Symmetry-Breaking in Biological Cells

  • J. A. Tuszyński

Abstract

The concept of symmetry breaking has played a prominent role in the understanding of novel phenomena in physics, chemistry, and recently, biology. Since a spontaneously broken symmetry is associated with a degenerate ground state which is not invariant under the full transformation group of the Hamiltonian, it has been described as a growth of complexity out of simplicity1. As demonstrated by Landau2 any change in the symmetry of the system (i.e. its ground state) must be sudden and is manifested by the emergence of a non-zero order parameter in the unsymmetric phase. This ordered phase is maintained by gapless energy bosons called Goldstone modes which are instrumental in propagating the order over long ranges3. Depending on the system these collective excitations take the form of magnons, phonons, excitons, polarons, etc. They can take the system from one vacuum state to another. The long-range order introduces new length scales which in systems with complex order parameters, e.g. lasers, super-fluids, superconductors, may manifest itself in phase coherence. The collective, mean-field behavior results in stability sometimes referred to as generalized rigidity1. However, certain deviations from spatial uniformity are present, as exemplified by collective excitations themselves and by critical fluctuations which may accompany them. Moreover, Goldstone bosons may condense creating topological singularities (defect structures) possibly solitonic in character.

Keywords

Coherent State Break Symmetry Heat Bath Collective Excitation Energy Pump 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. A. Tuszyński
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PhysicsMemorial University of NewfoundlandSt. John’sCanada

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