Effects of Alcohol on γ-Glutamyl Transpeptidase (GGTP)

  • Edward Reyes


γ-Glutamyl transpeptidase [(γ-glutamyl)-peptide:amino acid γ-glutamyl transferase, EC] is a membrane-bound glycoprotein which catalyzes the transfer of the γ-glutamyl moiety of glutathione to various peptide acceptors (Hanes et al., 1952; Rosalki, 1975). GGTP which has been isolated and studied in a wide variety of plant and animal tissues has been found in high concentrations in membrane fractions derived from tissues involved in the transport of small molecules, such as the brush border of proximal convoluted tubules of the kidney and the choroid plexus of brain (Zelazo and Orlowski, 1976; Okonwo et al., 1974). There is evidence to suggest that the enzyme is involved in the active transport of amino acids and biogenic amines across the blood-brain-barrier via the γ-glutamyl cycle (Hagenfeldt et al., 1978; Tsuji et al., 1977).


Choroid Plexus Problem Drinker Proximal Convoluted Tubule Peptide Acceptor GGTP Activity 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Acheampong-Mensah, D., 1976, Activity of y-glutamyl transpeptidase in serum of patients receiving anticonvlusant or anticoagulant therapy, J. Clin. Biochem., 9: 67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Andrews, P., 1964, Estimation of molecular weights of proteins by Sephadex gel filtration, Biochem. J., 91: 222.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Davis, B.J., 1964, Disc electrophoresis-II method and application to human serum proteins, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci., 121: 404.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Hagenfeldt, L., A. Larrson, and R. Andersson, 1978, The gamma glutamyl cycle and amino acid transport, N. Eng. J. Med., 299: 587.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Hanes, C.S., F.J.R. Hird, and F.A. Isherwood, 1952, Enzymic transpeptidation reactions involving y-glutamyl peptides and a-amino-acyl peptides, Biochem. J., 51: 25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Huseby, N.E., 1978, Multiple forms of y-glutamyltransferase in normal human liver, bile and serum, Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 522: 354.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Kok, P.J.M.J., B. Seidel, H.C. Holtkamp and J. Huisman, 1978Google Scholar
  8. A new procedure for the visualization of multiple forms of gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT). Results in normals, patients receiving enzyme-inducing drugs and patients having liver parenchymal lesions, Clin. Chim. Acta, 90: 209.Google Scholar
  9. Konrad, P.N., R. Richards, W.N. Valentine, and D.E. Paglia, 1972, y-glutamyl cysteine synthetase deficiency, N. Eng. J. Med., 286–557.Google Scholar
  10. Kottgen, E., W. Reutter, and W. Gerok, 1976, Two different gamma-glutamyltransferases during development of liver and small intestine: A fetal (Sialo-) and an adult (Asialo-) glycoprotein, J. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm., 72: 61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Lowry, D.H., N.J. Rosebrough, A.L. Farr, and R.J. Randall, 1952, Protein measurement with the folin phenol reagent, J. Biol. Chem., 193: 265.Google Scholar
  12. Okonkwo, P.O., M. Orlowski, and J.P. Green, 1974, Enzymes of the y-glutamyl cycle in the chorid plexus and brain, J. Neurochem., 22: 1053.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Reyes, E., 1977, Brain 1-glutamyl transpeptidase levels in mice genetically selected for sensitivity to ethanol, Res. Comm. Chem. Pathol. Pharmacol., 17: 353.Google Scholar
  14. Reyes, E., 1978, Rat brain y-glutamyl transpeptidase: Effects of alcohol, Res. Comm. Chem. Pathol. Pharmacol., 21: 145.Google Scholar
  15. Reyes, E., and T.D. Barela, in press, Isolation and pyrification of multiple forms of y-glutamyl transpeptidase from rat brain, Neurochem. Res. Google Scholar
  16. Reyes, E., and U.R. Miller, in press, Serum gamma-glutamyl trans-peptidase as a diagnostic aid in problem drinkers, Addict. Behay.Google Scholar
  17. Reyes, E., W.R. Miller, C.A. Taylor, and C.T. Spaulding, 1978, The activity of •y-glutamyl transpeptidase in the serum of problem drinkers, Proc. West. Pharmacol. Soc., 21: 289.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Reyes, E., and E.E. Prather, 1976, Subcellular and regional localization of y-glutamyl transpeptidase in sheep brain, Neurochem. Res., 1: 251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Rieder, H.P., H. Zurfluh, and S. Jeggs, 1977, The activity of gamma-glutamyl transferase in serum of multiple sclerosis and other neurological diseases, Clin. Chim. Acta, 79: 211.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Rollason, J.G., G. Pincherle, and D. Robinson, 1972, Serum gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase in relation to alcohol consumption, Clin. Chem. Acta, 39: 75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Rosalki, S.B., 1975, Gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, Adv. Clin. Chem., 17: 53Google Scholar
  22. Rosalki, S.B., and D. Tarlow, 1974, Optimized determination of y-glutamyltransferase by reaction-rate analysis, Clin. Chem. 21: 1121.Google Scholar
  23. Szewczuk, A., H. Milnerowicz, and K.A. Sobiech, 1978, Isolation and roperties of y-glutamyl transpeptidase from Morris Hepatoma 5123D, Neoplasma, 25: 297.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Tsuji, M., Y. Matsuoka, and T. Nakajimia, 1977, Studies on formation of y-glutamylamines in rat brain and their synthetic and catabolic enzymes, J. Neurochem, 29: 633.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Zelazo, P., and M. Orlowski, 1976, yGlutamyl transpeptidase of sheep kidney cortex isolation, catalytic properties and dissociation into two polypeptide chains, Eur. J. Biochem.,61:147.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1980

Authors and Affiliations

  • Edward Reyes
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Pharmacology, School of MedicineUniversity of New MexicoAlbuquerqueUSA

Personalised recommendations