Identification of Gamma-Interferon as a Murine Macrophage-Activating Factor for Tumor Cytotoxicity

  • Robert D. Schreiber
Part of the Contemporary Topics in Immunobiology book series (CTI, volume 13)


Over the past decade, work from a number of laboratories has indicated that, under the proper conditions, the macrophage can express nonspecific effector cell function toward a variety of neoplastic cells (reviewed in Den Otter, 1981; Fidler and Raz, 1981; Keller, 1981; Lohmann-Matthes et al., 1981; Meltzer, 1981b; Piessens et al., 1981). While this type of macrophage tumoricidal activity does not require antibody or antibodylike specificity, it is nevertheless able to discriminate between normal cells and tumor cells (Hibbs, 1974; Piessens et al., 1975; Fidler et al.,1976). The currently accepted concept is that two signals are required to activate macrophages for tumor cell killing (Russell et al., 1977; Ruco and Meltzer, 1978a,b; Weinberg et al., 1978; Weinberg and Hibbs, 1979; Meltzer, 1981a,b; Pace and Russell, 1981). The first signal is a lymphokine that primes the macrophage and makes it receptive to a diverse group of substances that can act as second signals to trigger the development of full cytocidal activity. The lymphokine, denoted macrophage-activating factor (MAF), has been reported to alter a number of functional and biochemical properties in macrophage populations (reviewed in David and Remold, 1979; Rocklin et al., 1980). These alterations include increases in endocytic, biosynthetic, secretory, and effector cell functions as well as changes in membrane physiology and composition. However, since it is unclear whether all these alterations are effected by the same molecular species, it has become critical to define MAF in the context of the activity it induces. This chapter defines MAF exclusively as the factor that primes macrophages for nonspecific tumoricidal activity.


Antiviral Activity Migration Inhibition Factor Tumoricidal Activity Splenic Cell Tumor Cytotoxicity 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert D. Schreiber
    • 1
  1. 1.Research Institute of Scripps ClinicScripps ClinicLa JollaUSA

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