Immunomodulation by Small Molecular Weight Bacterial Products

  • Herman Friedman
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 166)


Bacteria are widely recognized for their ability to modulate the immune response as well as stimulate natural defense mechanisms in a nonspecific manner (1, 2). There are many bacterial products which have been investigated in detail concerning their effects on host immunity. In this regard endotoxins derived from gram negative bacteria have been studied in much detail. There are a vast number of biological properties attributed to endotoxin, but their unique capacity to stimulate both immunologically specific and nonspecific host defense mechanisms is unquestionably an important property. In recent years many investigations have been concerned with the mechanisms whereby bacterial products, including the endotoxins, influence the immune response (1, 2). It is now apparent that many microbial cell wall components, including endotoxins, are potent stimulators of interleukin formation by macrophages and/or other lymphoid cells (3, 4). These interleukins undoubtedly serve an important role in modulating the immune response of other lymphoid cells.


Antibody Response Spleen Cell Bacterial Product Small Molecular Weight Thymus Cell 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • Herman Friedman
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Medical Microbiology and ImmunologyUniversity of South Florida College of MedicineTampaUSA

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