Models of Adoptive T-Cell-Mediated Regression of Established Tumors
Most of the chapters in this volume deal with the physiology and protective functions of macrophages as revealed by in vitro assays. Evidence that activated macrophages can express tumoristatic or tumoricidal function in vitro has been accumulating for 15 years or so and has resulted in the suggestion (Adams and Snyderman, 1979) that macrophages play a role in protecting against neoplastic colonization. It might be inferred, on the basis of in vitro evidence, moreover, that macrophages have the potential to destroy an established growing tumor, provided ways could be found to cause these cells to acquire tumoricidal function in the tumor bed. There is evidence (Evans, 1972; Russel and McIntosh, 1977) that progressive tumors can contain surprisingly large numbers of macrophages. It also has been shown (Russel and McIntosh, 1977) that Moloney sarcomas undergoing spontaneous regression in syngeneic mice contain macrophages that, on isolation, can lyse tumor cells in vitro. However, because of the reductionistic nature of the evidence obtained, no number of results obtained with in vitro assays can permit the conclusion that macrophages destroy tumors in vivo. The same criticism can be leveled against evidence showing that tumor-sensitized cytolytic T cells and natural killer (NK) cells lyse tumor cells in vitro. Sooner or later experiments will have to be designed to determine whether any one of these types of host cells, in the absence of the others, can express tumoricidal function in vivo and destroy an established tumor. The best models to employ in an attempt to identify the ultimate effectors of tumor regression would be models of immunologically mediated regression of established tumors.
KeywordsSpleen Cell Tumor Regression Adoptive Immunotherapy Established Tumor Passive Transfer
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