Two-Probe (Spreading Resistance) Measurements for Evaluation of Semiconductor Materials and Devices

  • James R. Ehrstein
Part of the NATO Advanced Study Institutes Series book series (NSSB, volume 46)


Interest in two-probe resistance, (spreading resistance) measurements dates back perhaps 20 years. It arose at a time when the development of a number of techniques for measuring resistivity and resistivity profiles was being pursued, primarily for germanium and silicon technology. In the early days of its use, diffusions were relatively deep and control of epitaxial resistivity was an important problem. The structures of interest have changed noticeably in the interveninng years. Ion implantation has come into regular use and the dimensional scale of diffusions and epitaxy have been considerably reduced.


Depth Profile Sheet Resistance Contact Radius Resistivity Profile Dopant Density 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1979

Authors and Affiliations

  • James R. Ehrstein
    • 1
  1. 1.Electron Devices Division Center for Electronics and Electrical Engineering National Engineering LaboratoryNational Bureau of StandardsUSA

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