Evolutionary Biology of Aging and Longevity in Mammalian Species

  • Richard G. Cutler


The biomedical sciences have been remarkably successful in dealing with exogenously originating pathologies such as infectious diseases. This success, however, has uncovered a more formidable opponent of health and general well being, the intrinsically originating pathologies. These are the disabling or degenerative diseases, which are generally described as being caused by or related to the aging processes. The vast number of human diseases which have an intrinsic origin is just becoming appreciated, and the studies of these dysfunctions and the methods to be developed for their treatment are predicted to occupy the future efforts of much of the biomedical sciences (Ludwig, 1980).


Aging Rate Primate Species Guanylate Cyclase Active Oxygen Species Deer Mouse 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Abbie, A. A., 1958, Timing in human evolution, Proc. Linn. Soc. New South Wales 83: 197.Google Scholar
  2. Acsâdi, G., and Nemeskéri, J., 1970, History of Human Lifespan and Mortality, Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest.Google Scholar
  3. Adachi, L., 1973, The metabolism and control mechanism of human hair follicles, Curr. Probl. Dermatol. 5: 37.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Albritten, E. C., ed., 1952, Standard Values in Blood, Fed. Am. Soc. Exp. Biol., Bethesda, Maryland.Google Scholar
  5. Altman, P., and Dittmer, D., eds., 1961, Blood and Other Body Fluids, Fed. Am. Soc. Exp. Biol., Bethesda, Maryland.Google Scholar
  6. Altman, P., and Dittmer, D., eds., 1962, Biological Handbook. Growth, Fed. Am. Soc. Exp. Biol., Bethesda, Maryland.Google Scholar
  7. Altman, P., and Dittmer, D., eds., 1972, Biology Data Book, Fed. Am. Soc. Exp. Biol., Bethesda, Maryland.Google Scholar
  8. Altman, P., and Dittmer, D., eds., 1974, Biology Data Book, 2nd Ed., Fed. Am. Soc. Exp. Biol., Bethesda, Maryland.Google Scholar
  9. Ames, B. N., Cathcart, R., Schwiers, E., and Hochstein, P., 1981, Uric acid: An antioxidant defense in humans against oxidant-and radical-caused aging and cancer. A hypothesis, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 78: 6858.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Aries, I. M., and Jakoby, W. B., eds., 1976, Glutathione, Metabolism and Function, Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
  11. Arnold, W. P., Aldred, R., and Murad, F., 1977, Cigarette smoke activates guanylate cyclase and increased guanosine 3’,5’-monophosphate in tissues, Science 198: 934.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Ausman, L. M., and Hayes, K. C., 1974, Vitamin E deficiency anemia in Old and New World monkeys, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 27: 1141.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Baars. A. J., Mukhtar, H., Zoetemelk, C. E. M., Jansen, M., and Breimer, D. D., 1981, Glutathione S-transferase activity in rat and human tissues and organs, Comp. Biochem. Physiol. Part C 70: 285.Google Scholar
  14. Baba, A., Lee, E., Ohta, A., Tatsuno, T., and Iwata, H., 1981, Activation of adenylated cyclase of rat brain by lipid peroxidation, J. Biol. Chem. 256: 3679.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Banroques, J., Gregori, C., and Schapira, F., 1980, Aging of aldolase and pyruvate kinase in eye lens, in: Ageing of the Lens ( F. Regnault, F., O. Hockwin, and Y. Courtois, eds.), pp. 63–69, Elsevier—North Holland, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  16. Barber, A. A., and Bernheim, F., 1967, Lipid peroxidation: Its measurement, occurrence and significance in animal tissues, Adv. Gerontol. Res. 2: 355–403.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Barrett, J. C., Wong, A. and McLachlan, J. A., 1981, Diethylstilbestrol induces neoplastic transformation without measurable gene mutation at two loci, Science 212: 1402.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bauchot, R., and Stephan, H., 1969, Encephalisation et niveau evolutif chez les simiens, Mammalia 33: 225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Beatty, C. H., Bocek, R. M., Herrington, P. T., Lamy, C., and Hoskins, M. K., 1982, Aged rhesus skeletal muscle: Histochemistry and lipofuscin content, Age 5: 1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. de Beer, G., 1958, Embryos and Ancestors, Oxford Univ. Press, London.Google Scholar
  21. Bennett, J. S., Bond, J., Singer, I., and Gottlieb, A. J., 1972, Hypouricemia in Hodgkin’s disease, Ann. Int. Med. 76: 751.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Berdyshev, G. D., and Protsenko, N. A., 1972, Current theories of the mechanism of the post-spawning death of Pacific salmon, Hydrobiological J. 8: 85.Google Scholar
  23. Bernirschke, K., Garner, F. M., and Jones, T. C., eds., 1978, Pathology of Laboratory Animals, Springer-Verlag, Basel.Google Scholar
  24. Bieri, J. G., and Anderson, A. A., 1960, Peroxidation of lipids in tissue homogenates as related to vitamin E, Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 90: 105–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Bilder, G. E., and Denckla, W. D., 1977, Restoration of ability to reject xenografts and clear carbon after hypophysectomy of adult rats, Mech. Ageing Dey. 6: 153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Blackett, A. D., and Hall, D. A., 1981, The effects of vitamin E on mouse fitness and survival, Gerontology 27: 133.Google Scholar
  27. Blair, W., 1951, “Population Structure, Social Behavior and Environmental Relations in a Natural Population of the Beach Mouse,” Contribution from the Laboratory of Vertebrate Biology, No. 48, Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan.Google Scholar
  28. Bolk, L., 1926, La recapitulation ontogenique comme phenomene hormonique, Arch. Anat. Histol. Embryol. 5: 87.Google Scholar
  29. Borek, C., and Troll, W., 1983, Modifiers of free radicals inhibit in vitro the oncogenic actions of x-rays, bleomycin, and the tumor promoter 12–0-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 80: 1304.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Botkin, D., and Miller, R., 1974, Mortality rates and survival of birds, Am. Naturalist 108: 181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Bourgain, R. H., Deby, C., Deby-Dupont, G., and Andries, R., 1982, Enhancement of arterial thromboformation by uric acid, Biochem. Pharmacol. 31: 3011.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Bowden, D., and Jones, M. L., 1979, Aging research in nonhuman primates, in: Aging in Nonhuman Primates ( D. M. Bowden, ed.), pp. 1–13, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York.Google Scholar
  33. Boyd, M. R., Catignani, G. L., Sasame, H. A., Mitchell, J. R., and Stiko, A. W., 1979, Acute pulmonary injury in rats by nitrofuratoin and modification by vitamin E, dietary rat and oxygen, Am. Rev. Resp. Dis. 120: 93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Brandwein, H. J., Lewicki, J. A., and Murad, F., 1981, Reversible inactivation of guanylate cyclase by mixed disulfide formation, J. Biol. Chem. 256: 2958.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Braun, A. C., 1981, An epigenetic model for the origin of cancer Q. Rev. Biol. 56: 33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Brot, N., Weissbach, L., Werth, J., and Weissbach, H., 1981, Enzymatic reduction of protein-bound methionine sulfoxide, Proc. Natl. Acad. Acad. Sci. USA 78: 2155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Bush, G. L., Case, S. M., Wilson, A. C., and Patton, J. L., 1977, Rapid speciation and chromosomal evolution in mammals, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 74: 3942.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Butler, J. A., Whanger, P. D., and Tripp, M. J., 1982, Blood selenium and glutathione peroxidase activity in pregnant women: Comparative assays in primates and other animals, Am. J. Con. Nutr. 36: 15.Google Scholar
  39. Cairns, J., 1979, Differentiation and cancer, Differentiation 13: 67.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Cameron, I. L., and Thrasher, J. D., eds., 1971, Cellular and Molecular Renewal in the Mammalian Body, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  41. Catignani G. L., and Dinning, J. S., 1971, Role of vitamin E in the regulation of rabbit liver xanthine dehydrogenase activity, J. Nutr. 101: 1327.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Caughley, G., 1966, Mortality patterns in mammals, Ecology 47: 906.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Chatterjee, I. B., 1978, Ascorbic acid metabolism, World Rev. Nutr. Diet. 30: 69.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Chatterjee, I. B., Majumder, A. K., Nandi, B. K., and Subramanian, N., 1975, Synthesis and some major functions of vitamin C in animals, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 258: 24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Chance, B., Sies, H., and Boveris, A., 1979, Hydroperoxide metabolism in mammalian organisms, Physiol. Res. 59: 527.Google Scholar
  46. Chen, L. H., Liao, S., Packett, L. V., 1972, Interaction of dietary vitamin E and protein level on lipid source with serum cholesterol level in rats, J. Nutr. 102: 729.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Chen, L. H., Thacker, R. R., and Chow, C. K., 1980, Tissue antioxidant status and related enzymes in rats with long-term vitamin A deficiency, Nutr. Rept. Intern. 22: 873.Google Scholar
  48. Cherry, L. M., Case, S. M. Kunkel, J. G., and Wilson, A. C., 1979, Biochemical evolution, Ann. Rev. Biochem. 46: 573.Google Scholar
  49. Chow, C. K., 1977, Dietary vitamin E and levels of reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, catalase and superoxide dismutase in rat blood, Int. J. Vit. Nutr. Res. 47: 268.Google Scholar
  50. Chow, C. K., 1978, Effect of dietary selenium and vitamin E on the antioxidant defense system of rat erythrocytes, Int. J. Vit. Nutr. Res. 49: 182.Google Scholar
  51. Chow, C. K., Reddy, K., and Tappel, Al L., 1973, Effect of dietary vitamin E on the activities of the glutathione peroxidase system in rat tissues, J. Nutr. 103: 618.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Ciriolo, M. R., Mavelli, I., Rotilio, G., Borzatta, V., Cristofari, M., and Stanzani, L., 1982, Decrease of superoxide dismutase and glutatione peroxidase in liver of rats treated with hypolipidemic drugs, FEBS Lett. 144: 264.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Combs, G. F., 1981, Influences of dietary vitamin E and selenium on the oxidant defense system of the chick, Poultry Sci. 60: 2098.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Comfort, A., 1978, The Biology of Senescence, Elsevier, New York.Google Scholar
  55. Cone, C. D., 1971, Unified theory on the basic mechanism of normal mitotic control and oncogenesis, J. Theor. Biol. 30: 151.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Cone, C. D., 1974, The role of surface electrical transmembrane potential in normal and malignant mitogenesis, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 238: 420.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Cone, C. D., 1980, Ionically mediated induction of mitogenesis in CNS neurons, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 339: 115.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Cone, C. D., and Cone, C. M., 1978, Evidence of normal mitosis with complete cytokinesis in central nervous system neurons during sustained depolarization with ouabain, Exp. Neurol. 60: 41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Coyle, J. T., Price, D. L., and DeLong, M. R., 1983, Alzheimer’s disease: A disorder of cortical cholinergic innervation, Science 219: 1184.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Criss, W. E., 1971, A review of isozymes in cancer, Cancer Res. 31: 1523.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Crouch, R. K., Gandy, S. E., Kimsey, G., Galbraith, R. A., Galbraith, G. M. P., and Buse, M. G., 1981, The inhibition of islet superoxide dismutase by diabetologenic drugs, Diabetes 30: 235.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Crowley, C., and Curtis, H. J., 1963, The development of somatic mutations in mice with age, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 49: 626.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Curtis, H. J., 1966, Biological Mechanisms of Aging, C. C. Thomas, Springfield, Illinois. Curtis, H. J., 1971, Genetic factors in aging, Adv. Genetics 16: 305.Google Scholar
  64. Curtis, H. J., and Miller, K., 1971, Chromosome aberrations in liver cells of guinea pigs, J. Gerontol. 26: 292.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Curtis, H. J., Leigh, J., and Tilley, J., 1966, Chromosome aberrations in liver cells of dogs of different ages, J. Gerontol. 21: 268.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Cutler, G. B., Glenn, M., Bush, M., Hodgen, G. D., Graham, C. E., and Loriaux, D. L, 1978, Adrenarche: A survey of rodents, domestic animals, and primates, Endocrinology 103: 2112.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Cutler, R. G., 1972, Transcription of reiterated DNA sequence classes throughout the lifespan of the mouse, Adv. Geront. Res. 4: 219–312.Google Scholar
  68. Cutler, R. G., 1973, Redundancy of information content in the genome of mammalian species as a protective mechanism determining aging rate, Mech. Ageing Dev. 2: 381.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Cutler, R. G., 1975, Evolution of human longevity and the genetic complexity governing aging rate, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 72: 4664.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Cutler, R. G., 1976a, Evolution of longevity in primates, J. Human Evol. 5: 169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Cutler, R. G., 1976b, Nature of aging and life maintenance processes, in: Interdiscplinary Topics in Gerontology, Vol. 9 ( R. G. Cutler, ed.), pp. 83–133, Karger, Basel.Google Scholar
  72. Cutler, R. G., 1976c, Cross-linkage hypothesis of aging: DNA adducts in chromatin as a primary aging process, in: Aging, Carcinogenesis, and Radiation Biology ( K. C. Smith, ed.), pp. 443–492, Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  73. Cutler, R. G., 1978, Evolutionary biology of senescence, in: The Biology of Aging ( J. A. BehnkeGoogle Scholar
  74. C. E. Finch, and G. B. Moment, eds.), pp. 311–360, Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  75. Cutler, R. G., 1979, Evolution of longevity in ungulates and carnivores, Gerontology 25: 69.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Cutler, R. G., 1980a, Evolution of human longevity, in: Advances in Pathobiology 7. Aging, Cancer and Cell Membranes ( C. Borek, C. M. Feneglio, and D. W. King, eds.), pp. 43–79, Thieme-Stratton, Inc., New York.Google Scholar
  77. Cutler, R. G., 1980b, Stabilization of the differentiated state of cells: Possible role of the major histocompatibility complex loci, Gerontologist 20: 88.Google Scholar
  78. Cutler, R. G., 1981a, Life span extension, in: Aging: Biology and Behavior (J. L. McGaugh and S. B. Kiesler, eds.), pp. 31–76, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  79. Cutler, R. G., 1981b, Thyroid hormone receptors in the brain of rat as a function of age and hypophysectomy, in: Brain Neurotransmitters and Receptors in Aging and Age-Related Disorders. Aging, Vol. 17 ( S. J. Enna, T. Samora, and B. Beerjeds, eds.), pp. 117–132, Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
  80. Cutler, R. G., 1981c, Lifespan determinant mechanisms: Identification and genetic regulation of cellular integrity maintenance processes, Abstr. XII Intern. Congr. Gerontol., Hamburg, Germany, p. 272.Google Scholar
  81. Cutler, R. G., 1982c, The dysdifferentiative hypothesis of mammalian aging and longevity, in The Aging Brain. Aging, Vol. 20 ( E. Giacobini, G. Giacobini, G. Filogamo, A. Vernadakis, eds.), pp. 1–18, Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
  82. Cutler, R. G., 1982b, Longevity is determined by specific genes: Testing the hypothesis, in: Testing the Theories of Aging ( R. Adelman and G. Roth, eds.), pp. 25–114, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida.Google Scholar
  83. Cutler, R. G., 1983, Superoxide dismutase, longevity and specific metabolic rate, Gerontology 29: 113.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Cutler, R. G., and Kalish, R. A., 1977, Prolongation of mental and physical health: Its possibility and advisability, Gerontologist 17: 141.Google Scholar
  85. Deby, C., Deby-Dupont, G., Noel, F.-X., and Lavergne, L., 1981, In vitro and in vivo arachidonic acid conversions into biologically active derivatives are enhanced by uric acid, Biochem. Pharm. 30: 2243.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Deevey, E. S., 1947, Life tables for natural populations of animals, Q. Rev. Biol. 22: 283.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Deevey, E. S., 1960, The human population, Sci. Am. 203: 195.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Demopoulos, H. B., Flamm, E. S., Pietronigro, D. D., and Seligman, M. L., 1980, The free radical pathology and the microcirculation in the major central nervous system disorders, Acta Physiol. Scand. Suppl. 492: 91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Denckla, W. D., 1975, A time to die, Life Sci. 16: 31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Denckla, W. D., 1978, Interactions between age and the neuroendocrine and immune systems, Fed. Proc. 37: 1263.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Denko, C. W., 1979, Protective role of ceruloplasmin in inflammation, Agents Actions 9: 333, 1979.Google Scholar
  92. De Peretti, E., and Forest, M. G., 1976, Unconjugated dehydroepiandrosterone plasma levels in normal subjects from birth to adolescence in human; the use of a sensitive radioimmunoassay, J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 43: 982.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. DeRubertis, F. R., and Craven, P., 1980, Cyclic nucleotides in carcinogenesis: Activation of guanylate cyclase-cyclic GMP system by chemical carcinogens, Adv. Cyclic Nucleotide Res. 12: 97–109.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Dilman, V. M., 1979, Hypothalamic mechanisms of ageing and of specific age pathology V. A model for the mechanism of human specific age and natural death, Exp. Gerontol. 14: 287.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Dinning, J. S., 1962, Nutritional requirements for blood cell formation in experimental animals, Physiol. Rev. 42: 169.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Dixon, M., and Webb, E. C., 1964, Enzymes, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  97. Doll, R., 1978, An epidemiological perspective of the biology of cancer, Cancer Res. 38: 3573.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Doll, R., 1980, The epidemiology of cancer, Cancer 45: 2475.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Doolittle, W. F., and Sapienza, C., 1980, Selfish genes, The phenotype paradigm and genome evolution, Nature 284: 601.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Dover, G., and Doolittle, R. F., 1980, Modes of genome evolution, Nature 288: 646.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Dover, G., Brown, S., Coen, E., Dallas, J., Strachan, T., and Trick, M., 1982, The dynamics of genome evolution and species differentiation, in: Genome Evolution ( G. A. Dover and R. B. Flavell, eds.), pp 343–372, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  102. Draper, H. H., 1980, Nutrient interrelationships, in: Vitamin E. A Comprehensive Treatise (L. J. Machlin, ed.), pp. 272–288, Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York.Google Scholar
  103. Dubraysky, N. B., Hunter, N., Mason, K., and Withers, H. R., 1978, Dibutryl cyclic adenosine monophophate: Effect on radiosensitivity of tumors and normal tissues in mice, Radiology 126: 799.Google Scholar
  104. Dunning, W. F., and Curtis, M. R., 1958, Effect of a high protein and high nucleic acid diet on occurrence of 2-acetylaminofluorene-induced cancer in rats, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 99: 88.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Dwosh, I. L., Roncari, D. A. K., Marliss, E., and Fox, I. H., 1977, Hypouricemia in disease: A study of different mechanisms, J. Lab. Clin. Med. 90: 153.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Earp, H. S., 1980, The role of insulin, glucagon, and cAMP in the regulation of hepatocyte guanylate cyclase activity, J. Biol. Chem. 255: 8979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Egg, D., Altmann, H., Gunther, R., Klein, W., and Kocsis, F., 1978, The influence of some prostaglandins on DNA synthesis and DNA excision repair in mouse spleen cells in vitro, Prostaglandins 15: 437.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Emerit, I., and Cerutti, P., 1981, Clastogenic activity from Bloom syndrome fibroblast cultures, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 78: 1868.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Emerit, I., and Cerutti, P. A., 1982, Tumor promoter phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate induces a clastogenic factor in human lymphocytes, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 79: 7509.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Emmett, B., and Hochachka, P. W., 1981, Scaling of oxidative and glycolytic enzymes in mammals, Resp. Physiol. 45: 273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Enstrom, J. E., and Pauling, L., 1982, Mortality among health-conscious elderly Californians, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 79: 6023.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Evans, G. W., and Wiederanders, R. E., 1967, Blood copper variation among species, Am. J. Physiol. 213: 1183.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Everitt, A. V., 1980, The neuroendocrine system and aging, Gerontology 26: 108.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Everitt, A. V., and Burgess, J. A., 1976, Hypothalamus, Pituitary and Aging, C. C. Thomas, Co., Springfield, Illinois.Google Scholar
  115. Everitt, A. V., Syedsman, N. J., and Jones, F., 1980, The effects of hypophysectomy and continous food restriction begun at ages 70 and 400 days, on collagen aging, proteinuria, incidence of pathology and longevity in the male rat, Mech. Ageing Dev. 12: 161.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Fahmy, M. J., and Fahmy, O. G., 1980a, Intervening DNA insertions and the alteration of gene expression by carcinogens, Cancer Res. 40: 3374.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Fahmy, M. J., and Fahmy, O. G., 1980b, Altered control of gene activity in the soma by carcinogens, Cancer Res. 40: 3374.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Fanelli, G. M., and Beyer, K. H., 1974, Uric acid in nonhuman primates with special reference to its renal transport, Ann. Rev. Pharmacol. 14: 355.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Farber, E., and Cameron, R., 1980, The sequential analysis of cancer development, Adv. Cancer Res. 31: 125.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Feldman, M. 0., 1976, Dendritic changes in aging rat brain: Pyrimidal cell dendrite length and ultrastructure, in: The Aging Brain and Senile Dementia ( K. Nandy and I. Sherwin, eds.), pp. 23–37, Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  121. Finch, C. E., 1972, Enzyme activities, gene function and ageing in mammals (review), Exp. Gerontol. 7: 53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Flavell, R., 1982, Sequence amplification, deletion and rearrangement: Major sources of variation during species divergence, in: Genome Evolution ( G. A. Dover and R. B. Flavell, eds.), pp. 301–323, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  123. Flohé, L., 1982, Glutathione peroxidase brought into focus, in: Free Radicals in Biology, Vol. V ( W. A. Pryor, ed.), pp. 223–254, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  124. Florine, D. L., Ono, T., Cutler, R. G., and Getz, M. J., 1980, Regulation of endogenous murine leukemia virus-related nuclear and cytoplasmic RNA complexity in C57BL/6J mice of increasing age, Cancer Res. 40: 519.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Flower, S. S., 1931, Contribution to our knowledge of the duration of life in vertebrate animals, Proc. Zool. Soc. 10: 145.Google Scholar
  126. Folkers, K., 1974, Relationships between coenzyme Q and vitamin E, Amer. J. Clin. Nutr. 27: 1026.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Foote, C. S., Chang, Y. C., and Denny, R. W., 1970, Chemistry of singlet oxygen X. carotenoid quenching parallels biological protection, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 92: 5216.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Forman, H. J., and Fisher, A. B., 1981, Antioxidant defenses, in: Oxygen and Living Processes ( D. L. Gilbert, ed.), pp. 235–255, Springer-Verlag, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Francis, A. A., Lee, W. H., and Regan, J. D., 1981, The relationship of DNA excision repair of ultraviolet-induced lesions to the maximum life span of mammals, Mech. Aging Dev. 16: 181.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Freeman, B. A., and Crapo, J. D., 1982, Biology of disease. Free radicals and tissue injury, Lab. Invest. 47: 412.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Frieden, E., 1980, Caeruloplasmin: A multi-functional metalloprotein of vertebrate plasma, in: Biological Roles of Copper, Ciba Found. Symp. 79, pp. 93–124. Excerpta Medica, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  132. Fucci, L., Oliver, C. N., Coon, M. J., and Stadtman, E. R., 1983, Inactivation of key metabolic enzymes by mixed-function oxidation reactions: Possible implication in protein turnover and ageing, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 80: 1521.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Fuentes, O. R., 1978, Enhancement of rat liver catalase activity dietary cholesterol, Life Sci. 23, 2039.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Fukuzawa, K., Chida, H., Tolumura, A., and Tsukatani, H., 1981, Antioxidant effect of atocopherol incorporation into lecithin liposomes on ascorbic acid-Fe2-induced lipid per-oxidation, Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 206: 173.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Gajdusek, D., 1972, Slow virus infection and activation of latent infections in aging, Adv. Gerontol. Res. 4: 201–218.Google Scholar
  136. Gardner, T. S., 1963, The possible roles of oral yeast ribonucleic acid (Y-RNA) in geriatrics and gerontology, Gerontologia 7: 109.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Garrett-Laster, M., Oaks, L., Russell, R. M., and Oaks, E., 1981, A lowering effect of a pharmacological dose of vitamin E on serum vitamin A in normal adults, Nutr. Res. 1: 559.Google Scholar
  138. Gemsa, D., Leser, H.-G., Seitz, M., Deimann, W., and Bärlin, E., 1982, Membrane perturbation and stimulation of arachidonic acid metabolism, Molec. Immunol. 19: 1287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Genii, G. C., Beretta, L., Bianchi, M., Agostoni, A., Gualandri, V., and Orsini, G. B., 1982, Erythrocyte superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, Scand. J. Haematol. 29: 135.Google Scholar
  140. Getz, M. J., and Florine, D. L., 1981, Age-related changes in the expression of endogenous mouse C-type RNA tumor virus genes, in: Biological Mechanisms in Aging (Schimke, R. T., ed.), pp. 226–244, National Inst. on Aging, NIH Pub. No. 81–2194.Google Scholar
  141. Gillespie, D., Donehower, L., and Strayer, D., 1982, Evolution of primate DNA organization, in: Genome Evolution ( G. A. Dover and R. B. Flavell, eds.), pp. 113–133, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  142. Goetzl, E. J., 1980, Vitamin E modulates the lipoxygenation of arachidonic acid in leukocytes, Nature 288: 183.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Goodrick, C. L., 1980, Effects of long-term voluntary wheel exercise on male and female Wistar rats. I. Longevity, body weight and metabolic rate, Gerontology 26: 22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Goodwin, J. S., Husby, G., and Williams, R. C., 1980, Prostaglandin E and cancer growth, Cancer Immunol. Immunother. 8: 3.Google Scholar
  145. Goodwin, T. W., 1954, Carotenoids. Their Comparative Biochemistry, Chem Pub. Co., New York.Google Scholar
  146. Goodwin, T. W., 1962, Carotenoids: Structure, distribution, and function, in: Comparative Biochemistry, Vol. IV ( M. Florkes and H. S. Mason, eds.), pp. 643–675, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  147. Gould, S. J., 1971, Geometric similarity in allometric growth; A contribution to the problem of scaling in the evolution of size, Am. Naturalist 105: 113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Gould, S. J., 1975, Allometry in primates, with emphasis on scaling and the evolution of the brain, Contrib. Primatol. 5: 244.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Gould, S. J., 1976a, Human babies as embryos, Natural History 85: 22.Google Scholar
  150. Gould, S. J., 1976b, The child as man’s real father, Natural History 84: 18.Google Scholar
  151. Gould, S. J., 1977, Ontogeny and Phylogeny, The Belknap Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts.Google Scholar
  152. Gaaff, G., Stephenson, J. H., Glass, D. B., Haddox, M. K., and Goldberg, N. D., 1978, Activation of soluble splenic cell guanylate cyclase by prostaglandin endoperoxides and fatty acid hydroperoxides, J. Biol. Chem. 253: 7676.Google Scholar
  153. Gross, S., 1979, Antioxidant relationship between selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase and tocopherol, Am. J. Ped. Hematol./Oncol. 1: 61.Google Scholar
  154. Gutteridge, J. M. C., Richmond, R., and Halliwell, B., 1980, Oxygen free-radicals and lipid peroxidation: inhibition by the protein ceruloplasmin, FEBS Lett. 112: 269–272.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Gutteridge, J. M. C., Rowley, D. A., and Halliwell, B., 1981, Superoxide-dependent formation of hydroxyl radicals in the presence of iron salts, Biochem. J. 199: 263.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. Haldane, J. B. S., 1932, The time of action of genes, and its bearing on some evolutionary problems, Am. Naturalist 66: 5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Haldane, J. B. S., 1947, Evolution: past and future, Atl. Monthly 179: 45.Google Scholar
  158. Hamilton, J. B., and Mestler, G. E., 1969, Mortality and survival: Comparison of eunuchs with intact men and women in a mentally retarded population, J. Gerontol. 24: 395.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Hamilton, W. D., 1966, The moulding of senescence by natural selection, J. Theor. Biol. 12: 12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Hane, S., Robertson, O. H., Wexler, B. C., and Krupp, M. A., 1966, Adrenocortical respond to stress and ACTH in Pacific salmon and steelhead trout at successive stages in the sexual cycle, Endocrinology 78: 791.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Harman, D., 1956, Aging: A theory based on free radical and radiation chemistry, J. Gerontol. 11: 298.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Harman, D., 1962, Role of free radicals in mutation, cancer, aging, and the maintenance of life, Radiat. Res. 16: 753.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Harman, D., 1969, Prolongation of life: Role of free radical reactions in aging, J. Am. Geriatr. Soc. 17: 721.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. Harman, D., 1981, The aging process, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 78: 7128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Harman, D., 1982, The free-radical theory of aging, in: Free Radicals in Biology (W. A. Pryor, ed.), pp. 255–275, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  166. Harris, H., 1979, Some thoughts about genetics, differentiation, and malignancy, Somatic Cell Genet. 5: 923.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Hart, R. W., and Setlow, R. B., 1974, Correlation between deoxyribonucleic acid excision repair and lifespan in a number of mammalian species Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 71: 2169.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Hartman, P. E., 1979, Metaplasias, Genetics 91: S45.Google Scholar
  169. Hartman, P. E., 1982, Nitrates and nitrites: Ingestion, pharmacodynamics and toxicology, in: Chemical Mutagens, Principles and Methods for Their Detection, Vol. 7, ( F. J. de Serres and A. Hollander, eds.), pp. 211–294, Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  170. Hayaishi, O., and Shimizu, T., 1982, Metabolic and functional significance of prostaglandins in lipid peroxide research, in: Lipid Peroxides in Biology and Medicine ( K. Yagi, ed.), pp. 41–53, Academic Press, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Hazelton, G. A., and Lang, C. A., 1980, Glutathione contents of tissues in the aging mouse, Biochem. J. 188: 25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. Hegner, D., 1980, Age-dependence of molecular and functional changes in biological membrane properties, Mech. Ageing Dey. 14: 101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Heron, D. S., Shinitzky, M., Hershkowitz, M., and Samuel,D., 1980, Lipid fluidity markedly modulates the binding of serotonin to mouse brain membranes, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 77: 7463.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Hill, D. L., and Grubbs, C. J., 1982, Retinoids as chemopreventive and anticancer agents in intact animals, Anticancer Res. 2: 111.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. Hill, K. E., and Burk, R. F., 1982, Effect of selenium deficiency and vitamin E deficiency on glutathione metabolism in isolated rat hepatocytes, J. Biol. Chem. 257: 10668.Google Scholar
  176. Hirsch, G. P., 1979, Spontaneous mutation balance reproductive selective advantage and genetically determine longevity, Mech. Ageing Dey. 9: 355.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Hochschild, R., 1971, Effect of membrane stabilizing drugs on mortality in Drosophila melanogaster, Exp. Geront. 6: 133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Hochschild, R., 1973, Effects of various drugs on longevity in female C57BL/6J mice, Gerontologia 19: 271.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Holley, R. W., 1980, Control of animal cell proliferation, J. Supramolec. Structure 13: 191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Holliday, M. A., Potter, D., Jarrah, A., and Bearg, S., 1967, The relation of metabolic rate to body weight and organ size, Ped. Res. 1: 185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. Hope, W. C., Dalton, C., Machlin, L. F., Filipski, R. J., and Vane, F. M., 1975, Influence of dietary vitamin E on prostaglandin biosynthesis rat blood, Prostaglandins 10: 557.Google Scholar
  182. Hornsby, P. J., 1980, Regulation of cytochrome P-450-supported 1lb-hydroxylation of deoxycortisol by steroid, oxygen, and antioxidants in adrenocortical cell cultures, J. Biol. Chem. 255: 4020.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. Hornsby, P. J., and Gill, G. N., 198la, Regulation of responsiveness of cultured adrenal cells to adrenocorticotropin and prostaglandin E: cell density, cell division, and inhibitors of protein synthesis, Endocrinology 108: 183.Google Scholar
  184. Hornsby, P. J., and Gill, G. N., 1981b, Regulation of glutamine and pyruvate oxidation in cultured adrenocortical cells by cortisol, antioxidants, and oxygen: Effects on cell proliferation, J. Cell Physiol. 109: 111.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Hornsby, P. J., Simonian, M. H., and Gill, 1979, Aging of adrenocortical cells in culture, Int. Rev. Cytol. 10: 131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Horwitt, M. K., 1976, Vitamin E: A reexamination, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 29: 569.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. Hsu, J. M., 1981, Lead toxicity as related to glutathione metabolism, J. Nutr. 111: 26.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. Huberman, E., Heckman, C., and Langenbach, R., 1979, Stimulation of differentiated functions in human melanoma cells by tumor-promoting agents and dimethyl sulfoxide, Cancer Res. 39: 2618.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. Heubner, R., and Todaro, G., 1969, Oncogenes of RNA tumor viruses as determinants of cancer, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 64: 1087.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. Hughes, B. A., Roth, G. S., and Pitha, J., 1980, Age-related decrease in repair of oxidative damage to surface sulfhydryl groups on rat adipocytes, J. Cell Physiol. 103: 349.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. Iida, H., Imai, A., Nozawa, Y., and Kimura, T., 1982, Lipid peroxidation in bovine adrenocortical mitochondria: Arachidonic acid as substrate, Biochem. Med. 28:365.Google Scholar
  192. Iritani, N., and Ideda, Y., 1982, Activation of catalase and other enzymes by corn oil intake, J. Nutr. 112: 2235.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. Iser, O., ed., 1971, Carotenoids, Birkhauser Verlag, Basel.Google Scholar
  194. Jacobs, D., 1976, Hyperuricemia as a risk factor in coronary heart disease, in: Purine Metabolism in Man. II Physiology, Pharmacology and Clinical Aspects ( M. M. Muller, E. Kaiser, and J. E. Seegmiller, eds.), pp. 231–237, Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  195. Jakoby, W. B., 1978, The glutathione S-transferases: A group of multifunctional detoxification proteins, Adv. Enzymol. Related Areas Molec. Biol. 46: 383.Google Scholar
  196. Jakoby, W. B., ed., 1980, Enzymatic Basis of Detoxification, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  197. Jakoby, W. B., Bend, J. R., and Caldwell, J., eds., 1982, Metabolic Basis of Detoxification, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  198. Jensen, G. E., and Clausen, J., 1981, Glutathione peroxidase activity in vitamin E and essential fatty acid-deficient rats, Ann. Nutr. Metab. 25: 27.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. Jerison, H. J., 1973, Evolution of the Brain and Intelligence, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  200. Johnson, H. A., and Pavelec, M., 1972, Thermal noise in cells. A cause of spontaneous loss of cell function, Am. J. Pathol. 69: 119.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. Johnson, H. D., Kintner, L. D., and Kibler, H. H., 1963, Effects of 48 F (8.9C) and 83 F (28. 4 C) on longevity and pathology of male rats, J. Gerontol. 18: 29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. Jones, M. L., 1962, Mammals in captivity—Primate longevity, Lab. Primate Newslett. 1: 3.Google Scholar
  203. Jones, M. L., 1968, Longevity of primates in captivity, Intern. Zoo Yearbook 8: 183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. Jukes, T. H., and King, J. L., 1975, Evolutionary loss of ascorbic acid synthesizing ability, J. Human Evol. 4: 85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. Kalamegham, R., Naidu, N. A., and Krishnaswamy, K., 1981, Metabolism of xenobiotics in undernourished rats—Regulation by dietary energy and protein levels, Nutr. Rept. Intern. 24: 754.Google Scholar
  206. Kark, J. D., Smith, A. H., Switzer, B. R., and Hames, C. G., 1981a, Retinol, carotene, and the cancer/cholesterol association, Lancet 1: 1371.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. Kark, 198 lb, Research news, Science 211:1410.Google Scholar
  208. Karmali, R. A., 1980, Review: Prostaglandins and cancer, Prostaglandins Med. 5: 11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. Karrer, P., and Jucker, E., 1950, Carotenoids, Elsevier Pub. Co., Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  210. Kedziora, J., Lukaszewicz, R., Koter, M., Bartosz, G., Pawlowska, B. and Aitkin, D., 1982, Red blood cell glutathione peroxidase in simple trisomy 21 and translocation 21/22, Experientia 38: 543.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. Keehner, J. M. 1979, The relationship of serum uric acid to intelligence, achievement, and need for achievement in U.S. adolescents, twelve through seventeen years of age, Dissert. Abstr. 1283-A.Google Scholar
  212. Keith, A., ed., 1948, A New Theory of Human Evolution, Watts and Co., London.Google Scholar
  213. Kelleher, J., and Losowsky, M. S., 1978, Vitamin E in the elderly, in: Tocopherol, Oxygen and Biomembranes ( C. deDuve and O. Hayaishi, eds.), pp. 311–327, Elsevier/North Holland, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  214. King, M. C., and Wilson, A. C., 1976, Evolution at two levels in humans and chimpanzees, Science 188:107.Google Scholar
  215. Kirk, J. E., 1962, Variations in tissue content of vitamins and hormones, Vitam. Horm. 20: 82.Google Scholar
  216. Kleiber, M., 1975, The Fire of Life, Kreiger, Huntington, New York.Google Scholar
  217. Klevay, L. M., 1980, Hyperuricemia in rats due to copper deficiency, Nutr. Repts. Intern. 22: 617.Google Scholar
  218. Knox, W. E., 1976, Enzyme Patterns in Fetal, Adult and Neoplastic Rat Tissues, Karger, Basel.Google Scholar
  219. Kohn, R. R., 1978, Principles of Mammalian Aging, Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliff, New Jersey.Google Scholar
  220. Kohn, R. R., 1982a, Cause of death in very old people, J. Am. Med. Assoc. 247: 2793.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. Kohn, R. R., 1982b, Evidence against cellular aging theories, in: Testing the Theories of Aging ( R. C. Adelman and G. S. Roth, eds.), pp. 221–231, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida.Google Scholar
  222. Krinsky, N. I., 1971, IX. Function, in: Carotenoids (O. Isler, ed.), pp. 669–716, Birkhauser Verlag, Basel.Google Scholar
  223. Krinsky, N. I., 1982, Photobiology of carotenoid protection, in: The Science of Photomedicine ( J. D. Regan and J. A. Parrish, eds), pp. 397–405, Plenum Press, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. Krinsky, N. I., and Deneke, S. M., 1982, Interaction of oxygen and oxy-radicals with carotenoids, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 69: 205.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  225. Kuehl, F., and Egan, R. W., 1980, Prostaglandins, arachidonic acid, and inflammation Science 210:978.Google Scholar
  226. Kunkel, H. O., Spalding, J. F., de Franciscis, G., and Futrell, M. F., 1956, Cytochrome oxidase activity and body weight in rats and in three species of large animals, Am. J. Physiol. 86: 203.Google Scholar
  227. Kurian, M., and Iyer, G. Y. N., 1976, Lipid peroxidation in erythrocytes from different animal species Indian J. Biochem. Biophys. 13:67.Google Scholar
  228. Lack, D., 1954, The Natural Regulation of Animal Numbers, Clarendon, Oxford. Lamb, M. J., 1977, Biology of Aging, J. Wiley and Sons, New York.Google Scholar
  229. Landfield, P. W., 1978, An endocrine hypothesis of brain aging and studies on brain-endocrine correlations and monosynaptic neurophysiology during aging, Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 113: 179–199.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  230. Landfield, P. W., 1980, Correlative studies of brain neurophysiology and behavior during aging, in: The Psychobiology of Aging: Problems and Perspectives ( Stein, D. G., ed.), pp. 227–251, Elsevier North Holland, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  231. Landfield, P. W. Rose, G., Sandles, L., Wohlstadter, T. C., and Lynch, G., 1977, Patterns of astroglial hypertrophy and neuronal degeneration in the hippocampus of aged, memory-deficient rats, J. Gerontol. 32: 3.Google Scholar
  232. Landfield, P. W., Waymire, J. C., and Lynch, G., 1978, Hippocampal aging and adrenocorticoids: Quantitative correlations, Science 202: 1098.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  233. Landfield, P. W., Sundberg, D. K., Smith, M. S., Eldridge, J. C., and Morris, M., 1980, Mammalian aging: Theoretical implications of changes in brain and endocrine systems during mid-and late-life in rats, Peptides 1: 185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  234. Landfield, P. W., Baskin, R. K., and Pitler, T. A., 1981, Brain aging correlates: Retardation by hormonal-pharmacological treatments, Science 214: 581.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  235. Lawrence, R. A., and Burk, R. F., 1978, Species, tissue and subcellular distribution of non Se-dependent glutathione peroxidase activity J. Nutr. 108: 211.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  236. Lee, Y. H., Layman, D. K., Bell, R. R., and Norton, H. W., 1981, Response of glutathione peroxidase and catalase to excess dietary iron in rats, J. Nutr. 111: 2195.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  237. Lehman, H. C., 1953, Age and Achievement, Princeton Univ. Press, Princeton, New Jersey. Lehman, H. C., 1962, More about age and achievement, The Gerontologist, 2: 141.Google Scholar
  238. Lehnert, S., 1975a, Modification of postirradiation survival of mammalian cells by intracellular cyclic AMP, Radial. Res. 62: 107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  239. Lehnert, S., 1975b, Relation of intracellular cyclic AMP to the shape of mammalian cell survival curves, in: Cell Survival After Low Doses of Radiation: Theoretical and Clinical Implication (T. Alper, ed.), pp. 226–236, J. Wiley and Sons, New York.Google Scholar
  240. Lehnert, S., 1979a, Radioprotection of mouse intestine by inhibitors of cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase, Int. J. Rad. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 5: 825.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  241. Lehnert, S., 1979b, Modification of radiation response of CHO cells by methol-isobutyl xanthine 1. Reduction of D., Radiat. Res. 78: 1.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  242. Leibovitz, B. E., and Siegel, B. V., 1980, Aspects of free radical reactions in biological systems: Aging, J. Gerontol. 35: 45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  243. Leitner, Z. A., Moore, T., and Sharman, I. M., 1960, Vitamin A and vitamin E in human blood. 1. Levels of vitamin A and carotenoids in British men and women, 1948–1957, Br. J. Nutr. 14: 157.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  244. Lewin, S., 1976, Vitamin C: Its Molecular Biology and Medical Potential, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  245. Lindstedt, S. L., and Calder, W. A., 1981, Body size, physiological time, and longevity of homeothermic animals, Q. Rev. Biol. 56: 1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  246. Lorenz, K., 1971, Studies in Human and Animal Behavior, Vol. 2, Harvard Univ. Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts.Google Scholar
  247. Lotan, R., 1980, Effects of vitamin A and its analogs (retinoids) on normal and neoplastic cells, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 605: 33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  248. Lovejoy, C. W., 1981, The origin of man, Science 211: 341.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  249. Ludwig, F. C., 1980, Editorial, What to expect from gerontological research? Science 209.Google Scholar
  250. Macdougall, L. G., 1972, Red cell metabolism in iron deficiency anemia, III. The relationshipGoogle Scholar
  251. between glutathione peroxidase, catalase, serum vitamin E, and susceptibility of iron-deficient red cells to oxidative hemolysis, J. Pediatrics 80:775.Google Scholar
  252. Machlin, L. J., 1978, Vitamin E and prostaglandins (PG), in: Tocopherol, Oxygen and Biomembranes (C. deDuve and O. Hayaishi, eds.), pp. 1799–189, Elvelsier, New York.Google Scholar
  253. Machlin, L. J., 1980, Epilogue, in: Vitamin. A Comprehensive Treatise ( L. J. Machlin, ed.), pp. 637–645, Marcel Dekker, Inc. New York.Google Scholar
  254. De Marchena, O., Guarnieri, M., and McKhann, G., 1974, Glutathione peroxidase levels in brain, J. Neurochem. 22: 773.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  255. Maréchal, R., Lion, Y., and Duchesne, J., 1973, Radicaux libres organiques et longevite maximale chez les mammiferes et les oiseaux, C.R. Acad. Sci. Paris, Ser. D 277: 1085.Google Scholar
  256. Martin, C. W., Fjermestad, J., Smith-Barbado, P., and Reddy, B. S., 1980, Dietary modification of mixed function oxidases, Nutr. Rep. Intern. 22: 395–408.Google Scholar
  257. Masugi, F., and Nakamura, T., 1976, Effect of vitamin E deficiency on the level of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase and lipid peroxide in rat liver, Int. J. Vit. Nutr. Res. 46: 186.Google Scholar
  258. Matkovics, B., Gyurkovits, K., Lâszló, A., and Szabo;o, L., 1982a, Altered peroxide metabolism in erythrocytes from children with cystic fibrosis, Clin. Chim. Acta 125: 59.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  259. Matkovics, B., Varga, Sz. I., Lzabo, L., and Witas, H., 1982b, The effect of diabetes on the activities of the peroxide metabolism enzymes, Horm. Metabol. Res. 14: 77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  260. Mattenheimer, H., 1971, Mattenheimer’s Clinical Enzymology. Principles and Applications, Ann Arbor Science Pub. Inc., Ann Arbor.Google Scholar
  261. Maynard Smith, J., 1959, A theory of aging, Nature 184: 956.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  262. Maynard Smith, J., 1962, Review lectures on senescence I. The causes of ageing, Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 157: 115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  263. Maynard Smith, J., 1966, Theories of aging, in: Topics in the Biology of Aging (P. L. Krohn. ed.), pp. 1–27, Interscience, New York.Google Scholar
  264. McCay, P. B. and Gibson, D. D., 1982, Control of lipid peroxidation by a heat-labile cytosolic factor, in: Lipid Peroxides in Biology and Medicine ( K. Yagi, ed.), Academic Press, New York, pp. 179–197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  265. McClure, H. M., 1973, Tumors in nonhuman primates: Observations during a six-months period in the Yerkes Primate Center’ Colony, Am. J. Phys. Anthrop. 38: 425.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  266. McClure, H. M., 1975, Neoplasia in Rhesus monkeys, in: The Rhesus Monkey II. Management, Reproduction and Pathology ( G. H. Bourne, ed.), pp. 369, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  267. Medawar, P. B., 1955, The definition and measurement of senescence, in: Ciba Foundation Colloq. on Ageing, Vol. I. General Aspects ( G. W. E. Wolstenholme and M. P. Cameron, eds.), pp. 4–15, Churchill, London.Google Scholar
  268. Medawar, P. B., 1957, The Uniqueness of the Individual, Methuen and Co., Inc., London.Google Scholar
  269. Medvedev, Zh. A., 1966, Error theories of aging, in: Perspectives in Experimental Gerontology ( N. W. Shock, ed.), pp. 336–350, C. C. Thomas, Pub., Springfield, Illinois.Google Scholar
  270. Meister, A., 1982, Roles and functions of glutathione, Biochem. Soc. Trans. 10: 78.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  271. Mikkelsen, W. M., Dodge, H. J., and Valkenburg, H., 1965, The distribution of serum uric acid values in a population unselected as to gout or hyperuricemia: Tecumseh, Michigan 1959–1960. Am. J. Med. 39: 242.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  272. Miller, J. K., Bolla, R., and Denckla, W. D., 1980, Age-associated changes in initiation of ribonucleic acid synthesis in isolated rat liver nuclei, Biochem. J. 188: 55.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  273. Mitnick, P. D., and Beck, L. H., 1979, Hypouricemia and malignant neoplasms, Arch. Int. Med. 139: 1186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  274. Mitruka, B. M., and Rawnsley, H. M., 1981, Clinical, Biochemical and Hematological Reference Values in Normal Experimental Animals and Normal Humans, Masson Pub., New York.Google Scholar
  275. Mittal, C. K., and Murad, F., 1977, Properties and oxidative regulation of guanylate cyclase, J. Cyclic Nucleotide Res. 3: 381.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  276. Monod, J., 1971, Chance and Necessity, Alfred A. Knopf, New York.Google Scholar
  277. Montagu, A., 1981, Growing Young, McGraw-Hill, New York.Google Scholar
  278. Moore, T., 1957, Vitamin A, Elsevier Pub. Co., Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  279. Mueller, E. F., Kasl, S. V., Brooks, G. W., and Cobb, S., 1970, Psychological correlates of serum urate levels, Psychol. Bull. 73: 238.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  280. Murad, F., Mittal, C. K., Arnold, W. P., Katsuki, S., and Kimura, H., 1978, Guanylate cyclase: Activation by azide, nitro compounds, nitric oxide and hydroxyl radical and inhibition by hemoglobin and myoglobin, Adv. Cyclic Nucleotide Res. 9: 145–158.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  281. Murad, F., Arnold, W. P., Mittal, C. K., and Braughhler, J. M., 1979, Properties and regulation of guanylate cyclase and some proposed functions for cyclic GMP, Adv. Cyclic Nucleotide Res. 11: 175–204.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  282. Murphy, T. P., Wright, K. E., and Pudelkiewicz, W. J., 1981, An apparent rachitogenic effect of excessive vitamin E intake in the chick, Poultry Sci. 60: 1873.Google Scholar
  283. Myers, D. D., 1978, Review of disease patterns and lifespan in aging mice: Genetic and enviormental interaction, in: Birth Defects on Aging ( D. Bergsma, D. E. Harrison, and N. E. Paul, eds.) pp. 41–53, Allan R. Liss, New York.Google Scholar
  284. Nagatsuka, S., and Nakazawa, T., 1982, Effects of membrane-stabilizing agents, cholesterol and cepharanthin, on radiation-induced lipid peroxidation and permeability in liposomes, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 691: 171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  285. Naito, H. K., 1979, Role of vitamin C in health and disease, in: Nutritional Elements and Clinical Biochemistry ( M. A. Brewster and H. K. Naito, eds.), pp. 69–115, Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  286. Nakakimura, H., Kakimoto, M., Wada, S., and Mizuno, K., 1980, Studies on lipid peroxidation in biological systems I. Effects of various factors on lipid peroxide level in blood, Chem. Pharm. Bull. 28: 2101.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  287. Nandy, K., 1976, Immune reactions in aging brain and senile dementia, in: The Aging Brain and Senile Dementia ( K. Nandy and I. Sherwin, eds.), pp. 181–196, Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  288. Napier, J. R., and Napier, P. H., 1967, A Handbook of Living Primates, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  289. Newberne, P. M., and Rogers, A. E., 1981, Vitamin A, retinoids, and cancer, in: Nutrition and Cancer: Etiology and Treatment ( G. R. Newell and N. M. Ellison, eds.), pp. 217–232, Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
  290. Newberne, P. M., Bresnahan, M. R., and Kuka, N., 1969, Effects of two synthetic antioxidants, vitamin E and ascorbic on the choline-deficient rat, J. Nutr. 97: 219.Google Scholar
  291. Novogrodsky, A., Ravid, A., Rubin, A. L., and Stenzel, K. H., 1982, Hydroxyl radical scavengers inhibit lymphocyte mitogenesis, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 79: 1171.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  292. O’Dell, T. B., Wright, H. N., and Bieter, R. N., 1953, Chemotherapeutic activity of nucleic acids and high protein diets against the infection caused by the MM virus in mice, J. Pharm. Exp. Therap. 107: 232.Google Scholar
  293. Odumosu, A., 1972, The role of iron in the metabolism of tissue ascorbic acid, Br. J. Pharmacol. 45: 136P - 137 P.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  294. Oertel, G. W., Menzel, P., and Bauke, D., 1970, Effects of dehydroepiandrosterone and its conjugates upon the activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, Clin. Chim. Acta 27: 197.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  295. Ogino, N., Yamamoto, S., Hayaishi, O., and Tokuyama, T., 1979, Isolation of an activator for prostaglandin hydroperoxidase from bovine vascicular gland cytosol and its identification as uric acid, Biochim. Biophys. Res. Commun. 87: 184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  296. Ohkawa, H., Ohishi, N., and Yagi, K., 1978, Reaction of linoleic acid hydroperoxide with thiobarbituric acid, J. Lipid Res. 19: 1053.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  297. Ohno, S., 1980, Gene duplication, junk DNA, intervening sequences and the universal signal for their removal, Rev. Brasiliera Genet. 3–99.Google Scholar
  298. Ohno, T., and Myoga, K., 1981, The possible toxicity of vitamin C in the guinea pigs, Nutr. Rep. Int. 24: 291.Google Scholar
  299. Ohuchi, K., and Levine, L., 1980, a-tocopherol inhibits 12–0-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13 acetate-stimulated deacytelation of cellular lipids, prostaglandin production, and changes in cell morphology of Madin-Darby canine kidney cells, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 619: 11.Google Scholar
  300. Olson, J. A., and Hayaishi, 0., 1965, The enzymatic cleavage of b-carotene into vitamin A by soluble enzymes of rat liver and intestine, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 54: 1364.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  301. Omaye, S. T., and Turnbull, J. D., 1980, Effect of ascorbic acid on heme metabolism in hepatic microsomes, Life Sci. 27: 441.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  302. Ono, T., and Cutler, R. G., 1978, Age-dependent relaxation of gene repression: Increase of endogenous murine leukemia virus-related and globin-related RNA in brain and liver of mice, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 75: 4431.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  303. Orgel, L. E., 1970,The maintenance of the accuracy of protein synthesis and its relevance to ageing: a correction, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 67: 1476.Google Scholar
  304. Orgel, L. E., 1973, Ageing of clones of mammalian cells, Nature 243: 441.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  305. Orgel, L. E., and Crick, F. H. C., 1980, Selfish DNA: The ultimate parasite, Nature 284: 604.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  306. Pacifici, G. M., Boobis, A. R., Brodie, M. J., McManus, M. E., and Davies, D. S., 198la, Tissue and species differences in enzymes of epoxide metabolism, Xenobiotica 11: 73.Google Scholar
  307. Pacifici, M., Fellini, S. A., Holtzer, H., and DeLuca, S., 198 lb, Changes in the sulfated proteoglycans synthesized by “ageing” chondrocytes. I. Dispersed cultured chondrocytes and in vivo cartilages, J. Biol. Chem. 256: 1029.Google Scholar
  308. Pall, M. L., 1981, Gene-amplification model of carcinogenesis, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 78: 2465.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  309. Palmer, S., 1977, Influence of vitamin A nutriture on the immune response: Findings in children with Down’s syndrome, Int. J. Vit. Nutr. Res. 48: 188.Google Scholar
  310. Park, K. -S., and Asaka, A., 1980, Plasma and urine uric acid levels: Heritability estimates and correlation with IQ, Jap. J. Hum. Genet. 25: 193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  311. Parker, R. J., Berkowitz, B. A., Lee, C. -H., and Denckla, W. D., 1978, Vascular relaxation, aging and thyroid hormones, Mech. Ageing Dev. 8: 397.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  312. Pashko, L. L., and Schwartz, A. G., 1982, Inverse correlation between species’ life span and species’ cytochrome P-488 content of cultured fibroblasts, J. Gerontol. 37: 38.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  313. Pashko, L. L., Schwartz, A. G., Abou-Gharbia, M., and Swern, D., 1981, Inhibition of DNA synthesis in mouse epidermis and breast epithelium by dehydroepiandrosterone and related steroids, Carcinogenesis 2: 717.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  314. Pearl, R., 1928, The Rate of Living, Knopf, New York.Google Scholar
  315. Pekoe, G., Vandyke, K., Peden, D., Mengoli, H., and English, D., 1982, Antioxidation theory of non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs based upon the inhibition of luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence from the myeloperoxidase reaction, Agents Actions 12: 371–376, 1982.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  316. Peto, R., Doll, R., Buckley, J. D., and Sporn, M. B., 1981, Can dietary 3-carotene materially reduce cancer rates? Nature 290: 201.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  317. Petrovic, V. M., Gudz, T., and Saicib, Z., 1981, Selective effect of noradrenaline on superoxide dismutase activity in the brown adipose tissue and liver of the rat, Experientia 37: 14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  318. Petrovic, V. M., Spasic, M., Saicic, Z., Milic, B., and Radojicic, R., 1982, Increase in superoxide dismutase activity induced by thyroid hormones in the brains of neonate and adult rats, Experientia 38: 1335.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  319. Placer, Z., and Slabochovâ, Z., 1961, Inhibition of the lipoxidase system by serum proteins, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 48: 426.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  320. Plonka, A., and Metodiewa, D., 1980, ESR evidence of superoxide radical dismutation by human ceruloplasmin, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 95: 978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  321. Ponder, B. A. J., 1980, Genetics and cancer, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 605: 369.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  322. Portmann, A., 1945, Die Ontogenese des menschen: Als probleme der evolutionsforschung, Verh. Schweiz. Naturf. Ges. 125: 44.Google Scholar
  323. Prins, H. K., and Loos, J. A., 1969, Glutathione, in: Biochemical Methods in Red Cell Genetics ( J. Yunis, ed.), pp. 115–137, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  324. Pryor, W. A., 1978, The formation of free radicals and the consequences of their reactions in vivo, Photochem. Photobiol. 28: 787.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  325. Ramsdell, C. M., and Kelley, W. N., 1973, The clinical significance of hypouricemia, Ann. Intern. Med. 78: 239.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  326. Reddy, C. C., Tu, C. -P. D., Burgess, J. R., Ho, C. -Y., Scholtz, R. W., and and Massaro, E. J., 1981, Evidence for the occurrence of senium-independent glutathione peroxidase activity in rat liver microsomes, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 101: 970.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  327. Reddy, C. C., Thomas, C. E., Scholz, R. W., and Massaro, E. J., 1982, Effects of inadequate vitamin E and/or selenium nutrition on enzymes associated with xenobiotic metabolism, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 107: 75.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  328. Reddy, V. N., Giblin, F. J., and Matsuda, H., 1980, Defense system of eye lens against oxidative damage, in: Red Blood Cell and Lens Metabolism ( Srivastava, S. K., ed.), pp. 139–154, Elsevier/North Holland, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  329. Reiss, U., and Gershon, D., 1979, Methionine sulfoxide reductase: A novel protective enzyme in liver and its potentially significant role in aging, in: Liver and Aging ( K. Kitani, ed.), pp. 35–64, Elsevier/North Holland, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  330. Reznick, A. Z., Steinhagen-Thiessen, E., and Gershon, D., 1982, The effect of exercise on enzyme activities in cardiac muscles of mice of various ages, Biochem. Med. 28: 347.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  331. Richardson, A., 1981, A comprehensive review of the scientific literature on the effect of aging on protein synthesis, in: Biological Mechanisms in Aging (R. T. Schimke, ed.), pp. 339–358, National Institute on Aging, NIH Pub. No. 81–2194.Google Scholar
  332. Robinson, A. B., and Richheimr, S. L., 1975, Instability and function: Ascorbic acid and glutaminyl and asparaginyl residues, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 258: 314.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  333. Roch-Ramel, F., and Peters, G., 1978, Urinary excretion of uric acid in nonhuman mammalian species, in: Handbook Exp. Pharmacol., Vol. 51: Uric Acid ( W. N. Kelley and I. M. Weiner, eds.), pp. 211–255, Springer-Verlag, New York.Google Scholar
  334. Roch-Ramel, F., Diez-Chomety, F., de Rougemont, D., Tellier, M. Widmer, J., and Peters, G., 1976, Renal excretion of uric acid in rat: A micropuncture and perfusion study, Am. J. Physiol. 230: 768.Google Scholar
  335. Rook, A., 1965, Endocrine influences on hair growth, Br. Med. J. 1: 609.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  336. Rosen, R., 1978a, Feedforwards and global system failures: A general mechanism for senescence, J. Theor. Biol. 74: 579.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  337. Rosen, R., 1978b, Cells and senescence, Int. Rev. Cytol. 54: 161.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  338. Rosen, R., 1981, Dynamic aspects of senescence, in: Biological Mechanisms in Aging (R. T. Schimke, ed.), pp. 108–136, National Inst. on Aging, NIH Pub. No. 81–2194.Google Scholar
  339. Roth, G. S., 1979, Hormone receptor changes during adulthood and senescence. Significance for aging research, Fed. Proc. 38: 1910.Google Scholar
  340. Rounds, D. E., 1961, RNA as a protective agent against irradiation of cell cultures, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 95: 994.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  341. Rubinstein, H. M., Dietz, A. A., and Srinavasan, R., 1969, Relation of vitamin E and serum lipids, Clin. Chim. Acta 23: 1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  342. Rubner, M., 1908, Probleme des Wachstums and der Lebensdauer, in: Gesellschaft fair Innere Medizine and Kinderheilkunde, Vol. 7, pp. 58–72, Mitteilungen, Beiblatt, Wien.Google Scholar
  343. Russanov, E. M., and Kassabova, T. A., 1982, Enzymes of oxygen metabolism and lipid peroxidation in erythrocytes from copper-deficient rats, Int. J. Biochem. 14: 321.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  344. Samaan, N. A., 1979, Ectopic hormone producing tumors, in: Influences of Hormones in Tumor Development, Vol. 1 ( J. A. Kellen, and R. Holf, eds.), pp. 95–113, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida.Google Scholar
  345. Sacher, G. A., 1959, Relation of lifespan to brain and body weight in mammals, in: Ciba Found. Colloq. on Ageing, Vol. 5 ( G. E. W. Wolstenholme and C. M. O’Connor, eds.), pp. 115–133, Churchill Press, London.Google Scholar
  346. Sacher, G. A. 1960a, The dimensionality of the life span, in: The Biology of Aging ( B. L. Strehler, ed.), pp. 251–252, A.I.B.S., Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  347. Sacher, G. A., 1960b, The effect of physiologic fluctuations on mortality and aging, in: The Biology of Aging ( B. L. Strehler, ed.), pp. 246–257, A.I.B.S. Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  348. Sacher, G. A., 1962, The role of physiological fluctuations in the aging process and the relation of longevity to the size of the central nervous sytem, in: Aging and Levels of Biological Organization (A. M. Brues and G. A. Sacher, eds.), pp. 266–305, Univ. Chicago Press, Chicago.Google Scholar
  349. Sacher, G. A., 1965, On longevity regarded as an organized behavior: The role of brain structure, in: Contributions to the Psychobiology of Aging (R. Kastenbaum, ed.), pp. 99–110, Springer, New York.Google Scholar
  350. Sacher, G. A., 1966, Abnutzungstheorie, in: Perspectives in Experimental Gerontology ( N. W. Shock, ed.), pp. 326–335, C. C. Thomas, Pub., Springfield, Illinois.Google Scholar
  351. Sacher, G. A., 1968, Molecular versus systemic theories on the genesis of ageing, Exp. Gerontol. 3: 265.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  352. Sacher, G. A., 1970, Allometric and factorial analysis of brain structure in insectivores and primates, in: The Primate Brain ( C. R. Noback and W. Montagna, eds.), pp. 245–287, Appleton-Century-Crofts, New York.Google Scholar
  353. Sagone, A. L., Greenwald, J., Kraut, E. H., Bianchine, J., and Singh, D., 1983, Glucose: A role as a free radical scavenger in biological systems, J. Lab. and Clin. Med. 101: 97.Google Scholar
  354. Sass. M. D., Caruso, C. J., and O’Connell, D. J., 1965, Decreased glutathione in aging red cells, Clin. Chim. Acta 11: 334.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  355. Sato, P., and Udenfriend, S., 1978, Studies on ascorbic acid related to the genetic basis of scurvey, Vitam. Horm. 36: 33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  356. Sato, Y., Hotta, N., Sakamoto, N., Matsuoka, S., Ohishi, N., and Yagi, K., 1979, Lipid peroxide level in plasma of diabetic patients, Biochem. Med. 21: 104.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  357. Schapira, F., 1973, Isozymes and cancer, Adv. Cancer Res. 18: 77.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  358. Scheibel, M. E., Lindsay, R. D., Tomiyasu, U., and Scheibel, A. B., 1975, Progressive dendritic changes in aging human cortex, Exp. Neurol. 47: 392.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  359. Schultz, A. H., 1936, Characters common to higher primates and characters specific for man, Q. Rev. Biol. 2: 259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  360. Schultz, A. H., 1949, Ontogenetic specializations of man, Arch. Julius Klaus Stiftung 24: 197.Google Scholar
  361. Schultz, A. H., 1950, The physical distinctions of man, Proc. Am. Philos. Soc. 94: 428.Google Scholar
  362. Schultz, A. H., 1960, Age changes in primates and their modifications in man, in: Human Growth ( J. Tanner, ed.), pp. 1–20, Pergamon Press, London.Google Scholar
  363. Schultz, A. H., 1966, Changing views on the nature and interrelations of the higher primates, Emory Univ. Primate Res. Centr. Newslett. 3: 15.Google Scholar
  364. Schultz, A. H., 1968, The Recent hominoid primates, in: Perspectives on Human Evolution, Vol. 1 ( S. L. Washburn and P. C. Jay, eds.), pp. 122–195, Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New York.Google Scholar
  365. Schwartz, A. G., 1979, Inhibition of spontaneous breast cancer formation in female C3H(A/a) mice by long-term treatment with dehydroepiandrosterone, Cancer Res. 39: 1129.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  366. Schwartz, A. G., and Perantoni, A., 1975, Protective effect of dehydroepiandrosterone against aflatoxin Bl-and 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced cytotoxicity and transformation in cultured cells, Cancer Res. 35: 2482.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  367. Scott, M., Bolla, R., and Denckla, W. D., 1979, Age-related changes in immune function of rats and the effect of long-term hypophysectomy, Mech. Ageing Dev. 11: 127.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  368. Seal, U. S., 1964, Vertebrate distribution of serum ceruloplasmin and sialic acid and the effects of pregnancy, Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 13: 143.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  369. Seegmiller, J. E.,, 1979, Disorders of purine and pyrimidine metabolism in: Contemporary Metabolism, Vol. 1 (E. Freinkel, ed.), pp. 1–85. Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  370. Seregi, A., Serfózó, P., and Mergl, Z., 1983, Evidence for the localization of hydrogen peroxide-stimulated cycloxygenase activity in rat brain mitochondria: A possible coupling with monoamine oxidase, J. Neurochem. 40: 407.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  371. Sharma, S. K., and Krisna Murti, C. R., 1976, Ascorbic acid—A naturally occurring mediator of lipid peroxide formation in rat brain, J. Neurochem. 27: 299.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  372. Shmookler Reis, R. J., Lumpkin, C. K., McGill, J. R., Riabowol, K. T., and Goldstein, S., 1983, Extrachromosomal circular copies of an ‘inter-Alu’ unstable sequence in human DNA are amplified during in vitro and in vivo ageing, Nature 301: 394.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  373. Shock, N. W., 1952, Ageing of homeostatic mechanisms, in: Cowdry’s Problems of Ageing ( A. I. Lansing, ed.), pp. 415–446, Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, Maryland.Google Scholar
  374. Shock, N. W., 1961, Physiological aspects of aging in man, Ann. Rev. Physiol. 23: 97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  375. Shock, N. W., 1970, Physiologic aspects of aging, J. Am. Diet. Assoc. 56: 491.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  376. Sinet, P. M., 1982, Metabolism of oxygen derivatives in Down’s syndrome, in: Alzheimer’s Disease, Down’s Syndrome and Aging, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci., Vol. 396 ( F. M. Sinex and C. R. Merril, eds. ), pp. 83–94.Google Scholar
  377. Sklan, D., Rabinowitch, H. D., Donoghue, S., 1981, Superoxide dismutase: Effect of vitamins A and E, Nutr. Rept. Int. 24: 551.Google Scholar
  378. Snipes, C. A., Forest, M. G., and Migeion, C. J., 1969, Plasma androgen concentrations in several species of Old and New World monkeys, Endocrinology 85: 941.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  379. Solyom, L., Enesco, H. E., and Beaulieu, C., 1968, The effect of RNA, uric acid and caffein on conditioning and activity in rats, J. Psychiatr. Res. 6: 175.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  380. Somero, G. N., and Childress, J. J., 1980, A violation of the metabolism-size scaling paradigm: Activities of glycolytic enzymes in muscle increase in larger-size fish, Physiol. Zool. 53: 322.Google Scholar
  381. Sparagana, M., and Phillips, G., 1972, Dehydroepiandrosterone 3b-hydroxy-5-androsten-17 one) metabolism in gout, Steroids 19: 477.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  382. Sparberg, M., 1981, Blood chemistry and hematology, in: Clinical Data for Gorillas, Orange Utans, and Chimpanzees at the Lincoln Park Zoological Gardens: Preliminary Report ( E. R. Maschgan, ed.), pp. 45–54, Dept. Biochem. Michael Reese Med. Center, Chicago, Illinois.Google Scholar
  383. Spector, I., 1974, Animal longevity and protein turnover rate, Nature 249: 66.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  384. Spector, W. S., ed., 1956, Handbook of Biological Data Division of Biology and Agriculture, National Academy of Sciences, National Research Council.Google Scholar
  385. Sporn, M. B., and Newton, D. L., Chemoprevention of cancer with retinoids, Fed. Proc. 38: 2528, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  386. Stahl, W. R., 1962, Similarity and dimensional methods in biology, Science 137: 205.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  387. Stanley, S. M., 1979, Macroevolution, W. H. Freeman and Co., San Francisco.Google Scholar
  388. Stanley, S. M., 1981, The New Evolutionary Timetable, Basic Books, New York. Stetten, D., 1958, Gout and metabolism, Sci. Am. 198 (6): 73.Google Scholar
  389. Stich, H. F., Wei, L., Whiting, R. F., 1979, Enhancement of the chromosome-damaging action of ascorbate by transition metals, Cancer Res. 39: 4145.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  390. Stohs, S. J., Hassing, J. M., Al-Turk W. A., and Masoud, A. N., 1980, Glutathione levels in hepatic and extrahepatic tissues of mice as a function of age, Age 3: 11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  391. Stohs, S. J., Al-Turk, W. A., and Angle, C. R., 1982, Glutathione S-transferase and glutathione reductase activities in hepatic and extrahepatic tissues of female mice as a function of age, Biochem. Pharmacol. 31: 2113.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  392. Stone, W. L., and Dratz, E. A., 1980, Increased glutathione-S-transferase activity in antioxidant-deficient rats, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 631: 503.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  393. Straus, D. S., 1981, Somatic mutation, cellular differentiation, and cancer causation, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 67: 233.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  394. Strehler, B. L., 1978, Time, Cells and Aging, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  395. Suematsu, T., Kamada, T., Abe, H., Kikuchi, S., and Yagi, D., 1977, Serum lipoperoxide level in patients suffering from liver diseases, Clin. Chim. Acta 79: 267.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  396. Sugimura, T., Matsushima, T., Kawachi, T., Kogure, K., Tanaka, T., Miyake, S., Hozumi, M., Sato, S., and Sato, H., 1972, Disdifferentiation and decarcinogenesis, Gann Monogr. Cancer Res. 3: 31.Google Scholar
  397. Summer, K. -H., and Greim, H., 1981, Hepatic glutathione S-transferases: Activities and cellular localization in rat, Rhesus monkey, chimpanzee and man, Biochem. Pharm. 30: 1719.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  398. Sun, A. Y., and Sun, G. Y., 1982, Dietary antioxidants and aging on membrane functions, in: Nutritional Approaches to Aging ( G. B. Moment, ed.), pp. 135–156, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida.Google Scholar
  399. Swell, L., Field, J. R., and Treadwell, C. R., 1960, Correlation of arachidonic acid of serum cholesterol esters in different species with susceptibility to atherosclerosis, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. 104: 325.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  400. Taketa, L., Watanabe, A., and Kosaka, K., 1976, Undifferentiated gene expression in liver injuries, in: Onco-Developmental Gene Expression (W. H. Fishman and S. Sell, eds.), pp. 219–226, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  401. Tappel, Al. L, 1980, Measurement of and protection from in vivo lipid peroxidation, in: Free Radicals in Biology, Vol. IV ( W. A. Pryor, ed.), pp. 1–47, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  402. Tappel, M. E., Chaudieri, J., and Tappe!, A. L., 1982, Glutathione peroxidase activities of animal tissues, Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 73B: 945.Google Scholar
  403. Terry, R. D., 1980, Some biological aspects of the aging brain, Mech. Ageing Dev. 14: 191.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  404. Thompson, S. Y., Ganguly, J., and Kon, S. K., 1949, The conversion of ß-carotene to vitamin A in the intestine, Br. J. Nutr. 3: 50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  405. Todaro, G. J., 1980, Interspecies transmission of mammalian retroviruses, in: Molecular Biology of RNA Tumor Viruses ( J. R. Stephenson, ed.), pp. 47–76, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  406. Tolmasoff, J. M., Ono, T., and Cutler, R. G., 1980, Superoxide dismutase: Correlation with life-span and specific metabolic rate in primate species, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 77: 2777.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  407. Tomlinson, B. E., 1977, Morphological changes and dementia in old age, in: Aging and Dementia (W. L. Smith and M. Kinsbourne, eds.), pp. 25–56, Spectrum Pub., Inc., Jamaica, New York.Google Scholar
  408. Totter, J. R., 1980, Spontaneous cancer and its possible relationship to oxygen metabolism, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 77: 1763.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  409. Tovey, 1980, M. G., Viral latency and its importance in human disease, Pathol. Biol. 28: 631.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  410. Townsley, J. D., and Pepe, G. J., 1981, Serum dehydroepiandrosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate in baboon (Papio papio) pregnancy, Acta Endocrinol. 85: 415.Google Scholar
  411. Treton, J. A., and Courtois, Y., 1982, Correlations between DNA excision repair and mammalian lifespan in lens epithelial cells, Cell Biol. Int. RCp. 6: 253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  412. Trosko, J. E., and Chang, C. -C., 1981, The role of radiation and chemicals in the induction of mutations and epigenetic changes during carcinogenesis, Adv. Rad. Biol. 9: 1.Google Scholar
  413. Urbach, C., Hickman, K., and Harris, P. L., 1952, Effect of individual vitamins A, C, E, and carotene administered at high levels on their concentration in blood, Exp. Med. 10: 7.Google Scholar
  414. Valentovic, M. A., Gairola, C., and Lubawy, W. C., 1982, Lung, aorta, and 14C-arachidonic acid in vitamin E deficient rats, Prostaglandins 24: 215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  415. Veatch, R., 1978, Lifespan, Basic Books, New York.Google Scholar
  416. Vesely, D. L., and Hill, D. E., 1980, Estrogens and progesterone increase fetal and maternal guanylate cyclase activity, Endocrinology 107: 2104.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  417. Vidlakova, M., Erazimova, J., Horky, J., and Placer, Z., 1972, Relationship of serum antioxidative activity to tocopherol and serum inhibitor of lipid peroxidation, Clin. Chim. Acta 36: 61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  418. Walford, R. L., 1974, Immunological theory of aging: Current status, Fed. Proc. 33: 2020.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  419. Walker, E. P., 1975, Mammals of the World, Johns Hopkins Univ. Press, Baltimore, Maryland.Google Scholar
  420. Wallace, D. C., 1967, The inevitability of growing old, J. Chronic. Dis. 20: 475.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  421. Wallace, D. C., 1975, A theory of the cause of aging, Med. J. Australia 1: 829.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  422. Washburn, S. L., 1981, Longevity in primates, in: Aging: Biology and Behavior (J. L. McGaugh and S. B. Kiesler, eds.), pp. 11–29, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  423. Waterlow, J. C., and Jackson, A. A., 1981, Nutrition and protein turnover in man, Br. Med. Bull. 37: 5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  424. Watkin, D. M., 1982, The physiology of aging, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 36: 750.Google Scholar
  425. Weinberg, R. A., 1980, Origins and roles of endogenous retroviruses, Cell 22: 643.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  426. Weinstein, B., Irreverre, F., and Watkin, D. M., 1965, Lung carcinoma, hypouricemia and aminoaciduria, Am. J. Med. 39: 520.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  427. Weisburger, J. H., Cohen, L. A., and Wynder, E. L., 1977, On the ethiology and metabolic epidemiology of the main human cancers, in: Origins of Human Cancer. Book A. Incidence of Cancer in Humans ( H. H. Hiatt, J. D. Watson, and J. A. Winsten, eds.), pp. 567–602, CSH Pub., New York.Google Scholar
  428. Wexler, B. C., 1976, Comparative aspects of hyperadrenocorticism and aging, in: Hypothalamus, Pituitary and Aging (A. V. Everitt and J. A. Burgess, eds.), C. C. Thomas, Springfield, Illinois, pp. 333-361.Google Scholar
  429. Willett, J. D., Rahim, I., Geist, M., and Zuckerman, B. M., 1980, Cyclic nucleotide exudation by nematodes and the effect on nematode growth, development and longevity, Age 3: 82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  430. Williams, G. C., 1957, Pleiotropy, natural selection, and the evolution of senescence, Evolution 11: 398.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  431. Wilson, A. C., 1976, Gene regulation in evolution, in: Molecular Evolution ( F. J. Ayala, ed.), pp. 225–234, Sinauer Assoc. Inc., Sunderland, Massachusetts.Google Scholar
  432. Wilson, A. C., Sarich, V. M., and Maxson, L. R., 1974, The importance of gene rearrangement in evolution: Evidence from studies on rates of chromosomal, protein and anatomical evolution, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 71: 3028.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  433. Wilson, A. C., Carlson, S. S., and White, T. J., 1977, Biochemical evolution, Ann. Rev. Biochem. 46: 573.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  434. Wilson, E. 0., 1975, Sociobiology, Belknap Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts.Google Scholar
  435. Wisniewski, H. M., and Soifer, D., 1979, Neurofibrillary pathology: Current status and research perspectives, Mech. Ageing Dev. 9: 119.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  436. Wodinsky, J., 1977, Hormonal inhibition of feeding and death in octopus: Control by optic gland secretion, Science 198: 948.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  437. Wyngaarden, J. B., and Kelley, W. N., 1979, Disorders of purine and pyrimidine metabolism, in: Contemporary Metabolism, Vol. 1 ( N. Freinkel, ed.), pp. 1–130, Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  438. Yagi, K., ed., 1982, Lipid Peroxides in Biology and Medicine, Academic Press, New York. Younes, M., and Siegers, C. -P., 1981, Mechanistic aspects of enhanced lipid peroxidation following glutathione depletion in vivo, Chem. Biol. Interact. 34: 257.Google Scholar
  439. Zigler, J. S., and Goosey, J., 1981, Aging of protein molecules: Lens crystallins as a model system, Trends Biochem. Sci. 6: 133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  440. Zs.-Nagy, I., 1979, The role of membrane structure and function in cellular aging: A review, Mech. Ageing Dev. 9: 237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  441. Zuckerkandl, E., 1976a, Gene control in eukaryotes and the C-value paradox. “Excess” DNA as an impediment to transcription of coding sequences, J. Molec. Evol. 9: 73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  442. Zuckerkandl, E., 1976b, Programs of gene action and progressive evolution, in: Molecular Anthropology ( M. Goodman and R. E. Tashian, eds.), pp. 387–447, Plenum Press, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • Richard G. Cutler
    • 1
  1. 1.Gerontology Research Center, National Institute on AgingBaltimore City HospitalsBaltimoreUSA

Personalised recommendations