Environmental Requirements

  • Craig S. Tucker
  • Edwin H. Robinson


Channel catfish grow fastest and are healthiest when reared under an optimal set of environmental conditions. When any factor deviates from the optimum, the general well-being of the fish is affected. Fish respond to suboptimal conditions (stressors) by modifying metabolism or behavior in an attempt to adapt to the new conditions. Initial reactions (stress responses) include release of hormones that prepare the animal for emergency action by mobilizing energy reserves and increasing respiratory efficiency. If stress is severe or maintained over a long period, the capacity of the fish to adapt is exceeded and some of the initial responses may actually have deleterious consequences. The ultimate results of severe or prolonged stress include reduced growth, impaired immunity to infectious disease organisms, poor reproductive success, or death (Pickering 1981).


Hydrogen Sulfide Dissolve Oxygen Concentration Oxygen Consumption Rate Total Alkalinity Channel Catfish 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Allen, K. O., and J. W. Avault, Jr. 1971. Effects of salinity on growth and survival of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus. Proceedings of the Southeastern Association of Game and Fish Commissioners 23: 135–139.Google Scholar
  2. Boyd, C. E. 1979. Water Quality in Warmwater Fish Ponds. Auburn: Auburn University/Alabama Agricultural Experiment Station.Google Scholar
  3. Busch, R. L. 1985. Channel catfish culture in ponds. In Channel Catfish Culture, ed. C. S. Tucker, pp. 13–84. Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  4. Colt, J. 1986. Gas supersaturation—impact on the design and operation of aquatic systems. Aquacultural Engineering 5: 49–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Colt, J., and D. Armstrong. 1981. Nitrogen toxicity to crustaceans, fish and molluscs. Bio-Engineering Symposium for Fish Culture (FCS Publ. 1 ): 34–47.Google Scholar
  6. Colt, J., and G. Tchobanoglous. 1978. Chronic exposure of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, to ammonia: effects on growth and survival. Aquaculture 15: 353–372.Google Scholar
  7. Davis, K. B., C. A. Goudie, B. A. Simco, R. MacGregor, and N. C. Parker. 1986. Environmental regulation and influence of the eyes and pineal gland on the gonadal cycle and spawning in channel catfish ( Ictalurus punctatus ). Physiological Zoology 59: 717–724.Google Scholar
  8. Holeton, G. F. 1980. Oxygen as an environmental factor of fishes. In Environmental Physiology of Fishes, ed. M. A. Ali, pp. 7–32. New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  9. Mallatt, J. 1985. Fish gill structural changes induced by toxicants and other irritants: a statistical review. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 42: 630648.Google Scholar
  10. Perry, W. G., Jr., and J. W. Avault, Jr. 1970. Culture of blue, channel, and white catfish in brackish water ponds. Proceedings of the Southeastern Association of Game and Fish Commissioners 23: 592–597.Google Scholar
  11. Pickering, A. D., ed. 1981. Stress and Fish. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  12. Piper, R. G., I. B. McElwain, L. E. Orme, J. O. McCraren, L. G. Fowler, and J. R. Leonard. 1982. Fish Hatchery Management. Washington, D.C.: United States Fish and Wildlife Service.Google Scholar
  13. Reynolds, W. W., and M. E. Casterlin. 1980. Role of temperature in the environmental physiology of fishes. In Environmental Physiology of Fishes, ed. M. A. Ali, pp. 497–518. New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  14. Schwedler, T. E., and C. S. Tucker. 1983. Empirical relationship between percent methemoglobin in channel catfish blood and dissolved nitrite and chloride in ponds. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 112: 117–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Smith, L. L., P. M. Oseid, L. L. Kimball, and S. M. El-Kaudelgy. 1976. Toxicity of hydrogen sulfide to various life history stages of bluegill ( Lepomis macrochirus ). Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 105: 442–449.Google Scholar
  16. Steeby, J. A. 1987. Effect of spawning container type and placement depth on channel catfish spawning success in ponds. Progressive Fish-Culturist 49: 308–310.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Tucker, C. S., R. Francis-Floyd, and M. H. Beleau. 1989. Nitrite-induced anemia in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 43: 295–301.Google Scholar
  18. Wallen, I. E. 1951. The direct effect of turbidity on fishes. Oklahoma AM College Bulletin 48: 1–27.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Craig S. Tucker
    • 1
  • Edwin H. Robinson
    • 1
  1. 1.Mississippi State UniversityUSA

Personalised recommendations