Tire Traction on Snow-Covered Pavements



A generalized theory for the traction of a pneumatic tire on a snow-covered pavement is presented.

A general description of how a tire provides traction on snow is given with several aspects of the complex interaction being presented in detail. Snow is then classified on the basis of physical properties that are of importance in snow traction. Finally, a general mathematical theory for the traction of a pneumatic tire on snow is developed.


Shear Strength Traction Force Snow Layer Contact Patch Wheel Slip 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    A. R. Williams, T. Holmes, and G. Lees, “Toward the Unified Design of Tire and Pavement for the Reduction of Skidding Accidents,” SAE Paper No. 720162, January 1972.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    R. R. Hegmon, T. D. Gillespie, and W. E. Meyer, “Measurement Principles Applied to Skid Testing,” ASTM STP 530, pp. 78–90, April 1973.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    D. Freitag, A. Green, and N. Murphy, “Normal Stresses at the Tire-Soil Interface in Yielding Soils,” Highway Research Record No 74, pp. 1-18, 1965.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    G. Dagan and M. Tulin, “A Study of the Steady Flow of a Rigid-Plastic Clay Beneath a Driven Rigid Wheel,” Journal of Terramechanics, Vol. 6, No. 2, pp. 9–27, 1969.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Z. Janosi, “Theoretical Analysis of the Performance of Tracks and Wheels Operating on Deformable Soils,” Transactions of the ASAE, p. 133, 1962.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    J. Wong and A. R. Reece, “Prediction of Rigid Wheel Performance Based on the Analysis of Soil-Wheel Stresses. Part I. Driven Rigid Wheels,” Journal of Terramechanics, Vol. 4, No. 1, 1967.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    S. Knight and D. Freitag, “Comments on Mobility Research,” SAE Paper No. 782B, 1964.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    G. Krick, “Radial and Shear Stress Distribution Under Rigid Wheels and Pneumatic Tires Operating on Yielding Soils with Consideration of Tire Deformation,” Journal of Terramechanics, Vol. 6, No. 3, pp. 73–98, 1969.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    L. L. Karafiath, “Soil-Tire Model for the Analysis of Off-Road Tire Performance,” Grumman Aerospace Corporation Research Department Memorandum RM-541, May 1972.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    W.M. Home and U. T. Joyner, “Pneumatic Tire Hydroplaning and Some Effects on Vehicle Performance,” presented at the SAE International Automotive Engineering Congress, Detroit, Mich., January 11–15, 1965.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    C. Gupta and A. Pandya, “Behavior of Soil Under Dynamic Loading: Its Application to Tillage Implements,” Transactions of the ASAE, pp. 352-358, 1967.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    M. Mellor, “Properties of Snow,” U.S. Army Material Command, Hanover, New Hampshire, 1964.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    M. G. Bekker, Theory of Land Locomotion, The University of Michigan Press, p. 277, 1956.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    R. Moyer, “Braking and Traction Tests on Ice, Snow, and on Bare Pavements,” Highway Research Board, Proceedings of the 27th Annual Meeting, Washington, B.C., pp. 340–360, 1947.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    R. Smith and D. Clough, “Effectiveness of Tires Under Winter Driving Conditions,” Highway Research Board, Proceedings of the 51st Annual Meeting, January 17–21, 1972.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    M. Hvorslev, “The Basic Sinkage Equations and Bearing Capacity Theories,” Technical Report M-70-1, U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, 1970.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    T. Ikeda and S. Persson, “A Track Shoe for Soft Soil,” Transactions of the ASAE, pp. 746-749, 753, 1968.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    D. Nordstrom, “Polytrac — A Unique Approach to Engineering Problems,” SAE Paper No. 720745, 1972.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    S. Kinosita and E. Akitaya, “Classification of Snow and Ice on Roads,” Highway Research Board Special Report No. 115, 1970.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Anonymous, “Review Section: The Vehicle/Soil Relationship,” Automobile Abstracts, pp. 3-4, August 1971.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    P. Schaerer, “Compaction or Removal of Wet Snow by Traffic,” Highway Research Board Special Report No. 115, 1970.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    A. L. Browne, H. Cheng and A. Kistler, “Dynamic Hydroplaning of Pneumatic Tires,” Wear, 20 pp. 1-28 1972.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    S. Weiss, W. Harrison, L. Abarca and M. Bekker, “Preliminary Study of Snow Values Related to Vehicle Performance,” Report No. 2, Land Locomotion Research Lab., 1956.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    A. Assur, “Locomotion Over Soft Soil and Snow,” SAE Paper No. 782F, 1964.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    C. Nuttall and R. McGowan, “Scale Models of Vehicles in Soils and Snows,” First International Conference on the Mechanics of Vehicle Soil Systems, Turin, Italy, 1961.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    W. Harrison and T. Czako, “Over-Snow Vehicle Performance Studies,” U.S. Army Ordinancy Tank-Automotive Command RR-46, 1961.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    F. Zoz and G. Steinbruegge, “Effect of Section Thickness on Shear Characteristics of an Artificial Soil,” Transactions of the ASAE, pp. 6-10, 1968.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    S. Cho, H. Schwanghard and H. von Sybel, “The Spacing Effect of Track Shoes on Loose Soils,” Journal of Terramechanics, Vol. 6, No. 3, pp. 21–45, 1969.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    M. Mellor, “Snow Mechanics,” Applied Mechanics Reviews, Vol. 19, No. 5, pp. 379–389, 1966.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    P. Hobbs, “The Effect of Time on the Physical Properties of Deposited Snow,” Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 70, No. 16, pp. 3903–3907, 1965.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    A. L. Browne, “Traction of Pneumatic Tires on Snow,” GM Research Publication GMR-1346, March 1, 1973.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    K. Wiendieck, “Stress-Displacement Relations and Terrain-Vehicle Mechanics: A Critical Discussion,” Journal of Terramechanics, Vol. 5, No. 3, pp. 67–85, 1968.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    M. G. Bekker, Introduction to Terrain Vehicle Systems, The University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, 1969.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    T. Liang and C. Yung, “A Microscopic Study of Tractive Performance of a Lugged Tire Operating on Sand,” Transactions of the ASAE, Vol. 9, pp. 513–515, 1966.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1974

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.General Motors Research LaboratoriesWarrenUSA

Personalised recommendations