Validation of a Three-Dimensional Mathematical Model of the Crash Victim
A forty-degree-of-freedom, three-dimensional mathematical model of the crash victim, either vehicle occupant or pedestrian, has been validated by comparing predictions of the model with the results of a variety of experiments. These experiments included static bench tests and pendulum drop tests for checking the adequacy of the air bag submodel, but the validation effort centered on experiments with anthropometric dummies in impact sled tests and a full-scale automobile crash test. For this study, inputs to the digital computer program were based on detailed measurements of the dummy characteristics, as well as measured properties of the contact surfaces and restraints. A typical set of results of the dummy measurements is presented. These measurements include segment weights, segment moments of inertia obtained with a torsional pendulum, contact surface and link dimensions, joint torque characteristics obtained from static torque measurements, and material properties of the contact surfaces obtained from static load-deflection measurements. The mathematical model and digital computer program, previously reported in the literature, are briefly summarized. Predictions of the computer simulation using the measured inputs are compared with experimental results. These experiments consisted of an automobile crash test and a number of impact sled tests, including some with air bag restraint systems. The generally good agreement between the predictions and the experimental results is discussed, as well as probable sources of some differences noted in the comparisons. It is concluded that the generality and detail incorporated in the developed computer model, coupled with the demonstrated good prediction accuracy and relatively low computation cost, make it a valuable engineering tool for application in continuing research efforts to enhance the safety of the crash victim.
KeywordsAngular Deflection Link Dimension Sled Test Lower Torso Develop Computer Model
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