Advertisement

The Relationship Between Antigenic Structure and Immune Specificity

  • E. Benjamini
  • R. J. Scibienski
  • K. Thompson

Abstract

There has built up over the years an accumulation of data dealing with the specificity of antigen-antibody interactions. Numerous studies, some utilizing admittedly ill-defined antigens, have made solid contributions to our knowledge concerning some of the structures and forces involved in immune interactions. These have been the subject of numerous reviews (Karush, 1962; Kaminski, 1965; Singer, 1965;Sela, 1966, 1967, 1969;Crumpton, 1967b;Kabat, 1966, 1968; Pressman and Grossberg, 1968; Goodman, 1969) and will therefore be given only cursory treatment herein. However, knowledge of the precise interrelationships involved in these interactions can best be derived from studies with antigens of defined structure. The present effort will be limited to coverage of selected protein antigens of known structure and/or sequence. It is not our intent to review the literature, but rather to focus our attention on several representative model proteins, in an attempt to extract from the diverse findings common denominators and to bring forth some unifying concepts dealing with various parameters of the immune response. We extend our apologies to those workers in the field whose contributions have not been included.

Keywords

Antigenic Determinant Antigenic Activity Immune Specificity Peritoneal Exudate Cell Antigenic Structure 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Anastasi, A., Erspamer, V., and Endean R. (1968). Arch. Biochem. 125: 57.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Anderer, F. A. (1963a). Z. Naturforsch. 18b:1010. Anderer, F. A. (1963b). Biochim. Biophys. Acta 71: 246.Google Scholar
  3. Anderer, F. A., and Handschuh, D. (1963). Z. Naturforsch. 18b: 1015.Google Scholar
  4. Anderer, F. A., and Schlumberger, H. D. (1965). Biochim. Biophys. Acta 97: 503.Google Scholar
  5. Anderer, F. A., Uhlig, H., Weber, E., and Schramm, G. (1960). Nature 186: 922.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Anderson, J. C., Barton, R. A., Gregory, R. A., Hardy, P. H., Kenner, G. W., MacLeod, J. K., Preston, J., Sheppard, R. C., and Morley, J. S. (1964). Nature 204: 933.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Anfinsen, C. B. (1962). Brookhaven Symp. Biol. 14: 184.Google Scholar
  8. Arnason, B. G., Jankovic, D. B., Waksman, B. H., and Wennersten, C. (1962). J. Exptl. Med. 116: 177.Google Scholar
  9. Arnheim, N., and Wilson, A. C. (1967). J. Biol. Chem. 242: 3951.Google Scholar
  10. Arnheim, N., Prager, E. M., and Wilson, A. C. (1969). J. Biol. Chem. 244:2085. Arnheim, N., Sobel, J., and Canfield, R. (1971). In preparation.Google Scholar
  11. Arnon, R. (1968). Europ. J. Biochem. 5: 583.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Arnon, R., and Sela, M. (1969). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 62: 163.Google Scholar
  13. Arquilla, E. R., (1962). Endocrinology 14: 146.Google Scholar
  14. Arquilla, E. R., Ooms, H., and Finn, J. (1966). Diabetologia 2: 1.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Arquilla, E. R., Ooms, H., and Mercola, D. (1968). J. Clin. Invest. 47: 474.Google Scholar
  16. Arquilla, E. R., Bromer, W. W., and Mercola, D. (1969). Diabetes 18: 193.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Askonas, B. A., and Smyth, D. G. (1964). Nature 201: 496.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Aspinall, R. L., Meyer, R. K., Graetzer, M. A., and Wolfe, H. R. (1963). J. Immunol. 90: 87 2.Google Scholar
  19. Atassi, M. S. (1966). Nature 209: 1209.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Atassi, M. Z. (1967a). Biochem. J. 103: 29.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Atassi, M. Z. (1967b). Biochem. J. 102: 478.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Atassi, M. Z. (1968). Biochemistry 7: 3078.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Atassi, M. Z. (1969), Immunochemistry 6: 801.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Atassi, M. Z., and Caruso, D. R. (1968). Biochemistry 7: 699.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Atassi, M. Z., and Saplin, B. J. (1968). Biochemistry 7: 688.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Atassi, M. Z., and Singhal, R. P. (1970). Biochemistry 9: 3854.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Atassi, M. Z., and Thomas, A. V. (1969). Biochemistry 8: 3385.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. August, C. S., Rosen, F. S., Filler, R. M., Janeway, C. A., Markowski, B., and Ray, H. E. M. (1968). Lancet 2: 1210.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Avey, H. P., Carlisle, C. H., and Shukla, P. D. (1962). Brookhaven Symp. Biol. 14:199. Axelrod, A. E., Traketellis, A. C., and Hofmann, K. (1963). Nature 197: 146.Google Scholar
  30. Benjamini, E., Young, J. D., Shimizu, M., and Leung, C. Y. (1964). Biochemistry 3: 1115.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Benjamini, E., Young, J. D., Peterson, W. J., Leung, C. Y., and Shimizu, M. (1965). Biochemistry 4: 2081.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Benjamini, E., Shimizu, M., Young, J. D., and Leung, C. Y. (1968a). Biochemistry 7: 1253.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Benjamini, E., Shimizu, M., Young, J.D., and Leung, C. Y. (1968b). Biochemistry 7:1261. Benjamini, E., Shimizu, M., Young, J. D., and Leung, C. Y. (1969). Biochemistry 8: 2242.Google Scholar
  34. Benjamini, E., Michaeli, D., and Young, J. D. (1971). In Sela, M. (ed.), Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology, Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg (in press).Google Scholar
  35. Bentley, P. H., Kenner, G. W., and Sheppard, R. C. (1966). Nature 209: 583.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Berson, S. A., and Yalow, R. S. (1959). J. Clin. Invest. 38: 2019.Google Scholar
  37. Berson, S. A., and Yalow, R. S. (1963). Science 139: 844.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Blake, C. C. F., Koenig, D. F., Mail, G. A., North, A. C. T., Phillips, D. C., and Sarma, V. R. (1965). Nature 206: 757.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Bonavida, B. (1968). Ph.D. thesis, University of California, Los Angeles.Google Scholar
  40. Bonavida, B., and Sercarz, E. E. (1971). Europ. J. Immunol. I: 166.Google Scholar
  41. Bonavida, B., Miller, A., and Sercarz E. E. (1969). Biochemistry 8: 968.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Borek, F. (1968). In Sela, M. (ed.), Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology, Vol. 43, Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, p. 126.Google Scholar
  43. Boyd, B. W., and Peart, W. S. (1968). Lancet II: 129.Google Scholar
  44. Brandriss, M. W., and Bullock, W. E. (1970). J. Immunol. 105: 1416.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Branster, M., and Cinader, B. (1961). J. Immunol. 87: 18.Google Scholar
  46. Braunitzer, G., Gehring-Miiller, R., Hilschmann, N., Hilse, K., Hobom, G., Rudloff, V., and Wittman-Liebold, B. (1961). Z. Physiol. Chem. 325: 283.Google Scholar
  47. Bromer, W. W., Staub, A., Sinn, L. G., and Behrens, O. K. (1957). J. Am. Chem. Soc. 79: 2807.Google Scholar
  48. Brown, R. K. (1962). J. Biol. Chem. 237: 1162.Google Scholar
  49. Brown, R. K. (1963). Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 103: 754.Google Scholar
  50. Brown, R. K., Delaney, R., Levine, L., and Van Vunakis, H. (1959a). J. Biol. Chem. 234: 2043.Google Scholar
  51. Brown, R. K., Durieux, J., Delaney, R., Leikhim, E., and Clark, B. J. (1959b). Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 81: 524.Google Scholar
  52. Brown, R. K., Tacey, B. C., and Anfinsen, C. B. (1960). Biochim. Biophys. Acta 39: 528.Google Scholar
  53. Brown, R. K., McEwan, M., Mikoryak, C. A., and Polkowski, J. (1967). J. Biol. Chem. 242: 3007.Google Scholar
  54. Brunfeldt, K., Hansen, B. A., and Jorgensen, K. R. (1968). Acta Endocrinol. 57:307. Canfield, R. E. (1963). J. Biol. Chem. 238: 2698.Google Scholar
  55. Canfield, R. E., and Liu, A. K. (1968). J. Biol. Chem. 240: 1997.Google Scholar
  56. Catt, K., and Coghlan, J. P. (1967). J.Exptl. Biol. Med. Sci. 45: 269.Google Scholar
  57. Chiller, J. M., Habicht, G. S., and Weigle, W. O. (1971). Science 171: 813.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Christensen, J. A., Gerwing Levy, J., and Kelly, B. (1971). Biochemistry (in press).Google Scholar
  59. Cinader, B. (1967). In Antibodies to Biologically Active Molecules, Pergamon Press, Oxford, p. 85.Google Scholar
  60. Cinader, B., and Lafferty, K. J. (1963). Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 103: 653.Google Scholar
  61. Claman, H. N., and Chaperon, E. A. (1969). Transplant. Rev. 1: 92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Claman, H. N., Chaperon, E. A., and Triplett, R. F. (1966). J. Immunol. 97:828. Clark, C., and Munoz, J. (1970). J. Immunol. 105: 574.Google Scholar
  63. Cooper, M. D., Percy, D. Y., Peterson, R. D. O., Gabrielson, A. E., and Good, R. A. (1968). In Birth Defects, Immunologic Deficiency Diseases in Man, National Foundation for the March of Dimes, p. 7.Google Scholar
  64. Crestfield, A. M., Stein, W. H., and Moore, S. (1962). Arch. Biochem. Biophys. Suppl. 1: 217.Google Scholar
  65. Crumpton, M. J. (1964). Biochem. J. 91: 40.Google Scholar
  66. Crumpton, M. J. (1966). Biochem. J. 100: 223.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Crumpton, M. J. (1967a). Nature 245: 17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Crumpton, M. J. (1967b). In Cinader, B. (ed.), Antibodies to Biologically Active Molecules, Pergamon Press, Oxford, pp. 61.Google Scholar
  69. Crumpton, M. J., and Wilkinson, J. M. (1965). Biochem. J. 94: 545.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Crumpton, M. J., Law, H. D., and Strong, R. C. (1970). Biochem. J. 116: 923.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. d’Auriac, G. A., Meyer, P., and Milliez, P. (1969). Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. Paris Ser. D 268: 1886.Google Scholar
  72. Davidson, J. K., and Haist, R. E. (1965). Can. J. Physiol. Pharmacol. 43: 373.Google Scholar
  73. Davidson, J. K., Zeigler, M., and Haist, R. E. (1968). Diabetes 17: 8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Davidson, J. K., Zeigler, M., and Haist, R. E. (1969). Diabetes 18: 212.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Davies, A. J. S. (1969). Transplant. Rev. 1: 43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Dayhoff, M. O., and Eck, R. V. (1969). Atlas of Protein Sequence and Structure. Deodhar, S. D. (1960). J. Exptl. Med. 111: 429.Google Scholar
  77. De Zoeten, L. W., and De Bruin, O. A. (1961). Rec. Tray. Chim. 80: 907.Google Scholar
  78. De Zoeten, L. W., and Havinga, E. (1961). Rec. Tray. Chim. 80: 917.Google Scholar
  79. Dietrich, F. M. (1967), Immunochemistry 4: 65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Di George, A. M. (1968). In Birth Defects, Immunologic Deficiency Diseases in Man, National Foundation for the March of Dimes, p. 116.Google Scholar
  81. Edmundson, A. B. (1965). Nature 205: 883.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Elliot, D. F., Lewis, G. P., and Horton, E. W. (1960). Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 3: 87.Google Scholar
  83. Fanger, M. W., Hart, D. A., Wells, S. V., and Nisonoff, A. (1970). J. Immunol. 105:1484. Fearney, F. J. (1970). M.S. thesis, San Francisco State College, San Francisco, California. Felber, J. P., and Micheli, A. ( 1967 ). In Cinader, B. (ed.). Antibodies to Biologically Active Molecules, Pergamon Press, Oxford, pp. 277.Google Scholar
  84. Felber, J. P., Ashcroft, S. H. J., Villanueva, A., and Vannotti, A. (1966). Nature 211: 654.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Finn, F. M., and Hofmann, K. (1965). J. Am. Chem. Soc. 87: 645.Google Scholar
  86. Fischer, K., Hachmeister, V., and Kracht, J. (1965). Naturwissenschaften 52: 347.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Fleischer, N., Givens, J. R., Abe, K., and Nicholson, W. E. (1965). J. Clin. Invest. 44: 1047.Google Scholar
  88. Fleischer, N., Givens, J. R., Abe, K., Nicholson, W. E., and Liddle, G. W. (1966). Endocrinology 78: 1067.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Fujio, H., Kishiguchi, S., Shinka, S., Saiki, Y., and Amano, T. (1959). Biken J. 2:55. Fujio, H., Saiki, Y., Imanishi, M., Shinka, S., and Amano, T. (1962). Biken J. 5:201. Fujio, H., Imanishi, M., Nishioka, K., and Amano, T. (1968a). Biken J. 11:207. Fujio, H., Imanishi, M., Nishioka, K., and Amano, T. (1968b). Biken J. 11:219. Gelzer, J. (1968),Immunochemistry 5: 23.Google Scholar
  90. Gerwing, J., and Thompson, K. (1968). Biochemistry 7: 3888.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Good, R. A., Peterson, R. D. A., Perey, D. Y., Finstad, J., and Cooper, M. D. (1968). In Birth Defects, Immunologic Deficiency Diseases in Man, National Foundation for the March of Dimes, p. 17.Google Scholar
  92. Goodfriend, T., Fasman, G., Kemp, D., and Levine, L. (1966). Immunochemistry 3: 223.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Goodfriend, T. L., Levine, L., and Fasman, G. D. (1964). Science 144: 1344.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Goodman, J. W. (1969). Immunochemistry 6: 139.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Goodman, J. W., Nitecki, D. E., and Stoltenberg, I. M. (1968). Biochemistry 7:706. Gregory, R. A. (1966). Gastroenterology 51: 953.Google Scholar
  96. Grodsky, G. M. (1965). Rep. Ross. Pediat. Res. Conf. 51: 8.Google Scholar
  97. Grodsky, G. M., Peng, C. T., and Forsham, P. H. (1959). Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 81: 264.Google Scholar
  98. Gross, E., and Witkop, B. (1962). J. Biol. Chem. 237: 1856.Google Scholar
  99. Haber, E., Page, L. B., and Jacoby, G. A. (1965). Biochemistry 4: 693.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Haber, E., Richards, F. F., Spragg, J., Austen, K. F., Valloton, M., and Page, L. B. (1967). Cold Spring Harbor Sym. Quant. Biol. 32: 299.Google Scholar
  101. Halikis, D. N., and Arquilla, E. R. (1961). Diabetes 10: 142.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Harris, J. I., and Knight, C. A. (1955). J. Biol. Chem. 214: 215.Google Scholar
  103. Hedwall, P. R. (1968). Brit. J. Pharmacol. 34: 623.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Hollemans, J., Van Der Meer, J., and Touber, J. L. (1968). Nature 217: 277.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Imura, H., Sparks, L. L., Gordsky, G. M., and Forsham, P. H. (1965). J. Clin. Endrocrinol. Metab. 25: 1361.Google Scholar
  106. Jeener, R. (1965). Virology 26: 10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Kabat, E. A. (1968). Structural Concepts in Immunology and Immunochemistry, Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, Inc., New York.Google Scholar
  108. Kabat, E. A. (1966). J. Immunol. 97: 1.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Kaminski, M. (1965). In Progress in Allergy, Vol. 9, S. Karger, Basel, pp. 79.Google Scholar
  110. Kartha, G., Bello, J., and Harker, D. (1967). Nature 213: 862.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Karush, F. (1962). Adv. Immunol. 2: 1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Katz, D. H., Paul, W. E., Goidl, E. A., and Benacerraf, B. (1970). J. Exptl. Med. 132:261. Kelly, B., and Gerwing Levy, J. (1971). Biochemistry 10: 1763.Google Scholar
  113. Kendrew, J. C., Watson, H. C., Strandberg, B. E., Dickerson, R. E., Phillips, D. C., and Shore, V. C. (1961). Nature 190: 666PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Kerp, L., Kasemir, H., Kieling, F., and Steinhilber, S. (1968). Verh. Gent. Ges. Inn. Med. 74: 552.Google Scholar
  115. Kerp, L., Kasemir, H., Kieling, F., and Steinhilber, S. (1969). Internat. Arch. Allergy 36: 143.Google Scholar
  116. Kitagawa, M., Onoue, K., Okamura, Y., Mai, M., and Yamamura, Y. (1960). J. Biochem. 48: 483.Google Scholar
  117. Knight, C. A. (1961). In Heidelberger, M., Plescia, O. J., and Day, R. A. (eds.), Immunochemical Approaches to Problems in Microbiology, Rutgers University Press, New Brunswick, N.J., p. 161.Google Scholar
  118. Kraus, L. M. (1967a). Automation in Analytical Chemistry, Technicon Symposium 1966, pp. 424.Google Scholar
  119. Kraus, L. M. (1967b). J. Immunol. 99: 894.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Kraus. L. M., and Sassano, F. G. (1965). Proc. Soc. Exptl. Biol. Med. 118: 1037.Google Scholar
  121. Landsteiner, K. (1945). The Specificity of Serological Reactions, 2nd ed., Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass.Google Scholar
  122. Lee, T. H., Lerner, A. B., and Buettner-Janusch, V. (1961). J. Biol. Chem. 236:2970. Leskowitz, S. (1963). J. Exptl. Med. 117: 909.Google Scholar
  123. Lockwood, D. H., and Prout, T. E. (1962). Clin. Res. 10: 401.Google Scholar
  124. Margoliash, E., and Schejter, A. (1966). Adv. Protein Chem. 21: 113.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Margoliash, E., Reichlin, M., and Nisonoff, A. (1967a). In Ramachandran, G. N. (ed.), Conformation of Biopolymers, Academic Press, New York, p. 253.Google Scholar
  126. Margoliash, E., Reichlin, M., and Nisonoff, A. (1967b). In Structure and Function of Cytochromes, pp. 269.Google Scholar
  127. Margoliash, E., Nisonoff, A., and Reichlin, M. (1970). J. Biol. Chem. 245: 931.Google Scholar
  128. Mayon, E., Arnon, R., Sela, M., Perin, J. P., and Jolies, P. (1970). Biochim. Biophys. Acta 214: 222.Google Scholar
  129. Maron, I., Shiozawa, C., Arnon, R., and Sela, M. (1971). Biochemistry 10:763. Matsubara, H., and Smith, E. L. (1962). J. Biol. Chem. 237: 3575.Google Scholar
  130. May, J. E., and Brown, R. K. (1968), Immunochemistry 5: 79.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. McGuigan, J. E. (1967). Gastroenterology 53: 697.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. McGuigan, J. E. (1968a). Gastroenterology 54: 1005.Google Scholar
  133. McGuigan, J. E. (1968b). Gastroenterology 54: 1012.Google Scholar
  134. McGuigan, J. E. (1969a). Gastroenterology 56: 429.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. McGuigan, J. E. (1969b). Gastroenterology 56: 858.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Merigan, T. C., and Potts, J. T. (1966). Biochemistry 5: 910.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Metzger, H. (1970). Ann. Rev. Biochem. 39: 889.Google Scholar
  138. Metzger, H., Wofsy, L., and Singer, S. J. (1963). Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 103:206. Meuwissen, H. J., Van Alten, P. A., and Good, R. A. (1969a). J. Immunol. 102:1079. Meuwissen, H. J., Van Alten, P. A., and Good, R. A. (1969b). Transplantation 7:1. Miller, A., Deluca, D., Decker, J., Ezzell, R., and Sercarz, E. (1971). Am. J. Pathol. 65: 451.Google Scholar
  139. Miller, J. F. A. P., and Mitchell, G. F. (1969). Transplant. Rev. 1: 3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Mills, J. A., and Haber, E. (1963). J. Immunol. 91: 536.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Mitchell, B., Gerwing Levy, J., and Nitz, R. (1970). Biochemistry 9: 1837.Google Scholar
  142. Mitchison, N. A. (1967). Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol. 32: 431.Google Scholar
  143. Moloney, P. J., and Covai, M. (1955). Biochem. J. 59: 179.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Muirhead, H., and Perutz, M. F. (1963). Nature 199: 633.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Mutt, V., and Jorpes, J. E. (1967). Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 26:392. Nicol, D. S. H. W., and Smith, L. F. (1960). Nature 187: 483.Google Scholar
  146. Nisonoff, A., Margoliash, E., and Reichlin, M. (1969). Science 155: 1273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Nisonoff, A., Reichlin, M., and Margoliash, E. (1970). J. Biol. Chem. 245:940. Nitecki, D. E., and Goodman, J. E. (1966). Biochemistry 5: 665.Google Scholar
  148. Nitz, R. M., Mitchell, B., Gerwing, J., and Christensen, J. (1969). J. Immunol. 103:319. Noble, R. W., Reichlin, M., and Gibson, Q. H. (1969). J. Biol. Chem. 244: 2403.Google Scholar
  149. Oken, D. E., and Biber, T. V. L. (1968). Am. J. Physiol. 214: 791.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Ovary, Z. (1964). Immunochemistry 1: 241.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Patterson, R., Lucena, G., Metz, R., and Roberts, M. (1969). J. Immunol. 103:1061. Paul, W. E., Katz, D. H., Goidl, E. A., and Benacerraf, B. (1970). J. Exptl. Med. 132:283. Pelichova, H., Suzuki, T., and Cinader, B. (1970). J. Immunol. 104: 195.Google Scholar
  152. Perlstein, M. T., and Atassi, M. Z. (1971).Fed. Proc. 30:531Google Scholar
  153. Perutz, M. F. (1965). J. Mol. Biol. 13: 646.Google Scholar
  154. Perutz, M. F., Liquori, A. M., and Eirich, F. (1951). Nature 167: 929.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Pope, C. G. (1966). Adv. Immunol. 5: 209.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Pressman, D., and Grossberg, A. L. (1968). The Structural Basis of Antibody Specificity, W. A. Benjamin Inc., New York.Google Scholar
  157. Prout, T. E. (1962). J. Chron. Dis. 15: 879.Google Scholar
  158. Rajewsky, H., Schirrmacher, V., Nase, S., and Jerne, N. K. (1969). J. Exptl. Med. 129:1131. Rappaport, I. (1965). Adv. Virus Res. 2: 223.Google Scholar
  159. Rappaport, I., and Zaitlin, M. (1970). Virology 41: 208.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Reichlin, M. (1970). Immunochemistry 7: 15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Reichlin, M. (1969). Fed. Proc. 28: 435.Google Scholar
  162. Reichlin, M., Hay, M., and Levine, L. (1963). Biochemistry 2: 971.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Reichlin, M., Bucci, E., Antoni, E., Wyman, J., and Rossi-Fanelli, A. (1964a). J. Mol. Biol. 9: 785.Google Scholar
  164. Reichlin, M., Hay, M., and Levine, L. (1964b), Immunochemistry 1: 21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Reichlin, M., Bucci, E., Fronticelli, C., Wyman, J., Antonini, E., and Rossi-Fanelli, A. (1965a). J. Mol. Biol. 12: 774.Google Scholar
  166. Reichlin, M., Bucci, E., Wyman, J., Antonini, E., and Rossi-Fanelli, A. (1965b). J. Mol. Biol. 11: 775.Google Scholar
  167. Reichlin, M., Bucci, E., Fronticelli, C., Wyman, J., Antonini, E., Ioppolo, C., and Rossi-Fanelli, A. (1966). J. Mol. Biol. 17: 18.Google Scholar
  168. Reichlin, M., Margoliash, E., and Nisonoff, A. (1968a). Fed. Proc. 27: 276.Google Scholar
  169. Reichlin, M., Schnure, J. J., and Vance, V. K. (1968b). Proc. Soc. Exptl. Biol. Med. 128: 347.Google Scholar
  170. Reichlin, M., Nisonoff, A., and Margoliash, E. (1970). J. Biol. Chem. 245:947. Richards, F. M., and Vithayathil, P. J. (1959). J. Biol. Chem. 234: 1459.Google Scholar
  171. Roelants, G. E., and Goodman, J. W. (1970). Nature 227: 175.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Salvin, S. B., and Liauw, H. L. (1967). Arch. Allergy 31: 366.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Scheraga, H. A. (1967). Fed. Proc. 26: 1380.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. Schlossman, S. H., and Levine, H. (1970). Cell. Immunol. 1: 419.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Schwick, H. G. (1966). Behringwerk-Mitleilungen 46: 87.Google Scholar
  176. Seeger, R. C., and Oppenheim, J. J. (1970). J. Exptl. Med. 132: 44.Google Scholar
  177. Sela, M. (1966). Adv.Immunol. 5: 29.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Sela, M. (1967). In Killander, J. (ed.), Nobel Symposium 3, Gamma Globulins, Interscience, Stockholm, pp. 455.Google Scholar
  179. Sela, M. (1969). Science 166: 1365.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Sela, M., Anfinsen, C. B., and Harrington, W. F. (1957). Biochim. Biophys. Acta 26:502. Sela, M., Schechter, B., Schechter, I., and Borek, F. (1967). Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol. 32: 537.Google Scholar
  181. Senyk, G., Nitecki, D., and Goodman, J. W. (1971a). Science 171: 407.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Senyk, G., Brady Williams, E., Nitecki, D. E., and Goodman, J. W. (197lb). J. Exptl. Med. 133: 1294.Google Scholar
  183. Shinka, S., Imanishi, M., Kuwahara, O., and Amano, T. (1962). Biken J. 5: 181.Google Scholar
  184. Shinka, S., Imanishi, M., Miyagawa, N., Amano, T., Inouye, M., and Tsugita, A. (1967a). Biken J. 10: 89.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. Shinka, S., Imanishi, M., Miyagawa, N., Amano, T., Inouye, M., and Tsugita, A. (1967b). Proc. Jap. Acad. 43: 505.Google Scholar
  186. Simonsen, M. (1967). Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol. 32: 517.Google Scholar
  187. Singer, S. J. (1965). In Neurath, H. (ed.), The Proteins, Vol. III, 2nd ed., Academic Press, New York, pp. 269.Google Scholar
  188. Singer, S. J., and Richards, F. M. (1959). J. Biol. Chem. 234: 2911.Google Scholar
  189. Skeggs, L. T., Jr., Kahn, J. R., Lentz, K., and Shumway, N. P. (1957). J. Exptl. Med. 106: 439.Google Scholar
  190. Smyth, D. G., Stein, W. H., and Moore, S. (1963). J. Biol. Chem. 238: 227.Google Scholar
  191. Spitler, L., Benjamini, E., Young, J. D., Kaplan, H., and Fudenberg, H. H. (1970). J. Exptl. Med. 131: 133.Google Scholar
  192. Spragg, J., Austen, K. F., and Haber, E. (1966). J. Immunol. 96: 965.Google Scholar
  193. Spragg, J., Schroeder, E., Stewart, J. M., Austen, K. F., and Haber, E. (1967). Biochemistry 6: 3933.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. Spragg, J., Talamo, R. C., Suzuki, K., Appelbaum, D. M., and Austen, K. F. (1968). Biochemistry 7: 4086.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. Stavitsky, A. B. (1954). J. Immunol. 72: 360.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. Stewart, J. M., Young, J. D., Benjamini, E., Shimizu, M., and Leung, C. Y. (1966). Biochemistry 5: 3396.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. Suzuki, T., Pelichova, H., and Cinader, B. (1969). J. Immunol. 103: 1366.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. Talmage, D. W., Radovich, J., and Hemmingsen, H. (1970). Adv. Immunol. 12: 271.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. Tanaka, M., Nakashima, T., Benson, A., Nower, H., and Yasunobu, K. T. (1966). Biochemistry 5: 1666.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. Tanford, C., and Hauenstein, J. D. (1965). Biochim. Biophys. Acta 19: 535.Google Scholar
  201. Teather, R. M., and Gerwing Levy, J. (1971). In preparation.Google Scholar
  202. Thompson, K., Benjamini, E., and Harris, M. (1971). In preparation.Google Scholar
  203. Touber, J. L., Stoll, R. W., Ensinck, J. W., and Williams, R. H. (1970). Diabetes 119: 409.Google Scholar
  204. Tsugita, A., Gish, D., Young, J., Fraenkel-Conrat, H., Knight, C. A., and Stanley, W. M. (1960). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 46: 1463.Google Scholar
  205. Unger, R. H., Eisenstraut, A. M., McCall, M. S., and Madison, L. L. (1961). J. Clin. Invest. 40: 1280.Google Scholar
  206. van Regenmortel, M. H. V. (1966). Adv. Virus Res. 12: 207.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. Van Vunakis, H., Leikhim, E., Delaney, R., Levine, L., and Brown, R. K. (1960). J. Biol. Chem. 235: 3430.Google Scholar
  208. Varandini, P. T. (1967). Biochemistry 6: 100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. von Sengbusch, P. (1965). Z. Verebungsl. 96: 364.Google Scholar
  210. Watanabe, S., Okada, Y., and Kitagawa, M. (1967). J. Biochem. 62: 150.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  211. Waterfield, D., Gerwing Levy, J., and Kilburn, D. G. (1971). In preparation.Google Scholar
  212. Williams, A. W., and Reichlin, M. (1968). Fed. Proc. 27: 259.Google Scholar
  213. Wilson, S. (1967). In Cinader, B. (ed.), Antibodies to Biologically Active Molecules, Pergamon Press, Oxford, pp. 235.Google Scholar
  214. Wilson, S., Aprile, M. A., and Sasaki, L. (1967). Can. J. Biochem. 45: 1135.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  215. Wyckoff, H. W., Hardman, K. D., Allewell, N. M., Inagami, T., Johnson, L. M., and Richards, F. M. (1967). J. Biol. Chem. 242: 3984.Google Scholar
  216. Yagi, Y., Maier, P., and Pressman, D. (1965). Science 147: 617.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. Yagi, Y., Maier, P., and Pressman, D. (1967). Fed. Proc. 26: 703.Google Scholar
  218. Young, J. D., and Leung, C. Y. (1970). Biochemistry 9: 2755.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  219. Young, J. D., Benjamini, E., Shimizu, M., and Leung, C. Y. (1966). Biochemistry 5: 1481.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. Young, J. D., Benjamini, E., Stewart, J. M., and Leung, C. Y. (1967). Biochemistry 6: 1455.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. Young, J. D., Benjamini, E., and Leung, C. Y. (1968). Biochemistry 7: 3113.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1972

Authors and Affiliations

  • E. Benjamini
    • 1
  • R. J. Scibienski
    • 1
  • K. Thompson
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Medical MicrobiologySchool of Medicine University of CaliforniaDavisUSA

Personalised recommendations