pettengill, O.S., Sorenson, G.D., Mount, C.D., and Orth, D.N., 1978, Ectopic production of high molecular weight calcitonin and corticotropin by human small cell carcinoma cells in tissue culture: evidence for separate precursors, J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., 47: 1390–1393.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Body, J-J, and Heath, H. III., 1983, Estimates ofcirculating monomeric calcitonin: physiological studies in normal and thyroidectomised man, J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., 57: 897–903.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Braga, P.G., Ferri, S., Olgiati, V.R., and Pecile, A., 1977, Caratterizzazione farmacologica dell’analgesia indotta da Calcitonina. Atti Simp. Int. Appl. Ter. della Calcitonina, Capri, 17–18 maggio, p. 185.Google Scholar
  20. Braga, P., Ferri, S., Santagostino, A., Oligiati, V.R., and Pecile, A., 1978, Lack of opiate receptor involvement in centrally induced calcitonin analgesia, Life Sci., 22: 971.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Brain, S.D., Maclntyre, I., and Williams, T.J., 1986, A second form of calcitonin gene-related peptide which is a potent vasodilator. Eur. J. Pharmacol., 124: 349–352.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Brain, S.D., Williams, T.J., Tippins, J.R., Morris, H.R., and Maclntyre, I., 1985, Cacitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a potent vasodilator. Nature, 313: 54–56.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Brewer, H.B., and Ronan, R., 1969, Amino acid sequence of bovine thyrocalcitonin, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA., 63: 940–947.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Bueno, L., Fioramonti, J., and Ferre, J.P., 1983, Calcitonin-CNS action to control the pattern of intestinal motility in rats, Peptides, 4: 63–65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Bussolatti, G., and Pearse, A.G.E., 1967, Immunofluorescent localisation of calcitonin in C-cells of the pig and dog thyroid, J. Endocrinol., 37: 205–209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Cantalamessa, L., Catania, A., Roschini, E., and Peracchi, M., 1978, Inhibitory effect of calcitonin on growth hormone and insulin secretion in man, Metabolism, 27: 987–992.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Care, A.D., Bates, R.F.L., Swaminathan, R., Scanes, C.G., Peacock, M., Mawer, E.B., Taylor, C.M., De Luca, H.F., Tomlinson, S., and O’Riordan, J.L.H., 1975, The control of parathyroid hormone and calcitonin secretion and their interaction with other endocrine systems, in: “Calcium Regulating Hormones”, Proc. Vth Parathyroid Conference, Oxford, 1974, R.V. von Talmage., M. Owan, and I.A. Parson, eds., Excerpta Med. ICS, 346.Google Scholar
  28. Care, A.D., Ross, R., Pickard, D.W., and Cooper, C.W., 1982, Stimulation of secretion of calcitonin by 1,25 dihydroxycholecalciferol, in: “Vitamin D, Chemical, Biochemical and Clinical Endocrinology of Calcium Metabolism”, A.W. Norman, K. Schaefer, Dv. Herrath, and H.G. Grigoleit, eds., New York, Walter de Gruyter, pp. 575–577.Google Scholar
  29. Carney, S., and Thompson, L., 1981, Acute effect of calcitonin on rat renal electrolyte transport, Am. J. Physiol., 240: F12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Catherwood, B.D., and Deftos, L.J., 1984, General principles, problems and interpretation in the radioimmunoassay of calcitonin, Biomed. Pharmacother., 38: 235–241.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Chambers, T.J., 1985, The pathobiology of the osteoclast, J. Clin. Path., 38: 241–245.Google Scholar
  32. Chambers, T.J., and Magnus, C.J., 1982, Calcitonin alters behaviour of isolated osteoclasts, J. Pathol., 136: 27–36PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Chambers, T.J., and Dunn, C.J., 1983, Pharmacological control of osteoclastic motility, Calcif. Tiss. Internat., 35: 566–570.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Chambers, T.J. and Moore, A., 1983, The sensitivity of isolated osteoclasts to morphological transformation by calcitonin, J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., 57: 819–824.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Chambers, T.J., Fuller, K., McSheehy, P.M.J., and Pringle, J.A.S., 1985a, The effects of calcium regulating hormones on bone resorption by isolated human osteoclastoma cells, J. Pathol., 145: 297–305.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Chambers, T.J., McSheehy, P.M.J., Thompson, B.M., and Fuller, K, 1985b, The effect of calcium regulating hormones and prostaglandins on bone resorption by osteoclasts disaggregated from rabbit long bones, Endocrinol., 116: 234–239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Chambers, T.J., Chambers, J.C., Symonds, J., and Darby, J.A., 1986, The effect of human calcitonin on the cytoplasmic spreading of rat osteoclasts, J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., 63: 1080–1085.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Chantraine, A., 1971, Clinical investigation of bone metabolism in spinal cord lesions, Paraplegia, 8: 253–259.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Chantraine, A., Nusgens, B., and Lapiere, C.M., 1986, Bone remodeling during the development of osteoporosis in paraplegia, Calcif. Tissue Int., 38: 323–327.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Chausmer, A., Stevens, M.D., and Severn, C., 1982, Autoradiographie evidence for a calcitonin receptor on testicular Leidig cells, Science, 216: 735–736.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Chesnut, C.H. III., Baylink, D.J., Roos, B.A., Gruber, H.E., Ivey, J.L., Matthews, M., Nelp, W.B. and Sisom, K., 1981, Calcitonin and postmenopausal osteoporosis, in: “Calcitonin 1980”, A. Pecile, Excerpta Medica, Amsterdam, pp.247–255.Google Scholar
  42. Clementi, G., Prato, A., Confroto, G., and Scapagnini, U., 1984, Role of serotonin in the analgesic activity of calcitonin, Eur. J. Pharmacol., 98: 449–452.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Clementi, G., Amico Roxas, M. de., Rapisarda, E., Caruso, A., Prato, A., Thormbadore, S., Priolo, G., and Scapagnini, U., 1985, The analgesic activity of calcitonin and the central serotonergic system, Eur. J. Pharmacol., 108: 71–73.Google Scholar
  44. Conference Report. 1987, Prophylaxis and treatment of osteoporosis. Consensus Development Conference: Aalborg, Denmark, Br. Med. J., 295: 914–915.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Coombes, R.C., Hillyard, C.J., Greenberg, P.B., and Maclntyre, I., 1974, Plasma immunoreactive calcitonin in patients with non-thyroid tumours, Lancet, 1: 1080–1083.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Coombes, R.C., Easty, G.C., Detre, S.I., Hillyard, C.J., Stevens, U., Girgis, S.I., Galante, L.S., Heywood, L., Maclntyre, I., and Neville, A.M., 1975, Secretion of immunoreactive calcitonin by human breast carcinomas, Br. Med. J., 4: 197–199.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Coombes, R.C., Ellison, M.L., Easty, G.C., Hillyard, C.J., James, R., Galante, L., Girgis, S., Heywood, L., Maclntyre, I., and Neville, A.M., 1976, The ectopic secretion of calcitonin by lung and breast carcinomas, Clin. Endocrinol., 5, Suppl: 387s - 396s.Google Scholar
  48. Cooper, C.W., Hirsch, P.F., Toverud, S.V., and Munson, P.L., 1967, An improved method for the biological assay of calcitonin, Endocrinol., 81: 610–612.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Cooper, C.W., Schlesinger, W.H., and Mahgoub, A.M., 1972, Calcium, Parathyroid Hormone and the Calcitonins, Excerpta Medica, Amsterdam, p. 128.Google Scholar
  50. Cooper, G.J.S., Willis, A.C., Clark, A., Turner, R.C., Sim, R.B., and Reid, K.B.M., 1987, Purification and characterization of a peptide from amyloid-rich pancreases of type 2 diabetic patients, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA., 84: 8628–8632.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Copp, D.H., Cameron, E.C., Cheney, B.A., Davidson, R.G.F., and Henze, K.G., 1962, Evidence for calcitonin–a new hormone from the parathyroid that lowers blood calcium, Endocrinology, 70: 638–649.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Copp, D.H., and Henze, K.G., 1964, Parathyroid origin of calcitonin–evidence from perfusion of sheep glands, Endocrinology, 75: 49–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Copp, D.H., Cockcroft, D.W., and Kueh, Y., 1967, Calcitonin from the ultimobranchial glands of dogfish and chickens, Science, 158: 924–925.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Craig, R.K., Hall, L., Edbrooke, M.R., Allison, J., and Maclntyre, I., 1982, Partial nucleotide sequence of human calcitonin precursor mRNA identifies flanking cryptic peptides, Nature, 295: 345–347.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Culter, G.B. Jr., Habener, J.F., and Potts, J.T. Jr., 1977Google Scholar
  56. Biosynthesis and secretion of calcitonin by avian ultimobranchial glands, Endocrinology, 100:537–540.Google Scholar
  57. Deftos, L.J., Roos, B.A., Bronzert, B., Parthemore, J.G., 1975, Immunochemical heterogeneity of calcitonin in plasma, J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., 40: 407–412.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Deftos, L.J., Burton, D., Catherwood, B.D., Bone, H.G., Parthemore, J.G., Guillemin, R., Watkins, W.B., and Moore, R.Y., 1978a, Demonstration by immunoperoxidase histochemistry of calcitonin in the anterior lobe of the rat pituitary, J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., 47: 457–460.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Deftos, L.J., Burton, D., Bone, H.G., CXatherwood, R.B., Parthemore, J.,G., Moore, R.Y., Minic, S., and Guillemin, R., 1978b, Immunoreactive calcitonin in the intermediate lobe of the pituitary gland, Life Sci., 23: 743–748.Google Scholar
  60. Deftos, L.H., Weisman, M.H., Williams, G.W., Karpf, D.B., Frumar, A.M., Davidson, B.J., Parthemore, J.G., and Judd, H.L., 1980, Influence of sex and age on plasma calcitonin in human beings, N. Engl. J. Med., 302: 1351–1353.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. De Luise, M., Martin, T.J., Greenberg, P.B., and Michaelangeli, V., 1972, Metabolism of porcine, human and salmon calcitonin in the rat, J. Endocrinol., 53: 475–482.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Desplan, C., Benicourt, C., Julienne, A., Segond, N., Calmettes, C., Moukhar, M.S., and Milhaud, G., 1980, Cell-free translation of mRNA coding for human and murine calcitonin, FEBS Lett., 117: 89–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. D’Souza, S.M., Maclntyre, I., Girgis, S.I., and Mundy, G.R., 1986, Human synthetic calcitonin gene-related peptide inhibits bone resorption in vitro, Endocrinology, 119: 58–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Dub, W.J., Goldsmith, R.S., Arnaud, S.B., and Arnaud, C.D., 1973, Development of antibodies to porcine calcitonin during treatment of Paget’s disease of bone, Mayo Clin. Proc., 48: 43–48.Google Scholar
  65. Dymling, J.F., Ljungberg, O., Hillyard, C.J., Greenberg, P.B., Evans, I.M.A., and Maclntyre, I., 1976, Whisky: a new provocative test for calcitonin secretion, Acta Endocrinol., 82: 500–509.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Ellison, M., Woodhouse, D., Hillyard, C., Dowsett, M., Coombes, R.C., Gilbey, E.D., Greenberg, P.B., and Neville, A.M., 1975, Immunoreactive calcitonin production by human lung carcinoma cells in culture, Br. J. Cancer, 32: 373–379.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Evans, I.M.A., 1979, Human calcitonin in the treatment of Paget’s disease: long-term trials, in: “Human Calcitonin and Paget’s Disease”, I. Maclntyre, ed., Hans Huber, Bern, pp.111–121.Google Scholar
  68. Fabbri, A., Santoro, G., Moretti, C., Cappa, M., Fraioli, F., Di Julio, C.G., Galluzzi, T., and Lamanna, V., 1981, The analgesic effect of calcitonin in humans: studies on the role of opioid peptides, Int. J. Clin. Pharm. Ther. Tossic., 19: 509.Google Scholar
  69. Fahrenkrieg, J., Hornum, I., Rehfeld, J.F., 1975, Effect of calcitonin on serum gastrin concentration and component pattern in man, J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., 41: 149–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Findlay, D.M., deLuise, M., Michaelangeli, V.P., Ellison, M., and Martin, T.J., 1980a, Properties of a calcitonin receptor and adenylate cyclase in BEN cells, a human cancer cell line, Cancer Res., 40: 1311–1315.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Findlay, D.M., Michaelangeli, V.P., Eisman, J.A., Frampton, R.J., Moseley, J.M., Maclntyre, I., Whitehead, R., and Martin, T.J., 1980b, Calcitonin and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 receptors in human breast cancer cell lines, Cancer Res., 40: 4762–4767.Google Scholar
  72. Findlay, D.M., deLuise, M., Michaelangeli, V.P., and Martin, T.J., 1981, Independent down regulation of insulin and calcitonin receptors in human tumour cell line, J. Endocrinol., 88: 271.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Findlay, D.M. Michaelangeli, V.P., Orlowski, R.C., and Martin, T.J., 1984, Biological activities and receptor interactions of des-Leu-16-salmon and des-phe-16-human calcitonin, Endocrinol., 112: 1288–1291.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Fiore, C.E., Castorina, F., Malatino, L.S., and Petralito, A., 1985, Calcitonin and cancer pain: comparison of effects of different calcitonins and routes of administration, in: “Calcitonin 1984. Chemistry, Physiology, Pharmacology and Clinical Aspects”, A. Pecile, ed.Google Scholar
  75. Fischer, J.A., Sagar, S.M., and Martin, J.B., 1981a, Characterisation and regional distribution of calcitonin binding sites in the rat brain, Life Sci., 29: 663–666.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Fischer, J.A., Tobler, P.H., Kauffmann, M., Born, W., Henke, H., Cooper, P.E., Sagar, S., and Martin, J.B., 1981b, Calcitonin: regional distribution of the hormone and its binding sites in the human brain and pituitary, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA., 78: 7801–7805.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Fischer, J.A., Tobler, P.H., Henke, H., and Tschopp, F.A., 1983, Salmon and human calcitonin-like peptides coexist in the human thyroid and brain, J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., 57: 1314–1316.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Flynn, J.J., Margules, D.L., and Cooper, C.W., 1981, Presence of immunoreactive calcitonin in the hypothalamus and the pituitary lobes of rat, Brain Res. Bull., 6: 547–549.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Foa, R., Oscier, D.G., Hillyard, C.J., Incarbone, E., Maclntyre, I., and Goldman, J.M., 1982, Production of immunoreactive calcitonin by myeloid leukaemic cells, Br. J. Haematol., 50: 215–223.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Foster, G.V., Baghdiantz, A., Kumar, M.A., Slack, E., Soliman, H.A., and Maclntyre, I., 1964a, Thyroid origin of calcitonin, Nature, 202: 1303–1305.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Foster, G.V., Maclntyre, I., and Pearse, A.G.E., 1964b, Calcitonin production and the mitochondrion-rich cells of the dog thyroid, Nature, 203: 1029–1030.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Foster, G.V., Doyle, F.H., Bordier, P., and Matrajt, H., 1969, In vivo effect of hypocalcitonin on bone. in: Les Tissus Calcifies, ve Symposium Europeen. Paris, Societe d’Edition d’Enseignement Superieur, 173–177.Google Scholar
  83. Foster, G.V., Joplin, G.F., Maclntyre, I., Melvin, K.E.W., and Slack, E., 1969, Effect of thyrocalcitonin in man, Lancet, i:107–109.Google Scholar
  84. Fouchereau-Peron, M., Moukhtar, M.S., Benson, A.,A., and Milhaud, G., 1981a, Demonstration of specific receptors for calcitonin in isolated trout gill cells, Comp. Biochem. Physiol., 68a: 417.Google Scholar
  85. Fouchereau-Peron, M., Moukhtar, M.S., Benson, A.A., and Milhaud, G., 1981b, Characterisation for specific receptors for calcitonin in porcine lung, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA., 78: 3973–3975.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Fraioli, F., Fabbri, A., Gnessi, L., Moretti, C., Santore, C., and Feleci, M., 1982, Subarachnoid injection of salmon calcitonin induces analgesia in man, Eur. J. Pharmacol., 78: 381–383.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Freake, H.C., and Maclntyre, I., 1982, Specific binding of 1,25 dihydroxycholecalciferol in human medullary thyroid carcinoma, Biochem. J., 206: 181–182.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Freed, W.J., Perlow, M.J., and Wyatt, R.J., 1979, Calcitonin: inhibitory effect of eating in rats, Science, 206: 850–852.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Friedman, J., and Raisz, L.G., 1965, Thyrocalcitonin: inhibitor of bone resorption in tissue culture, Science, 150: 1465–1467.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Fritsch, H.A.R., Van Noorden, S., and Pearse, A.G.E., 1979, Localisation of somatostatin, substance P and calcitonin-like immunoreactivity in neural ganglia of Ciona intestinalis, Cell Tiss. Res., 202: 263–274.Google Scholar
  91. Fritsch, H.A.R., Van Noorden, S., and Pearse, A.G.E., 1980, Calcitonin-like immunochemical staining in the alimentary tract of Ciona intestinalis, Cell Tiss. Res., 205: 439–444.Google Scholar
  92. Fritsch, H.A.R., Van Noorden, S., Pearse, A.G.E., 1982, Gastrointestinal and neurohormonal peptides in the alimentary tract and cerebral complex of Ciona intestinalis (Ascidiaceae), Cell Tiss. Res., 223: 369.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Gaines Das, R.E., and Zanelli, J.M., 1980, International Reference Preparation of calcitonin, human, for bioassay: assessment of material and definition of the International Unit, Acta Endocrinol., 93: 37–42.Google Scholar
  94. Galan Galan, F., Rogers, R.M., Girgis, S.I., and Maclntyre, I., 1981, Immunoreactive calcitonin in the central nervous system of the pigeon, Brain Res., 212: 59–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Galante, L.S., Colston, K.W., MacAuley, S.J., and Maclntyre, I., 1972, Effect of calcitonin on vitamin D metabolism, Nature, 288: 271–273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Galante, L., Horton, R., Joplin, G.F., Woodhouse, N.J.Y, and Maclntyre, I., 1971, Comparison of human, porcine and salmon synthetic calcitonins in man and in the rat, Clin. Sci., 40: 9 P.Google Scholar
  97. Girgis, S.I., Galan Galan, F., Arnett, T.R., Rogers, R.M., Bone, Q., Ravazzola, M., and Maclntyre, I., 1980, Immunoreactive human calcitonin-like molecule in the nervous systems of protochordates and a cyclostome, Myxine, J. Endocrinol., 87: 375–382.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Girgis, S.I., Macdonald, D.W.R., Stevenson, J.C., Bevis, P.J.R., Lynch, C., Wimalawansa, S.J., Self, C.H., Morris, H.R., and Maclntyre, I., 1985, Calcitonin gene-related peptide: potent vasodilator and major product of the calcitonin gene, Lancet, 11: 14–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Girgis, S.I., Lynch, C., Hillyard, C.J., Stevenson, J.C., Hill, P.A., Macdonald, D.W.R., and Maclntyre, I., 1987, Calcitonin gene-related peptide: the diagnostic value of measurements in medullary thyroid carcinoma, Henry Ford Hosp. Med. J., 35: 118–119.Google Scholar
  100. Goltzman, D., and Tischler, A.S., 1978, Characterization of the immunochemical forms of calcitonin released by a medullary thyroid carcinoma in tissue culture, J. Clin. Invest., 61: 449–458.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Goodman, R.H., Jacobs, J.W., and Habener, J.F., 1979, Cell-free translation of mRNA coding for a precursor of human calcitonin, Biochem Biophys Res Comm., 91: 932–938.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Gray, T.K., and Munson, P.L., 1969, Thyrocalcitonin: evidence for physiological function, Science, 166: 512–513.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Gray, T.K., Bieberdorf, F.A., and Fordtran, J.S., 1973, Thyrocalcitonin and the jejunal absorption of calcium, water and electrolytes in normal subjects, J. Clin. Invest., 52: 3084–3088.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Greenberg, P.B., Doyle, F.H., Fisher, M.T., Hillyard, C.J., Joplin, G.F., Pennock, J., and Maclntyre, I., 1974, Treatment of Paget’s disease of bone with synthetic human calcitonin, Am. J. Med., 56: 867–870.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Gruber, H.E., Ivey, J.L., and Baylink, D.J., 1984, Long-term calcitonin therapy in postmenopausal osteoporosis, Metabolism, 33: 295–303.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Habener, J.F., Singer, F.R., Deftos, L.J., Neer, R.M., and Potts, J.T. Jr., 1971, Explanation for the unusual potency of salmon calcitonin, Nature New Biol., 232: 91–92PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Hazard, J.B., Hawk, W.A., Crile, G., 1959, Medullary (solid) carcinoma of the thyroid. A clinicopathological entity, J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., 19: 152–161.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Heath, H. III., and Sizemore, G.W., 1979, Immunochemical heterogeneity of calcitonin in tumour, tumour venous effluent and peripheral blood of patients with medullary thyroid carcinoma, J. Lab. Clin. Med., 93: 390–394.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Heath, H. III., and Sizemore, G.W., 1983, Radioimmunoassay for calcitonin, in: “Assay of Calcium Regulating Hormones”, D.D. Bilke, eds., Springer Verlag, Berlin, pp.229–244.Google Scholar
  110. Heath, H. III., Body, J.J., and Fox, J., 1984, Radioimmunoassay of calcitonin in normal human plasma: problems, perspectives and prospects, Biomed. Pharmacother., 38: 241–246.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Heath, H. III., and Sizemore, G.W., 1977, Plasma calcitonin in normal man. Difference between men and women, J. Clin. Invest., 60: 1135–1140.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Heersche, J.N.M., Marcus, R., and Aurbach, G.D., 1974, Calcitonin and the formation of 3’,5’-AMP in bone and kidney, Endocrinology, 94: 241–247.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Hennessy, J.F., Gray, T.K., Cooper, C.W., and Ontjes, D.A., 1973, Stimulation of thyrocalcitonin secretion by pentagastrin and calcium in 2 patients with medullary carcinoma of the thyroid, J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., 36: 200–203.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Hennessy, J.F., Wells, S.A. Jr., Ontjes, D.A., and Cooper, C.W., 1974, A comparison of pentagastrin injection and calcium infusion as provocative agents for detection of medullary thyroid carcinoma, J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., 39: 487–495.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Hillyard, C.J., Coombes, R.C., Greenberg, P.B., Galante, L.S., and Maclntyre, I., 1976, Calcitonin in breast and lung cancer, Clin. Endocrinol., 5: 1–8.Google Scholar
  116. Hillyard, C.J., Cooke, T.J.C., Coombes, R.C., Evans, I.M.A., and Maclntyre, I., 1977, Normal plasma calcitonin: circadian variation and response to stimuli, Clin. Endocrinol., 6: 291–298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Hillyard, C.J., Stevenson, J.C., and Maclntyre, I., 1978, Relative deficiency of plasma calcitonin in normal women, Lancet, i:961–962.Google Scholar
  118. Hillyard, C.J., Myers, C.M., Abeyasekera, G., Stevenson, J.C., Craig, R.K., and Maclntyre, 1983, Katacalcin: a new plasma calcium lowering hormone, Lancet, i:846–848.Google Scholar
  119. Hoppener, J.W.M., Steenbergh, P.H., Bakker, E., Pearson, P.L., Geurts van Kessel, A.H.M., Jansz, H.S., and Lips, C.J.M., 1984, Localization of the polymorphic human calcitonin gene on chromosome 11, Hum. Genet., 66: 309–312.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Hoppener, J.W.M., Steenbergh, P.H. Zandberg, J., Geurts Van Kessel, A.H.M., Baylin, S.B., Nelkin, B.D., Jansz, H.S., and Lips, C.J.M., 1985, The second human calcitonin/CGRP gene is located on chromosome 11, Hum. Genet., 70: 259263.Google Scholar
  121. Horiuchi, N., Takahashi, M., Matsumoto, T., Takahashi, N., Simazawa, E., Suda, T., and Ogata, E., 1979, Salmon calcitonin-induced stimulation of 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3 in rats involving a mechanism independent of adenosine 3’-5’-cyclic monophosphate, Biochem. J., 184: 269–271.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Jacobs, J.W., Goltzman, D., and Habener, J.F., 1982, Absence of detectable calcitonin synthesis in the pituitary using cloned complementary deoxyribonucleic acid probes, Endocrinology, 111: 2014–2019.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Jacobs, J.W., Lund, P.K., Potts, J.T. Jr., Bell, N.H., and Habener, J.F., 1981a, Procalcitonin is a glycoprotein, J. Biol. Chem., 256: 2803–2807.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Jacobs, J.W., Potts, J.T. Jr., Bell, N.H., and Habener, J.F., 1979, Calcitonin precursor identified by cell-free translation of mRNA, J. Biol. Chem., 254: 10600–10603.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Jaeger, P., Jones, W., Clemens, T.L., and Hayslett, J.P., 1986 Evidence that calcitonin stimulates 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D production and intestinal absorption of calcium, in vivo J. Clin. Invest., 8: 456.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Kallio, D.M., Garant, P.R., and Minkin, C., 1972, Ultrastructural effects of calcitonin on osteoclasts in tissue culture, J. Ultrastruct. Res., 39: 205–216.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Kawashima, H., Torikai, S., and Kurokawa, K., 1981, Selective stimulation of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3–1 -hydroxylase by calcitonin in the proximal straight tubule of the rat kidney, Nature, 291: 327–329.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Kenny, A.D., 1971, Determination of calcitonin in plasma by bioassay, Endocrinology, 89: 1005–1009.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Klein, L., van de Noort, S., and Dejak, J.J., 1966, Sequential studies of urinary hydroxyproline and serum alkaline phosphatase in acute paraplegia, Med. Serv. J. Can., 22: 524–533.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Kittur, S.D., Hoppener, J.W.M., Antonaratis, S.E., Daniels, J.D.J., Mayers, D.A., Maestri, N.E., Jansen, M., Kormeulk R.G., Neltin, B.D., and Kazazian, H.H., 1985, Linkage map, of the short arm of human chromosome 11: location of the genes for catalase and insulin-like gorwth factor II., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 82: 5064–5066.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Le Douarin, N., and Le Leivre, C., 1970, Demonstration de l’origine neurale des cellules a calcitonine du corps ultimobranchial chez l’embryon de poulet, C. R. Acad. Sci., 270: 2857–2859.Google Scholar
  132. Leggate, J., Farish, E., Fletcher, C.D., McIntosh, W., Hart, D.M., and Sommerville, J.M., 1984, Calcitonin and postmenopausal osteoporosis, Clin. Endocrinol., 20: 85–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Levernieux, J., Julien, D., and Caulin, F., 1986, The effect of calcitonin on bone pain and acute resorption related to recent osteoporotic crush-fractures - result of a double blind and an open study, in: “Calciotropic Hormones and Calcium Metabolism”, M. Cecchettin, and G. Segre, eds., Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp.171–178.Google Scholar
  134. Levine, A.S., Hughes, J.J., Morley, J.E., Gosnell, B.A., and Silvis, S.E., 1984, Calcitonin as a regulator of gastric acid secretion, Psychopharmacol. Bull., 20: 459–462.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Lichtenberger, L.M., and Singer, F.R., 1975, Release of calcitonin by cultures of medullary carcinoma of the thyroid, Endocr. Res. Comm., 2: 527–536.Google Scholar
  136. Liddle, G.W., Nicholson, W.E., Island, D.P., Orth, D.N., Abe, K., and Lowder, S.C., 1969, Clinical and laboratory studies of ectopic humoral syndromes, Recent Progr. Horm. Res., 25: 283–314.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Lips, C.G.M., Van der Sluys Veer, J., Van der Donk, J.A., Van Dam, R.H., and Hackeng, W.H.L., 1978, Common precursor molecule as origin for the ectopic-hormone producing tumour syndrome, Lancet, i:16–18.Google Scholar
  138. Maclntyre, I., 1972, Calcitonin, in: “Proc. Internat. Symp. Metab. Water Electrolytes,”, Siena, pp.311–318.Google Scholar
  139. Maclntyre, I., and Stevenson, J.C., 1980a, Chemistry, physiology and therapeutic applications of calcitonin, Arth. Rheum., 23: 1139–1147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Maclntyre, I., and Stevenson, J., 1980b, Calcitonin: a modern view of its physiological role and interrelation with other hormones, in: “Calcitonin 1980: Chemistry, Physiology, Pharmacology and Clinical Aspects”, A. Pecile, ed., Excerpta Medica, Amsterdam, pp.1–10.Google Scholar
  141. Maclntyre, I., Parsons, J.A., and Robinson, C.J., 1967, The effect of thyrocalcitonin on blood-bone calcium equilibrium in the perfused tibia of the cat, J. Physiol., 191: 393–405.Google Scholar
  142. Maclntyre, I., Galante, L.S., and Hillyard, C.J., 1980, Radio-immunoassay and bioassay of calcitonin, in: “Handbuch de Inneren Medizin Vol 6/Ia, F. Kuhlencordt, and H. Bartelheimer, eds., Springer Verlag, Berlin, pp.623–634.Google Scholar
  143. Maclntyre, I., Hillyard, C.J., Murphy, P.K., Reynolds, J.J., Gaines Das, R.E., and Craig, R.K., 1982, A second plasma calcium lowering peptide from the human calcitonin precursor, Nature, 300: 460–462.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Maclntyre, I., Girgis, S.I., and Hillyard, C.J., 1984, Essential steps in measurement of normal circulating levels of calcitonin, Biomed. Pharmacother., 38: 230–234.Google Scholar
  145. Maclntyre, I., Stevenson, J.C., Whitehead, M.I., Wimalawansa, S.J., Banks, L.M., and Healy, M.J.R., 1988, Calcitonin for prevention of postmenopausal bone loss, Lancet, i:900–902.Google Scholar
  146. Maclntyre, I., and Wimalawansa, S.J., 1989, Positive relationship of plasma 17 -oestradiol with prevention of post-menopausal bone loss, ASBMR/ICCRA First Joint Meeting, Quebec, Canada, ( Abstr).Google Scholar
  147. Maier, R., 1977, Pharmacology of human calcitonin, in: “Human Calcitonin and Paget’s Disease”, I. Maclntyre, ed., Hans Huber, Bern, pp.66–77.Google Scholar
  148. Maier, R., Riniker, B., and Rittel, W., 1974, Analogues of human calcitonin. I. Influence of modifications of aminoacid positions 29 and 31 on hypocalcaemic activities in the rat, FEBS Letts., 48: 68–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Mallet, E., Lefort, J., and Caulin, F., 1986, Prevention of trabecular bone loss in children’s femoral fracture: effects of treatment with calcitonin, Clin. Sci, 70 (suppl. 13): 82 P.Google Scholar
  150. Martin, T.J., Woodhouse, N.J.Y., 1977, Calcitonin in the treatment of Paget’s disease, in: “Bone Disease and Calcitonin”, J. Kanis, ed., Armour Pharmaceuticals Ltd., Eastbourne, pp.11–24.Google Scholar
  151. Martin, T.J., Findlay, D.M., Maclntyre, I., Eisuran, J.A., Michaelangeli, V.P., Moseley, J.M., and Partridge, M.C., 1980, Calcitonin receptors in a cloned human breast cancer cel line (MCF7), Biochem. Biophys. Res Commun., 96: 150–154.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Martin, T.J., Moseley, J.M., Findlay, D.M., and Michaelangeli, V.P., 1981, Calcitonin production and calcitonin receptors in human cancers, in: “Hormones in Normal and Abnormal Human Tissues”, New York, Walter de Gruyter, pp.429–457.Google Scholar
  153. Marx, S.J., Woodward, C.J., and Aurbach, G.D., 1972, Calcitonin receptors of the kidney and bone, Science, 178: 998–1001.Google Scholar
  154. Marx, S.J., Woodward, C.J., Aurbach, G.D., Glassman, H., and Keutmann, H.J., 1973, Renal receptors for calcitonin, Binding and degradation of hormone, J. Biol. Chem., 248: 4797–4802.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. Marx, S.J., Aurbach, G.D., Gavin, J.R., and Buell, J.W., 1974, Calcitonin receptors on cultured human lymphocytes, J. Biol. Chem., 249: 6812.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. Maxam, A.M., and Gilbert, W., 1977, A new method for sequencing DNA, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA., 74: 560: 564.Google Scholar
  157. McCredie, D.A., Dixon, S.R., Martin, T.J., Melick, R.A., Rotenberg, E., and Shipman, R., 1971, The effects of calcitonin in children in health and disease, in: “Proc. XIII Internat. Congr. Paediatrics, Verlag der Weiner Medizinischen Akademie, Vienna, p.155–161.Google Scholar
  158. Melvin, K.E.W., and Tashjian, A.H. Jr., 1969, The syndrome of excessive thyrocalcitonin produced by medullary carcinoma of the thyroid, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 59: 1216–1222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Melvin, K.E.W., Tashjian, A.H., and Miller, H.H., 1972, Studies in familial (medullary) thyroid carcinoma, Recent Prog. Horm. Res., 28: 399–470.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. Meunier, P.J., Sellami, S., Brancon, D., and Edouard, C., 1981, Histological heterogeneity of apparently idiopathic osteoporosis, in: “Osteoporosis. Recent Advances in Pathogenesis and Treatment”, H.F. DeLuca, H.M. Frost, W.S.S. Jee, et al, eds., University Park Press, Baltimore, pp.293–301.Google Scholar
  161. Meyer, J.S., and Abdel-Bari, W., 1968, Granules and thyrocalcitonin-like activity in medullary carcinoma of the thyroid gland, New Engl. J. Med., 278: 523–529.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Milhaud, G., Calmette, C., Taboulet, J., Julienne, A., and Moukhtar, M.S., 1974, Hypersecretion of calcitonin inneoplastic conditions, Lancet, i:462–463.Google Scholar
  163. Milhaud, G., Benezech-Lefevre, M., and Moukhtar, M.S., 1978, Deficiency of calcitonin in age related osteoporosis, Biomedicine, 28: 272–276.Google Scholar
  164. Milhaud, G., 1982, Immunoassay of human calcitonin, in: Proc. Internat. Workshop on Human Calcitonin, A. Caniggia, ed., pp.29–47.Google Scholar
  165. Minaire, P., Meunier, P., and Edouard, C., 1974, Quantitative histological data on disuse osteoporosis, Calcif. Tissue Res., 17: 57–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Minaire, P., Meunier, P., and Depassio, J., 1986, Treatment of active osteoporosis with calcitonin, in: “Osteoporosis”, C. Christiansen, C.D. Arnaud, B.E.C. Nordin, et al, eds., Glostrup Hospital, Copenhagen, pp.613–615.Google Scholar
  167. Mitsuma, T., Nogimori, T., and Chaya, M., 1984, Peripheral administration of eel calcitonin inhibits thyrotropin secretion in rats, Eur. J. Pharmacol., 102: 123–126.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Morley, J.E., Levine, A.S., Brown, D.M., and Hand, B.S., 1982, The effect of calcitonin on food intake in diabetic mice, Peptides, 3: 17–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Morikawa, T., Munekata, E., Sakakibara, S., Noda, T., and Otani, M., 1976, Synthesis of eel-calcitonin and Asu1’7 -eel-calcitonin: contribution of the disulphide bond to the hormonal activity, Experientia, 32: 1104–1106.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Morimoto, S., Tsuji, M., Okada, Y., Onishi, T., and Kumahara, Y., 1980, The effect of oestrogens on human calcitonin secretion after calcium infusion in elderly female subjects, Clin. Endocrinol., 13: 135–143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Morris, H.R., Panico, M., Etienne, T, Tippins, J., Girgis, S.I., and Maclntyre, I., 1984, Isolation and characterization of human calcitonin gene-related peptide, Nature, 308: 746–748.Google Scholar
  172. Moseley, J.M., Findlay, D.M., Gorman, J.J., Michaelangeli, V.P., and Martin, T.J., 1983, The calcitonin receptor on T47D breast cancer cells. Evidence for glycosylation, Biochem J., 212: 609–611.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. Mundy, G.R., and Martin, T.J., 1982, The hypercalcaemia of malignancy: pathogenesis and management, Metabolism, 31: 1247–1277.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Nagant de Deuxchaisnes, C., Rombouts-Lindemans, C., Huaux, J.P., Devogelaer, J.P., Malghem, J., and Maldague, B., 1979, Roentgenologic evaluation of the action of the diphosphonate EHDP and of combined therapy (EHDP and calcitonin) in Paget’s disease of bone, in: “Molecular Endocrinology”, I. Maclntyre and M. Szelke, eds., Elsevier/North Holland, Amsterdam, pp.405–433.Google Scholar
  175. Neher, R., Riniker, B., Maier, R., Byfield, P.G.H., Gudmundsson, T.V., and Maclntyre, I., 1986, Human calcitonin, Nature, 220: 984–986.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Niall, H.D., Keutmann, H.T., Copp, D.H., and Potts, J.T. Jr., 1969, The amino acid sequence of salmon ultimobranchial calcitonin, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA., 64: 771–778.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Nicholson, G.C., Moseley, J.M., Sexton, P.M., Mendelsohn, F.A.O., and Martin, T.J., 1986, Abundant calcitonin receptors in isolated rat osteoclasts. Biochemical and autoradiographie characterisation, J. Clin. Invest., 78: 355–360.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Nicoletti, F., Clementi, G., Patti, F., Canonico, P.L., diGiorgio, R.M., Matera, M., Pennsei, G., Angelussi, L., and Sapagnini, U., 1982, Effects of calcitonin on rat extrapyramidal motor system: behavioural and biochemical data, Brain Res., 250: 381.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Noda, T., and Narita, K., 1976, Amino acid sequence of eel calcitonin, J. Biochem. (Tokyo), 79: 353; 359.Google Scholar
  180. Obie, J.F., and Cooper, C.W., 1979, Loss of calcemic effects of calcitonin and parathyroid hormone infused continuously into rats using the Alzet osmotic minipump, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther., 209: 422–428.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. O’Dor, R.K., Parkes, C.D., and Copp, D.H., 1969, The amino acid composition of salmon calcitonin, Canad. J. Biol., 47: 873–875.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Oscier, D.G., Hillyard, C.J., Arnett, T.R., Maclntyre, I., and Goldman, J.M., 1983, Immunoreactive calcitonin production by a human promyelocytic cell line HL60, Blood, 61: 61–65.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. Otani, M., Yamauchi, H., Meguro, T., Kitazawa, S., Watanabe, S., and Orimo, H., 1976, Isolation and characterisation of calcitonin from pericardium and esophagus of eel, J. Biochem. (Tokyo), 79: 345–352.Google Scholar
  184. Otani, M., Kitazawa, S., Yamaguchi, H., Meguro, T., and Orimo, H., 1978, Stability and biological activity of eel calcitonin in rats, Horm. Met. Res., 10:: 252–256.Google Scholar
  185. Parthemore, J.C., Bronzert, D., Roberts, G. and Deftos, L.J., 1974, A short calcium infusion in the diagnosis of medullary thyroid carcinoma, J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., 39: 101–111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Parthemore, J.G., and Deftos, L.J., 1978, Calcitonin secretion in normal human subjects, J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., 47: 184–188.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Pearse, A.G.E., 1966, The cytochemistry of the thyroid C-cells and their relationship to calcitonin, Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond., 164: 478–487.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Pearse, A.G.E., and Carvalheira, A.F., 1967, Cytochemical evidence for an ultimobranchial origin of rodent thyroid C-cells, Nature, 214: 929–930.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. Pearse, A.G.E., and Polak, J.M., 1971, Cytochemical evidence for the neural crest origin of mammalian ultimobranchial C-cells, Histochemie, 27: 96–102.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. Pecile, A., Ferri, S., Braga, P.C., and Olgiati, V.R., 1975, Effects of intracerebroventricular calcitonin in the conscious rabbit, Experientia, 31: 332–333.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. Perez Cano, R., Galan Galan, F., Girgis, S.I., Arnett, T.R., and Maclntyre, I., 1981, A human calcitonin-like molecule in the ultimobranchial body of the amphibian (Rana pipiens), Experientia, 37:1116–1117Google Scholar
  192. Perez Cano, R., Girgis, S.I., Galan Galan, F., and Maclntyre, I., 1982a, Identification of both human and salmon calcitonin-like molecules in birds, suggesting the existence of two calcitonin genes, J. Endocrinol., 92: 351–355.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. Perez Cano, R., Girgis, S.I., and Maclntyre, I., 1982b, Further evidence for calcitonin gene duplication: the identification of two different calcitonins in a fish, a reptile and two mammals, Acta Endocrinol., 100: 256–261.Google Scholar
  194. Perlow, M.J., Freed, W.J., Carman, J.S., and Wyatt, R.J., 1980, Calcitonin reduces feeding in man, monkey and rat, Biochem. Behay., 12: 609–614.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. Potts, J.T. Jr., Niall, H.D., Keutman, H.T., Brewer, H.B. Jr., and Deftos, L.J., 1968, The amino acid sequence of porcine calcitonin, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA., 59: 1321–1328.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. Potts, J.T. Jr., Niall, H.D., Keutmann, H.T., Deftos, L.J., and Parsons, J.A., 1970, Calcitonin: recent chemical and immuological studies, in: “Calcitonin 1969, Proc. 2nd Int. Symp.”, S.F. Taylor, ed., Heinemann Medical Books, London, pp. 56–73.Google Scholar
  197. Potts, J.T. Jr., Keutmann, H.T., Niall, H.D., and Tregear, G.W., 1971, The chemistry of parathyroid hormone and the calcitonins, Vitam. Horm., 29: 41–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. Queener, S.F., and Bell, N.H., 1975, Calcitonin: a general survey, Metabolism, 24: 555–567.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. Raisz, L.G., Au, W.Y.W., Friedman, J., and Neimann, I., 1967, Thyrocalcitonin and bone resorption–studies employing a tissue culture bioassay, Am. J. Med., 43: 684–689.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. Ralston, S.H., Alzaidi, A.A., Gardner, M.D., and Boyle, I.T., 1986, Treatment of cancer-associated hypercalcaemia with combined aminopropylidene diphosphonate and calcitonin, Br. Med. J., 292: 1549–1550.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. Rasmussen, H., Bordier, P., 1974, “The Physiological and Cellular Basis of Metabolic Bone Disease”, Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore.Google Scholar
  202. Rasmussen, H., Bordier, P., Marie, D., Anguier, K., Eisinger, J.R., Kuntz, D., Caulin, F., Argemi, B., Gueris, J., and Julien, A., 1980, Effect of combined therapy with phosphate and calcitonin on bone volume in osteoporosis, Metab. Bone Dis. Rel. Res., 2: 107–111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. Raulias, D., Hagaman, J., Ontjes, D.A., Lundblad, R.L., and Kingdon, H.S., 1976, The complete amino acid sequence of rat thyrocalcitonin, Eur. J. Biochem., 64: 607–611.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. Ravazzola, M., Orci, L., Girgis, S.I., Galan Galan, F., and Maclntyre, I., 1981, The lung is the major source of calcitonin in the lizard, Cell Biol. Int. Rep., 5: 937–944.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. Reynolds, J.J., Dingle, J.T., Gudmundsson, T.V., and Maclntyre, I., 1968, Bone resorption in vitro and its inhibition by calcitonin, in: “Calcitonin, Proceedings of the Internat. Symp. on Thyrocalcitonin and the C-cells”, S.F. Taylor, eds., Heinemann Medical Books, London, pp. 223–229.Google Scholar
  206. Rittel, W., Maier, R., Brugger, M., Kamber, B., Riniker, B., and Sieber, P., 1976, Structure-activity relationship of human calcitonin. III. Biological activity of synthetic analogues with shortened or terminally modified peptide chains, Experientia, 32: 246–248.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. Rizzo, A.J., and Goltzman, D., 1981, Calcitonin receptors in the central nervous system of the rat, Endocrinology, 108: 1672–1677.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. Robinson, C.J., Martin, T.J., and Maclntyre, I., 1966, Phosphaturic effect of thyrocalcitonin, Lancet, ii:83–84.Google Scholar
  209. Robinson, C.J., Matthews, E.W., and Maclntyre, I. 1969, The effect of parathyroid hormone and thyrocalcitonin on the intestinal absorption of calcium and magnesium, in: “Les Tissues Calcifies: Proc. Vth Europ. Symp.”, G. Milhaud, eds., Paris, S.E.D.E.S., pp.279–282.Google Scholar
  210. Rosenfeld, M.G., Mermod, J-J., Amara, S.G., Swanson, L.W., Sawchenko, P.E., Rivier, J., Vale, W.W., and Evans, R.M., 1983, Production of a novel neuropeptide encoded by the calcitonin gene via tissue specific RNA processing, Nature, 304: 129–135.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. Rude, R.K., and Singer, F.R., 1977, Comparison of serum calcitonin levels after a 1-minute calcium injection and after pentagastrin injection in the diagnosis of medullary thyroid carcinoma, J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., 44: 980–983.Google Scholar
  212. Russell, R.G.G., and Fleisch, H., 1968, The renal effects of thyrocalcitonin in the pig and dog, in; “Calcitonin, Proceedings of the Internat. Symp. on Thyrocalcitonin and the C-cells”, S. Taylor, eds., Heinemann Medical Books, London, pp. 297–305.Google Scholar
  213. Samaan, N.A., Anderson, G.D., and Adam-Mayne, M.E., 1975, Immunoreactive calcitonin in the mother, neonate, child and adult, Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol., 121: 622–625.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  214. Sanger, F., Nicklen, S., and Coulson, A.R., 1975, DNA sequencing with chain-terminating inhibitors, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA., 74: 5463–5467.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. Segond, N., Legendre, B., Tahri, E.H., Besnard, P., Julienne, A., Moukhtar, M.S., Garel, J.M., 1985, Increased level of calcitonin mRNA after 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 injection in the rat, FEBS Letts., 184: 2–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. Seiber, P., Brugger, M., Kamber, B., Riniker, B., and Rittel, W., 1968, Mensliches calcitonin III. Die synthesis von calcitonin M, Hely. Chim. Acta, 51: 2057–2061.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. Self, C.H., Wimalawansa, S.J., Johannsson, A., Bates, D., Girgis, S.I., and Maclntyre, I., 1985, A new sensitive and fast peptide immunoassay based on enzyme amplification: used in the determination of CGRP and the demonstration of its presence in the thyroid, Peptides, 6: 627–630.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. Seth, R., Kehely, A., Wimalawansa, S.J., Self, C.H., Motté, P., Bonnay, M., Bellet, D., and Maclntyre, I., 1987, The development of a two-site enzyme-immunometric assay for calcitonin and its application in the measurement of the hormone in normal subjects, MTC patients and post-menopausal women, in: “Proc. Mtg. on Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia, type 2, Heidelberg, West Germany”.Google Scholar
  219. Seth, R., Motté, P., Kehely, A., Wimalawansa, S.J., Self, C., Bellet, D., Bohuon, C., and Maclntyre, I., 1988, A sensitive and specific enzyme-immunometric assay for human calcitonin using monoclonal antibodies. J. Endocrinol., 119: 351–357.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. Silva, O.L., Becker, K.L., Primack, A., Doppman, J., and Snider, R.H., 1973, Ectopic production of calcitonin, Lancet, ii:317–319.Google Scholar
  221. Silverberg, S.J., Shane, E., de la Cruz, L., Segre, G.V., Clemens, T.L., and Bilezikian, J.P., 1989, Abnormalities in parathyroid hormone secretion and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 formation in women with osteoporosis, New Engl. J. Med., 320: 277–281.Google Scholar
  222. Singer, F.R., Alfred, J.P., Neer, R.M., Krane, S.M., Potts, J.T. Jr., and Bloch, K.J., 1972, An evaluation of antibodies and clinical resistance to salmon calcitonin, J. Clin. Invest., 51: 2331–2336.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  223. Singer, F.R., Fredericks, R.S., and Minkin, C., 1980, Salmon calcitonin therapy for Paget’s disease of bone: the problem of acquired clinical resistance, Arth. Rheum., 23: 1148–1154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. Singer, F.R., Woodhouse, N.J.Y., Parkinson, D.K., and Joplin, G.F., 1969, Some acute effects of administered porcine calcitonin in man, Clin. Sci., 37: 181–190.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  225. Singer, F.R., and Habener, J.F., 1974, Multiple immunoreactive forms of calcitonin in human plasma, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun., 61: 710–716.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  226. Sipple, J.H., 1961, The association of phaeochromocytoma with carcinoma of the thyroid gland, Am. J. Med., 31: 163–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  227. Sizemore, G.W., and Heath, H. III., 1975, Immunochemical heterogeneity of calcitonin in plasma of patients with medullary thyroid carcinoma, J. Clin. Invest, 55: 1111–1118.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  228. Snider, R.H., Silva, O.L., Moore, C.F., and Becker, K.L., 1977, Immunochemical heterogeneity of calcitonin in man: effect on radioimmunoassay, Clin. Chim. Acta, 76: 1–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  229. Steiner, A.L., Goodman, A.D., and Powers, S.R., 1968, Study of a kindred with phaeochromocytoma, medullary thyroid carcinoma, hyperparathyroidism and Cushing’s disease: multiple endocrine neoplasia type II, Medicine, 47: 371–409.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  230. Stevenson, JC., Hillyard, C.J., Maclntyre, I., Cooper, H., and Whitehead, M.I., 1979, A physiological role for calcitonin: protection of the maternal skeleton, Lancet, 2: 769–770.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  231. Stevenson J.C., Abeyasekera, G., Hillyard, C.J., Phang, K.G., Maclntyre, I., Campbell, S., Townsend, P.T., Young, O., and Whitehead, M.I., 1981, Calcitonin and the calcium-regulating hormones in post menopausal women: effect of oestrogens, Lancet, i:693–695.Google Scholar
  232. Stevenson, J.C., and Evans, I.M.A., 1981, Pharmacology and therapeutic use of calcitonin, Drugs, 21: 257–262.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  233. Stevenson, J.C., White, M.C., Joplin, G.F., and Maclntyre, I., 1982, Osteoporosis and calcitonin deficiency, Br. Med. J., 285: 1010–1011.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  234. Stevenson, J.C., Adrian, T.E., Christofides, N.D., and Bloom, S.R., 1985, Effect of calcitonin on gastro-intestinal regulatory peptides in man, Clin. Endocrinol., 22: 655–660.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  235. Taggart, H.McAS., Chesnut, C.H. III., Ivey, J.L., Baylink, D.J., Sisom, K., Huber, M.B., and Roos, B.A., 1982, Deficient calcitonin response to calcium stimulation in postmenopausal osteoporosis?, Lancet, i:475–478.Google Scholar
  236. Talmage, R.V.,Grubb, S.A., Norimatsu, H., and Vanderwiel, C.J., 1980, Evidence for an important physiological role for calcitonin, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA., 77: 609–613.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  237. Tashjian, A.H. Jr., Wright, D.R., Ivey, J.L., and Pont, A., 1978, Calcitonin binding sites in bone: relationships to biological response adn ‘escape’, Recent Progr. Horm. Res., 34: 285–334.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  238. Tashjian, A.H., Jr., Howland, B.G., Melvin, K.E.W., and Hill, C.S. Jr., 1970, Immunoassay of human calcitonin: clinical measurement, relation to serum calcium and studies in patients with medullary thyroid carcinoma, New Engl. J. Med., 283: 890–895.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  239. Tauber, S.D., 1967, The ultimobranchial oreigin of calcitonin, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA., 58: 1684–1687.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  240. Telenius-Berg, M., Almquist, S., Hedner, P., Ingemansson, S., Tibblin, S., and Wasthed, B., 1975, Screening for medullary carcinoma of the thyroid, Lancet, i:390.Google Scholar
  241. Tschopp, F.A., Henke, H., Petermann, J.B., Tobler, P.H., Janzer, R., Hokfelt, T., Lundberg, J.M., Cuello, C., and Fischer, J.A., 1985, Calcitonin gene-related peptide and its binding sites in the human central nervous system and pituitary, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA., 82: 248–252.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  242. Van der Donk, J.A., Van Dam, R.H., Goudswaard, J., Hackeng, W.H.L., and Lips, C.J.M., 1976, Precursor molecule for calcitonin, Lancet, ii: 1133.Google Scholar
  243. Wallach, S., Cohn, S.H., Atkins, H.L., Ellis, K.J., Kohberger, R., Aloia, J.F., and Zanzi, I., 1977, Effect of salmon calcitonin on skeletal mass in osteoporosis, Curr. Ther. Res., 22: 556–572.Google Scholar
  244. Warshawsky, F., Goltzman, D., Rouleau, M.F., and Bergeron, J.M., 1980, Direct in vivo demonstration by radioautography of specific binding sites for calcitonin in skeletal and renal tissues of rat, J. Cell Biol., 88: 682–694.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  245. Westermark, P., Wernstedt, C., Wilander, E., and Sletten, K., 1986, A novel peptide in the calcitonin gene-related peptide family as an amyloid fibril protein in the endocrine pancreas, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun., 140: 826–831.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  246. Whyte, M.P., Bergeld, M.A., and Murphy, W.A., 1982, Postmenopausal osteoporosis. A heterogeneous disorder as assessed by histomorphometric analysis of iliac crest bone from untreated patients, Am. J. Med., 72 193–202.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  247. Williams, E.D., 1965, A review of 17 cases of carcinoma of the thyroid and phaeochromocytoma, J. Clin. Path., 18: 288–292.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  248. Williams, E.D., Brown, C.L., and Donach, I., 1966, Pathological and clinical findings in a series of 67 cases of medullary carcinoma of the thyroid, J. Clin. Path., 19: 103–113.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  249. Wimalawansa, S.J., 1988, Osteoporosis: a preventable disease, Bone, 5: 4.Google Scholar
  250. Wimalawansa, S.J., 1989a, Immunochemical heterogeneity, and the effect of a meal and pentagastrin stimulation on different molecular weight forms of calcitonin gene-related peptide and calcitonin in man, Submitted to Journal of Endocrinology.Google Scholar
  251. Wimalawansa, S.J., 1989b, Sensitive and specific radio-receptor assay for calcitonin gene-related peptide, J. Neuroendocrinol., 1: 15–19.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  252. Wimalawansa, S.J., and Maclntyre, I. 1987, Demonstration of calcitonin gene-related peptide in the human cerebrospinal fluid, Brain, 110: 1647–1655.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  253. Wimalawansa, S.J. and Maclntyre, I., 1988a, Can we determine the lowest dose of oestradiol still active on bone?, in: “Recent Research on Gynecological Endocrinology, vol. 2”, A.R. Genazzani, F. Petraglia, and A. Volpe, eds., Parthenon Publishing Group, U.K., pp.314–316.Google Scholar
  254. Wimalawansa, S.J., and Maclntyre, I., 1988b, Calcitonin gene-related peptide and its specific binding sites in the cardiovascular system of the rat, Int. J. Cardiol., 20: 29–37.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  255. Wimalawansa, S.J., and Maclntyre, I., 1988c, Heterogeneity of plasma calcitonin gene-related peptide: partial characterisation of immunoreactive forms, Peptides, in press.Google Scholar
  256. Wimalawansa, S.J., and Maclntyre, I., 1989a, The value of CGRP radioreceptor assay for the detection of medullary thyroid carcinoma, CRC Medullary Thyroid Group Newsletter, MEN, type 2, in press.Google Scholar
  257. Wimalawansa, S.J., and Maclntyre, I., 1989b, Calcitonin, in: “Therapeutic Drugs: A Clinical Pharmacopia”, C.T. Dollery, ed., Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh, in press.Google Scholar
  258. Wimalawansa, S.J., and Maclntyre, I., 1989c, Application of a novel radio-receptor assay for CGRP, ASBMR/ICCRA First Joint Meeting, Quebec, Canada, ( Abstr.).Google Scholar
  259. Wimalawansa, S.J., Emson, P.C., and Maclntyre, I., 1987a, Regional distribution of calcitonin gene-relatedpeptide and its specific binding sites in the rat, with particular reference to the nervous system, Neuroendocrinology, 46: 131–136.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  260. Wimalawansa, S.J., Kehely, A., Banks, L.M., Stevenson, J.C., Endacott, J., Whitehead, M.I., and Maclntyre, I., 1987b, The effects of percutaneous oestradiol and low dose human calcitonin on postmenopausal vertebral bone loss, in: “Osteoporosis 1987”, C. Christiansen, J.S. Johansen, and B.J. Riffs, eds., Norhaven A/S, Viborg, pp.528–532.Google Scholar
  261. Wimalawansa, S.J., Stevenson J.C., Kehely, A., Banks, L.M., and Maclntyre, I., 1988, The minimal doses of calcitonin and 17 -oestradiol necessary for maintenance of skeleton in postmenopausal women, in: “Recent Research on Gynecological Endocrinology, vol. 2”, A.R. Genazzani, F. Petraglia, and A. Volpe, eds., Parthenon Publishing Group, U.K., pp. 239–244.Google Scholar
  262. Wimalawansa, S.J., Morris, H.R., Panico, M., Etiner, A., Blench, I., and Maclntyre, 1989a, Isolation, purification and characterisation of -hCGRP from human spinal cord, submitted to J. Biol. Chem.Google Scholar
  263. Wimalawansa, S.J., Morris, H.R., and Maclntyre, I., 1989b, Both - and -calcitonin gene-related peptides are present in plasma cerebrospinal fluid and spinal cord in man, submitted to J. Mol. Endocrinol.Google Scholar
  264. Wimalawansa, S.J., Seth, R., and Maclntyre, I., 1987c, Novel non-radioisotopic assay for calcitonin, for diagnosis and management of medullary thyroid carcinoma, CRC Medullary Thyroid Group, CRC, London.Google Scholar
  265. Wohlwend, A., Malmstrom, K., Henke, H., Murer, H., Vassali, J.D., and Fischer, J.A., 1985, Calcitonin and calcitonin gene-related peptide interact with the same receptor in cultured LLC-PK1 kidney cells, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun., 131: 537–542.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  266. Wong, G.L., and Cohn, D.V., 1975, Target cells in bone for parathormone and calcitonin are different: enrichment for each cell type by sequential digestion of mouse calvaria and selective adhesion to polymeric surfaces, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA., 72: 3167–3171.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  267. Woodhouse, N.J.Y., Bordier, P., Fisher, M., Joplin, G.F., Reiner, M., Kalu, D.N., Foster, G.V., and Maclntyre, I., 1971, Human calcitonin in the treatment of Paget’s bone disease, Lancet, i:1139–1143.Google Scholar
  268. Woodhouse, N.J.Y., Joplin, G.F., Maclntyre, I., and Doyle, F.H., 1972, Radiological regression in Paget’s disease treated by human calcitonin, Lancet, ii:992–994.Google Scholar
  269. Woodhouse, N.J.Y., Reinter, M., Kalu, D.N., Galante, L., Leese, B., Foster, G.V., Joplin, G.F., and Maclntyre, I., 1970, Some effects of acute and chronic calcitonin M administration in man, in: “Calcitonin 1969, Proceedings of the Second International Symposium”, S. Taylor, ed., Heinemann, London, pp.504–513.Google Scholar
  270. Zaidi, M., Bevis, P.J.R., Abeyasekera, G., Girgis, S.I., Wimalawansa, S.J., Morris, H.R., and Maclntyre, I., 1986, The origin of circulating calcitonin gene-related peptide in the rat. J. Endocrinol., 110: 185.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  271. Zaidi, M., Breimer, L.H., and Maclntyre, I., 1987a, The biology of the peptides from the calcitonin genes, Quart. J. Exp. Physiol., 72: 371–408.Google Scholar
  272. Zaidi, M., Fuller, K., Bevis, P.J.R., Gaines Das, R.E., Chambers, T.J., and Maclntyre, I., 1987b, Calcitonin gene-related peptide inhibits osteoclastic bone resorption: a comparative study, Calcif. Tissue Int., 40: 149–154.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  273. Zanelli, J.M., Salmon, D.M., Azria, M., and Zanelli, G.D., 1985, A rat model for clinical resistance to chronic treatment with salmon calcitonin; application of quantitative cytochemistry, in: “Calcitonin 1984. Chemistry, Physiology, Pharmacology and Clinical Aspects”, A. Pecile, ed., Excerpta Medica, Amsterdam, pp.223–230.Google Scholar
  274. Ziegler, R., Holz, G., Raue, H., Minne, H., and Delling, G., 1976, Therapeutic studies with human calcitonin, in: “Human Calcitonin and Paget’s Disease, Proceedings of the International Workshop, London”, I. Maclntyre, ed., Huber, Vienna, p. 167.Google Scholar
  275. Ziegler, R., and Raue, F., 1984, Variations in plasma calcitonin levels measured by radioimmunoassay systems for human calcitonin, Biomed. Pharmacother., 38: 245–256.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sunil J. Wimalawansa
    • 1
  1. 1.Endocrine Unit, Dept. Chemical PathologyRoyal Postgraduate Medical SchoolLondonUK

Personalised recommendations